The RNA helicase Ddx5/p68 binds to hUpf3 and enhances NMD of Ddx17/p72 and Smg5 mRNA.
ABSTRACT: Non-sense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a mechanism of translation-dependent mRNA surveillance in eukaryotes: it degrades mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs) and contributes to cellular homeostasis by downregulating a number of physiologically important mRNAs. In the NMD pathway, Upf proteins, a set of conserved factors of which Upf1 is the central regulator, recruit decay enzymes to promote RNA cleavage. In mammals, the degradation of PTC-containing mRNAs is triggered by the exon-junction complex (EJC) through binding of its constituents Upf2 and Upf3 to Upf1. The complex formed eventually induces translational repression and recruitment of decay enzymes. Mechanisms by which physiological mRNAs are targeted by the NMD machinery in the absence of an EJC have been described but still are discussed controversially. Here, we report that the DEAD box proteins Ddx5/p68 and its paralog Ddx17/p72 also bind the Upf complex by physical interaction with Upf3, thereby interfering with the binding of EJC. By activating the NMD machinery, Ddx5 is shown to regulate the expression of its own, Ddx17 and Smg5 mRNAs. For NMD triggering, the adenosine triphosphate-binding activity of Ddx5 and the 3'-untranslated region of substrate mRNAs are essential.
Project description:Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is governed by the three conserved factors - UPF1, UPF2 and UPF3. While all three are required for NMD in yeast, UPF3B is dispensable for NMD in mammals, and its paralog UPF3A is suggested to only weakly activate or even repress NMD due to its weaker binding to the exon junction complex (EJC). Here we characterize the UPF3A/B-dependence of NMD in human cell lines deleted of one or both UPF3 paralogs. We show that in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, NMD can operate in a UPF3B-dependent and -independent manner. While UPF3A is almost dispensable for NMD in wild-type cells, it strongly activates NMD in cells lacking UPF3B. Notably, NMD remains partially active in cells lacking both UPF3 paralogs. Complementation studies in these cells show that EJC-binding domain of UPF3 paralogs is dispensable for NMD. Instead, the conserved 'mid' domain of UPF3 paralogs is consequential for their NMD activity. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the mammalian UPF3 proteins play a more active role in NMD than simply bridging the EJC and the UPF complex.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to various developmental defects, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Here, we showed that the upf1-5 and upf3-1 mutants had a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions and the upf1-5 upf3-1 double mutants had an additive effect in delaying flowering time. RNA sequencing of the upf mutants revealed that UPF3 exerted a stronger effect than UPF1 in the UPF-mediated regulation of flowering time. Among genes known to regulate flowering time, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) mRNA levels increased (up to 8-fold) in upf mutants, as confirmed by qPCR. The upf1-5, upf3-1, and upf1-5 upf3-1 mutants responded to vernalization, suggesting a role of FLC in delayed flowering of upf mutants. Consistent with the high FLC transcript levels and delayed flowering in upf mutants, levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) mRNAs were reduced in the upf mutants. However, RNA-seq did not identify an aberrant FLC transcript containing a premature termination codon (PTC), suggesting that FLC is not a direct target in the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Among flowering time regulators that act in an FLC-dependent manner, we found that MAF3, NF-YA2, NF-YA5, and TAF14 showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. We also found that BBX19 and ATC, which act in an FLC-independent manner, showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. An aberrant transcript containing a PTC was identified from MAF3 and BBX19 and the levels of the aberrant transcripts increased in upf mutants. Taking these results together, we propose that the late-flowering phenotype of upf mutants is mediated by at least two different pathways, namely, by MAF3 in an FLC-dependent manner and by BBX19 in an FLC-independent manner.