Complete genome sequence of an attenuated duck enteritis virus obtained by in vitro serial passage.
ABSTRACT: Here, we present the complete genome sequence of an attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV) obtained by serial chicken embryo passage. Compared with a virulent DEV, there is a serial deletion in unique long open reading frame 11 (LORF11) and unique long region 2 (UL2). This study will aid in further exploration of the molecular pathogenesis of DEV.
Project description:The nucleotide sequences of eight open reading frames (ORFs) located at the 5' end of the unique long region of the duck enteritis virus (DEV) Clone-03 strain were determined. The genes identified were designated UL1, UL2, UL3, UL4, UL5, UL6 and UL7 homologues of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The DEV UL3.5 located between UL3 and UL4 had no homologue in the HSV-1. The arrangement and transcription orientation of the eight genes were collinear with their homologues in the HSV-1. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the alignments of the deduced amino acids of eight proteins with their homologues in 12 alpha-herpesviruses. In the UL1, UL3, UL3.5, UL5 and UL7 proteins trees, the branches were more closely related to the genus Mardivirus. However, the UL2, UL4, and UL6 proteins phylogenetic trees indicated a large distance from Mardivirus, indicating that the DEV evolved differently from other viruses in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and formed a single branch within this subfamily.
Project description:The icosahedral virion of duck enteritis virus (DEV) is roughly spherical and approximately 150 nm in diameter. Here, we describe the genomic features of DEV CHv together with a draft genome sequence and its annotation, highlighting the homogeneity and heterogeneity of this genome in comparison with its reference genomes.
Project description:The Chinese virulent (CHv) strain of duck enteritis virus (DEV) has a genome of approximately 162,175 nucleotides with a GC content of 44.89%. Here we report the complete genomic sequence and annotation of DEV CHv, which offer an effective platform for providing authentic research experiences to novice scientists. In addition, knowledge of this virus will extend our general knowledge of DEV and will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The results of our previous study showed that impaired cellular energy metabolism contributes to duck enteritis virus-induced autophagy via the 5`-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. However, it remains unknown whether any other underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation are involved in autophagy induction. METHODS:The activity of CaMKKβ and AMPK in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory activity of CaMKKβ on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. In addtion to, the cytosolic calcium level in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory cytosolic calcium level on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. RESULTS:In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection activated CaMKKβ and its substrate molecule AMPK at 36, 48, and 60 h post-infection (hpi). STO-609, a CaMKKβ inhibitor, or CaMKKβ siRNA significantly inhibited the activation of DEV to AMPK, LC3I to LC3II transformation, and GFP-LC3 puncta distribution. In addition, inhibition of CaMKKβ activity also significantly reduced progeny DEV titer and gB protein expression. Besides, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) was higher in DEV-infected cells than mock controls at 36, 48, and 60 hpi, respectively. Treatment of DEV-infected cells with 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N', N-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ ion concentrations, as well as CaMKKβ and AMPK activities, and subsequent autophagy, in addition to viral protein synthesis and viral titer. CONCLUSIONS:These results showed that elevated [Ca2+]cyto-mediated activation of CaMKKβ managed the activation of AMPK, which then positively regulated autophagy, thereby providing further insight into DEV-host interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The function and kinetics of some herpsvirus UL16 gene have been reported. But there was no any report of duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL16 gene. FINDINGS: The kinetics of DEV UL16 gene was examined in DEV CHv infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) by establishment of real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) and western-blotting. In this study, UL16 mRNA was transcript at a low level from 0-18 h post-infection (p.i), and peaked at 36 h p.i. It can't be detected in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). Besides, western-blotting analysis showed that UL16 gene expressed as an apparent 40-KDa in DEV infected cell lysate from 12 h p.i, and rose to peak level at 48 h p.i consistent with the qRT-PCR result. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided the first evidence of the kinetics of DEV UL16 gene. DEV UL16 gene was a late gene and dependent on viral DNA synthesis.
Project description:Duck viral enteritis (DVE) is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans of all ages and species. This disease has been responsible for significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl as a result of mortality, and decreased egg production. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin in specific plants and exhibits inhibitory activity against many kinds of virus. In this paper, resveratrol was found to inhibit duck enteritis virus (DEV) replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 3.85 μg/mL. The inhibition in virus multiplication in the presence of resveratrol was not attributed to direct inactivation or inhibition of virus attachment to the host cells, but to the inhibition of viral multiplication in host cells. The assay of the time of addition limited the drug effect during the first 8 h of infection. This conclusion was supported by the ultrastructure images of the early stage of DEV infection, which showed that the replication of virus nucleic acid and the formation of the capsid in the cell nucleus were suppressed. In the indirect immunofluorescence assay, proteins expression in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) was also effectively suppressed by resveratrol. In summary, the resveratrol has a good activity against DEV infection in vitro, which could be attributed to that fact that several essential immediate early viral proteins for virus replication were impacted by resveratrol.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is little information regarding the duck enteritis virus (DEV) US10 gene and its molecular characterization. METHODS:Duck enteritis virus US10 was amplified and cloned into the recombinant vector pET32a(+). The recombinant US10 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells and used to immunize rabbits for the preparation of polyclonal antibodies. The harvested rabbit antiserum against DEV US10 was detected and analyzed by agar immunodiffusion. Using this antibody, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence analysis were used to analyze the expression level and subcellular localization of US10 in infected cells at different time points. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and pharmacological inhibition tests were used to ascertain the kinetic class of the US10 gene. A mass spectrometry-based strategy was used to identify US10 in purified DEV virions and quantify its abundance. RESULTS:The recombinant pET32a(+)/US10 protein was expressed as inclusion bodies, purified by gradient urea washing, and used to prepare specific antibodies. The results of qRT-PCR, western blotting, and pharmacological inhibition tests revealed that US10 is mainly transcribed in the late stage of viral replication. However, the presence of the DNA polymerase inhibitor ganciclovir and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked transcription. Therefore, US10 is a ?2 (true late) gene. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that US10 proteins were initially diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm, but with the passage of time, they gradually relocated to a perinuclear region. The US10 protein was detected in purified DEV virions by mass spectrometry, but was not detected by western blotting, indicating that DEV US10 is a minor virion protein. CONCLUSIONS:The DEV US10 gene is a ?2 gene and the US10 protein is localized in the perinuclear region. DEV US10 is a virion component.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) can successfully evade the host innate immune responses and establish a lifelong latent infection in the infected host. However, the study about how DEV escapes host innate immunity is still deficient up to now. In this study, for the first time, we identified a viral protein VP16 by which DEV can obviously downregulate the production of IFN-? in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF). Our results showed that ectopic expression of VP16 decreased duck IFN-? (duIFN-?) promoter activation and significantly inhibited the mRNA transcription of IFN-?. Further study showed that VP16 can also obviously inhibit the mRNA transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) and interferon-induced oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL). Furthermore, we found that this anti-interferon activity of VP16 depended on its N-terminus (aa1-200). Coexpression analysis revealed that VP16 selectively blocked duIFN-? promoter activity at the duIRF7 level rather than duIRF1. Based on the results of coimmunoprecipitation analysis (co-IP) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), VP16 was able to bind to duck IRF7 (duIRF7) directly, but did not interact with duck IRF1 (duIRF1) in vitro.
Project description:Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E) of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The envelope (E) gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.