ABSTRACT: Treatment efficacy for ischemic stroke represents a major challenge. Despite fundamental advances in the understanding of stroke etiology, therapeutic options to improve functional recovery remain limited. However, growing knowledge in the field of epigenetics has dramatically changed our understanding of gene regulation in the last few decades. According to the knowledge gained from animal models, the manipulation of epigenetic players emerges as a highly promising possibility to target diverse neurologic pathologies, including ischemia. By altering transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modifiers can exert influence on all known pathways involved in the complex course of ischemic disease development. Beneficial transcriptional effects range from attenuation of cell death, suppression of inflammatory processes, and enhanced blood flow, to the stimulation of repair mechanisms and increased plasticity. Most striking are the results obtained from pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylation in animal models of stroke. Multiple studies suggest high remedial qualities even upon late administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). In this review, the role of epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications as well as DNA methylation, is discussed in the context of known ischemic pathways of damage, protection, and regeneration.
Project description:Epigenetics is the branch of molecular biology that studies modifications able to change gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modulations include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs. These gene modifications are heritable and modifiable and can be triggered by lifestyle and nutritional factors. In recent years, epigenetic changes have been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, renal pathology, and different types of cancer. They have also been related with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including ischemic stroke. Importantly, since epigenetic modifications are reversible processes they could assist with the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of human diseases. In the present review article, we aim to collect the most recent evidence concerning the impact of epigenetic modifications on the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in both animal models and humans.
Project description:Atherosclerosis, the principal cause of cardiovascular death worldwide, is a pathological disease characterized by fibro-proliferation, chronic inflammation, lipid accumulation, and immune disorder in the vessel wall. As the atheromatous plaques develop into advanced stage, the vulnerable plaques are prone to rupture, which causes acute cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Emerging evidence has suggested that atherosclerosis is also an epigenetic disease with the interplay of multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The epigenetic basis of atherosclerosis has transformed our knowledge of epigenetics from an important biological phenomenon to a burgeoning field in cardiovascular research. Here, we provide a systematic and up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of three distinct but interrelated epigenetic processes (including DNA methylation, histone methylation/acetylation, and non-coding RNAs), in atherosclerotic plaque development and instability. Mechanistic and conceptual advances in understanding the biological roles of various epigenetic modifiers in regulating gene expression and functions of endothelial cells (vascular homeostasis, leukocyte adhesion, endothelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and mechanotransduction), smooth muscle cells (proliferation, migration, inflammation, hypertrophy, and phenotypic switch), and macrophages (differentiation, inflammation, foam cell formation, and polarization) are discussed. The inherently dynamic nature and reversibility of epigenetic regulation, enables the possibility of epigenetic therapy by targeting epigenetic "writers", "readers", and "erasers". Several Food Drug Administration-approved small-molecule epigenetic drugs show promise in pre-clinical studies for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic implications and challenges for future research involving cardiovascular epigenetics, with an aim to provide a translational perspective for identifying novel biomarkers of atherosclerosis, and transforming precision cardiovascular research and disease therapy in modern era of epigenetics.