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells have evolved a mechanism called nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) that detects and degrades aberrant mRNAs that contain premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD has recently acquired broader importance as it has been found to regulate not only aberrant mRNAs but also a great diversity of transcripts, including wild type genes in mammals, Drosophila and yeast. Seven proteins are the core of the NMD complex: SMG1, SMG2 (UPF1), SMG3 (UPF2), SMG4 (UPF3), SMG5, SMG6 and SMG7. Plants have orthologues of most of these proteins. We have identified and characterized a number of alleles of UPF1, UPF3 and SMG5 and made 35S:UPF2 RNAi (upf2i) transgenic plants, all of which share some phenotypic characteristics. Transcriptome analysis of upf1 and upf3 mutants has identified a subset of genes coregulated by UPF1 and UPF3 and, therefore, by NMD (unpublished data). By doing further transcriptome analysis on smg5 mutants and upf2i plants we aim to build a more robust subset of NMD targets in Arabidopsis. RNA will be extracted from 17 day-old mutant, transgenic and wild type seedlings grown at 22-24 C under constant light. 6 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved mechanism of mRNA degradation. NMD eliminates mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs), preventing the production of truncated proteins with possible deleterious effects. However, there is mounting evidence that NMD factors, like Upf1, Upf2 and Upf3, participate in general regulation of gene expression, affecting the expression of genes lacking PTCs. We have used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to identify mRNAs directly regulated by NMD. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches, we have defined a population of fission yeast mRNAs specifically regulated by Upf1. We show that other components of the Upf complex, Upf2 and Upf3, are required for binding of Upf1 to its RNA targets and for the proper response of fission yeast to oxidative stress. Finally, we investigated the physiological importance of this phenomenon, and demonstrate that the Upf1-dependent downregulation of some of its direct targets is necessary for normal resistance to oxidative stress.
Project description:Loss of function of any one of three UPF genes prevents the accelerated decay of nonsense mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report the identification and DNA sequence of UPF3, which is present in one nonessential copy on chromosome VII. Upf3 contains three putative nuclear localization signal sequences, suggesting that it may be located in a different compartment than the cytoplasmic Upf1 protein. Epitope-tagged Upf3 (FLAG-Upf3) does not cofractionate with polyribosomes or 80S ribosomal particles. Double disruptions of UPF1 and UPF3 affect nonsense mRNA decay in a manner indistinguishable from single disruptions. These results suggest that the Upf proteins perform related functions in a common pathway.
Project description:Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanism that eliminates mRNAs with the termination codon (TC) located in an unfavorable environment for efficient translation termination. The best-studied NMD-targeted mRNAs contain premature termination codons (PTCs); however, NMD regulates even many physiological mRNAs. An exon-junction complex (EJC) located downstream from a TC acts as an NMD-enhancing signal, but is not generally required for NMD. Here, we compared these "EJC-enhanced" and "EJC-independent" modes of NMD with regard to their requirement for seven known NMD factors in human cells using two well-characterized NMD reporter genes (immunoglobulin ? and ?-Globin) with or without an intron downstream from the PTC. We show that both NMD modes depend on UPF1 and SMG1, but detected transcript-specific differences with respect to the requirement for UPF2 and UPF3b, consistent with previously reported UPF2- and UPF3-independent branches of NMD. In addition and contrary to expectation, a higher sensitivity of EJC-independent NMD to reduced UPF2 and UPF3b concentrations was observed. Our data further revealed a redundancy of the endo- and exonucleolytic mRNA degradation pathways in both modes of NMD. Moreover, the relative contributions of both decay pathways differed between the reporters, with PTC-containing immunoglobulin ? transcripts being preferentially subjected to SMG6-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage, whereas ?-Globin transcripts were predominantly degraded by the SMG5/SMG7-dependent pathway. Overall, the surprising heterogeneity observed with only two NMD reporter pairs suggests the existence of several mechanistically distinct branches of NMD in human cells.
Project description:The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway is a well-known eukaryotic surveillance mechanism that eliminates aberrant mRNAs that contain a premature termination codon (PTC). The UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1, UPF2, and UPF3, are essential for normal NMD function. Several NMD substrates have been identified, but detailed information on NMD substrates is lacking. Here, we noticed that, in Arabidopsis, most of the mRNA-like nonprotein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have the features of an NMD substrate. We examined the expression profiles of 2 Arabidopsis mutants, upf1-1 and upf3-1, using a whole-genome tiling array. The results showed that expression of not only protein-coding transcripts but also many mRNA-like ncRNAs (mlncRNAs), including natural antisense transcript RNAs (nat-RNAs) transcribed from the opposite strands of the coding strands, were up-regulated in both mutants. The percentage of the up-regulated mlncRNAs to all expressed mlncRNAs was much higher than that of the up-regulated protein-coding transcripts to all expressed protein- coding transcripts. This finding demonstrates that one of the most important roles of NMD is the genome-wide suppression of the aberrant mlncRNAs including nat-RNAs.
Project description:Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which degrades transcripts harboring a premature termination codon (PTC), depends on the helicase up-frameshift 1 (UPF1). However, mRNAs that are not NMD targets also bind UPF1. What governs the timing, position, and function of UPF1 binding to mRNAs remains unclear. We provide evidence that (i) multiple UPF1 molecules accumulate on the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of PTC-containing mRNAs and to an extent that is greater per unit 3' UTR length if the mRNA is an NMD target; (ii) UPF1 binding begins ?35 nt downstream of the PTC; (iii) enhanced UPF1 binding to the 3' UTR of PTC-containing mRNA relative to its PTC-free counterpart depends on translation; and (iv) the presence of a 3' UTR exon-junction complex (EJC) further enhances UPF1 binding and/or affinity. Our data suggest that NMD involves UPF1 binding along a 3' UTR whether the 3' UTR contains an EJC. This binding explains how mRNAs without a 3' UTR EJC but with an abnormally long 3' UTR can be NMD targets, albeit not as efficiently as their counterparts that contain a 3' UTR EJC.
Project description:Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is essential for removing premature termination codon-containing transcripts from cells. Studying the NMD pathway in model organisms can help to elucidate the NMD mechanism in humans and improve our understanding of how this biologically important process has evolved. Ciliates are among the earliest branching eukaryotes; their NMD mechanism is poorly understood and may be primordial. We demonstrate that highly conserved Upf proteins (Upf1a, Upf2 and Upf3) are involved in the NMD pathway of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. We further show that a novel protozoa-specific nuclease, Smg6L, is responsible for destroying many NMD-targeted transcripts. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of NMD-targeted transcripts in vegetative Tetrahymena cells showed that many have exon-exon junctions downstream of the termination codon. However, Tetrahymena may lack a functional exon junction complex (EJC), and the Tetrahymena ortholog of an EJC core component, Mago nashi (Mag1), is dispensable for NMD. Therefore, NMD is EJC independent in this early branching eukaryote.
Project description:Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control mechanism that degrades mRNAs carrying premature stop codons. In mammalian cells, NMD is triggered when UPF2 bound to UPF3 on a downstream exon junction complex interacts with UPF1 bound to a stalled ribosome. We report structural studies on the interaction between the C-terminal region of UPF2 and intact UPF1. Crystal structures, confirmed by EM and SAXS, show that the UPF1 CH-domain is docked onto its helicase domain in a fixed configuration. The C-terminal region of UPF2 is natively unfolded but binds through separated alpha-helical and beta-hairpin elements to the UPF1 CH-domain. The alpha-helical region binds sixfold more weakly than the beta-hairpin, whereas the combined elements bind 80-fold more tightly. Cellular assays show that NMD is severely affected by mutations disrupting the beta-hairpin binding, but not by those only affecting alpha-helix binding. We propose that the bipartite mode of UPF2 binding to UPF1 brings the ribosome and the EJC in close proximity by forming a tight complex after an initial weak encounter with either element.