Project description:Background:Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the severe diseases with a pathological condition that leads to nerve cell dysfunction with seldom available therapy options. Currently, there are few proven effective treatments available for improving cerebral ischemic stroke outcome. However, recently, there is increasing evidence that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity exerts a strong protective effect in in vivo and vitro models of ischemic stroke. Review Summary. HDAC is a posttranslational modification that is negatively regulated by histone acetyltransferase (HATS) and histone deacetylase. Based on function and DNA sequence similarity, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are organized into four different subclasses (I-IV). Modifications of histones play a crucial role in cerebral ischemic affair development after translation by modulating disrupted acetylation homeostasis. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) mainly exert neuroprotective effects by enhancing histone and nonhistone acetylation levels and enhancing gene expression and protein modification functions. This article reviews HDAC and its inhibitors, hoping to find meaningful therapeutic targets. Conclusions:HDAC may be a new biological target for cerebral ischemic stroke. Future drug development targeting HDAC may make it a potentially effective anticerebral ischemic stroke drug.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous, clonal haematopoietic disorder, with ~1/3 of patients progressing to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Many elderly MDS patients do not tolerate intensive therapeutic regimens, and therefore have an unmet need for better tolerated therapies. Epigenetics is important in the pathogenesis of MDS/AML with DNA methylation, and histone acetylation the most widely studied modifications. Epigenetic therapeutic agents have targeted the reversible nature of these modifications with some clinical success. The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular consequences of treatment of MDS and AML cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Romidepsin. Romidepsin as a single agent induced cell death with an increasing dose and time profile associated with increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and decreased HDAC activity. Gene expression profiling, qPCR, network and pathway analysis recognised that oxidation-reduction was involved in response to Romidepsin. ROS was implicated as being involved post-treatment with the involvement of TSPO and MPO. Genomic analysis uncoupled the differences in protein-DNA interactions and gene regulation. The spatial and temporal transcriptional differences associated with acetylated, mono- and tri-methylated H3K9, representative of two activation and a repression mark respectively, were identified. Bioinformatic analysis uncovered positional enrichment and transcriptional differences between these marks; a degree of overlap with increased/decreased gene expression that correlates to increased/decreased histone modification. Overall, this study has unveiled a number of underlying mechanisms of the HDACi Romidepsin that could identify potential drug combinations for use in the clinic.
Project description:Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving both genetic and epigenetic changes. Epigenetics is defined as reversible changes in gene expression, not accompanied by alteration in gene sequence. DNA methylation, histone modification, and nucleosome remodeling are the major epigenetic changes that are dysregulated in breast cancer. Several genes involved in proliferation, anti-apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis have been shown to undergo epigenetic changes in breast cancer. Because epigenetic changes are potentially reversible processes, much effort has been directed toward understanding this mechanism with the goal of finding effective therapies that target these changes. Both demethylating agents and the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are under investigation as single agents or in combination with other systemic therapies in the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the role of epigenetic regulation in breast cancer, in particular focusing on the clinical trials using therapies that modulate epigenetic mechanisms.
Project description:Homocysteine (Hcy) is a thiol-containing amino acid formed during methionine metabolism. Elevated level of Hcy is known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). HHcy is an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Stroke, which is caused by interruption of blood supply to the brain, is one of the leading causes of death and disability in a number of people worldwide. The HHcy causes an increased carotid artery plaque that may lead to ischemic stroke but the mechanism is currently not well understood. Though mutations or polymorphisms in the key genes of Hcy metabolism pathway have been well elucidated in stroke, emerging evidences suggested epigenetic mechanisms equally play an important role in stroke development such as DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, RNA editing, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). However, there is no review available yet that describes the role of genetics and epigenetics during HHcy in stroke. The current review highlights the role of genetics and epigenetics in stroke during HHcy and the role of epigenetics in its therapeutics. The review also highlights possible epigenetic mechanisms, potential therapeutic molecules, putative challenges, and approaches to deal with stroke during HHcy.
Project description:Ischemic preconditioning is an innate neuroprotective mechanism in which a sub-injurious ischemic exposure increases the brain's ability to withstand a subsequent, normally injurious ischemic insult. Part of ischemic preconditioning neuroprotection stems from an epigenetic reprogramming of the brain to a phenotype of ischemic tolerance, which results in a gene expression profile different from that observed in the non-injured and ischemia-injured brains. Such neuroprotective reprograming, activated by ischemic preconditioning, requires specific changes in DNA accessibility coordinated with activation of transcriptional activator and repressor proteins, which allows for expression of specific neuroprotective proteins despite a general repression of gene expression. In this review we examine the effects of injurious ischemia and ischemic preconditioning on the regulation of DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, and non-coding RNA expression. There is increasing interest in the role of epigenetics in disease pathobiology, and whether and how pharmacological manipulation of epigenetic processes may allow for ischemic neuroprotection. Therefore, a better understanding of the epigenomic determinants underlying the modulation of gene expression that lead to ischemic tolerance or cell death offers the promise of novel neuroprotective therapies that target global reprograming of genomic activity versus individual cellular signaling pathways.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases control the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through modification of histone marks. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules that interfere with histone tail modification, thus altering chromatin structure and epigenetically controlled pathways. They promote apoptosis in proliferating cells and are promising anticancer drugs. While some HDACi have already been approved for therapy and others are in different phases of clinical trials, the exact mechanism of action of this drug class remains elusive. Previous studies have shown that HDACis cause massive changes in chromatin structure but only moderate changes in gene expression. To what extent these changes manifest at the protein level has never been investigated on a proteome-wide scale. Here, we have studied HDACi-treated cells by large-scale mass spectrometry based proteomics. We show that HDACi treatment affects primarily the nuclear proteome and induces a selective decrease of bromodomain-containing proteins (BCPs), the main readers of acetylated histone marks. By combining time-resolved proteome and transcriptome profiling, we show that BCPs are affected at the protein level as early as 12 h after HDACi treatment and that their abundance is regulated by a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Using gene silencing, we demonstrate that the decreased abundance of BCPs is sufficient to mediate important transcriptional changes induced by HDACi. Our data reveal a new aspect of the mechanism of action of HDACi that is mediated by an interplay between histone acetylation and the abundance of BCPs. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001660 and NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus with identifier GSE64689.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDAC) catalyze N-terminal deacetylation of lysine-residues on histones and multiple nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In various animal models, such as trauma/hemorrhagic shock, ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction, HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) application is cyto- and organoprotective and promotes survival. HDACi reduce stress signaling, cell death and inflammation. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury during major liver resection or transplantation increases morbidity and mortality. Assuming protective properties, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the HDACi VPA and SAHA on warm hepatic I/R.Male Wistar-Kyoto rats (age: 6-8 weeks) were randomized to VPA, SAHA, vehicle control (pre-) treatment or sham-groups and underwent partial no-flow liver ischemia for 90 minutes with subsequent reperfusion for 6, 12, 24 and 60 hours. Injury and regeneration was quantified by serum AST and ALT levels, by macroscopic aspect and (immuno-) histology. HDACi treatment efficiency, impact on MAPK/SAPK-activation and Hippo-YAP signaling was determined by Western blot.Treatment with HDACi significantly enhanced hyperacetylation of Histone H3-K9 during I/R, indicative of adequate treatment efficiency. Liver injury, as measured by macroscopic aspect, serum transaminases and histology, was delayed, but not alleviated in VPA and SAHA treated animals. Importantly, tissue destruction was significantly more pronounced with VPA. SAPK-activation (p38 and JNK) was reduced by VPA and SAHA in the early (6h) reperfusion phase, but augmented later on (JNK, 24h). Regeneration appeared enhanced in SAHA and VPA treated animals and was dependent on Hippo-YAP signaling.VPA and SAHA delay warm hepatic I/R injury at least in part through modulation of SAPK-activation. However, these HDACi fail to exert organoprotective effects, in this setting. For VPA, belated damage is even aggravated.
Project description:Dysregulation of the transcriptional repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor is important in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. The role of REST-dependent epigenetic modifications in neurodegeneration is less clear. Here, we show that neuronal insults trigger activation of REST and CoREST in a clinically relevant model of ischemic stroke and that REST binds a subset of "transcriptionally responsive" genes (gria2, grin1, chrnb2, nefh, nf?b2, trpv1, chrm4, and syt6), of which the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 is a top hit. Genes with enriched REST exhibited decreased mRNA and protein. We further show that REST assembles with CoREST, mSin3A, histone deacetylases 1 and 2, histone methyl-transferase G9a, and methyl CpG binding protein 2 at the promoters of target genes, where it orchestrates epigenetic remodeling and gene silencing. RNAi-mediated depletion of REST or administration of dominant-negative REST delivered directly into the hippocampus in vivo prevents epigenetic modifications, restores gene expression, and rescues hippocampal neurons. These findings document a causal role for REST-dependent epigenetic remodeling in the neurodegeneration associated with ischemic stroke and identify unique therapeutic targets for the amelioration of hippocampal injury and cognitive deficits.