Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight was achieved. The question remains whether there is an additional beneficial effect of physical activity when weight loss is reached.The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed, multicentre trial. 243 sedentary, postmenopausal women who are overweight or obese (BMI 25-35 kg/m2) are enrolled. After a 4-6 week run-in period, wherein a baseline diet is prescribed, women are randomly allocated to (1) a diet group, (2) an exercise group or (3) a control group. The aim of both intervention groups is to lose an amount of 5-6 kg body weight in 10-14 weeks. The diet group follows an energy restricted diet and maintains the habitual physical activity level. The exercise group participates in a 16-week endurance and strength training programme of 4 hours per week. Furthermore, they are prescribed a moderate caloric restriction. The control group is asked to maintain body weight and continue the run-in baseline diet.This study will give insight in the potential attributable effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk biomarkers and whether this effect is mediated by changes in body composition, in postmenopausal women. Eventually this may lead to the design of specific lifestyle guidelines for prevention of breast cancer.The SHAPE-2 study is registered in the register of clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01511276.
Project description:Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, that is attributable to exercise by comparing randomly obtained equivalent weight loss by following a hypocaloric diet only or mainly by exercise.Overweight, insufficiently active women were randomised to a diet (N = 97), mainly exercise (N = 98) or control group (N = 48). The goal of both interventions was to achieve 5-6 kg of weight loss by following a calorie-restricted diet or an intensive exercise programme combined with only a small caloric restriction. Primary outcomes after 16 weeks were serum sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Both the diet (-4.9 kg) and mainly exercise (-5.5 kg) groups achieved the target weight loss. Loss of body fat was significantly greater with exercise versus diet (difference -1.4 kg, P < 0.001). In the mainly exercise arm, the reduction in free testosterone was statistically significantly greater than that of the diet arm (treatment effect ratio [TER] 0.92, P = 0.043), and the results were suggestive of a difference for androstenedione (TER 0.90, P = 0.064) and SHBG (TER 1.05, P = 0.070). Compared with the control arm, beneficial effects were seen with both interventions, diet and mainly exercise, respectively, on oestradiol (TER 0.86, P = 0.025; TER 0.83, P = 0.007), free oestradiol (TER 0.80, P = 0.002; TER 0.77, P < 0.001), SHBG (TER 1.14; TER 1.21, both P < 0.001) and free testosterone (TER 0.91, P = 0.069; TER = 0.84, P = 0.001). After adjustment for changes in body fat, intervention effects attenuated or disappeared.Weight loss with both interventions resulted in favourable effects on serum sex hormones, which have been shown to be associated with a decrease in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Weight loss induced mainly by exercise additionally resulted in maintenance of lean mass, greater fitness, greater fat loss and a larger effect on (some) sex hormones. The greater fat loss likely explains the observed larger effects on sex hormones.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01511276 . Registered on 12 January 2012.
Project description:We examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on adiposity outcomes that may be involved in the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk.This study was a two-centre, two-armed, randomized controlled trial. The 1-year-long exercise intervention included 45 min of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise five times per week, with at least three of the sessions being facility based. The control group was asked not to change their activity and both groups were asked not to change their diet.A total of 320 postmenopausal, sedentary, normal weight-to-obese women aged 50-74 years who were cancer-free, nondiabetic and nonhormone replacement therapy users were included in this study.Anthropometric measurements of height, weight and waist and hip circumferences; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total body fat; and computerized tomography measurements of abdominal adiposity were carried out.Women in the exercise group exercised a mean of 3.6 days (s.d.=1.3) per week and 178.5 min (s.d.=76.1) per week. Changes in all measures of adiposity favored exercisers relative to controls (P<0.001). The mean difference between groups was: -1.8 kg for body weight; -2.0 kg for total body fat; -14.9 cm(2) for intra-abdominal fat area; and -24.1 cm(2) for subcutaneous abdominal fat area. A linear trend of greater body fat loss with increasing volume of exercise was also observed.A 1-year aerobic exercise program consistent with current public health guidelines resulted in reduced adiposity levels in previously sedentary postmenopausal women at higher risk of breast cancer.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set goal of 5-6 kg weight loss. All women were re-contacted twelve months after study cessation for follow-up where body weight and physical activity were measured (PASE questionnaire and ActiGraph accelerometer). At follow-up, body weight and physical activity (measured by the PASE questionnaire and accelerometer) were measured again. At follow-up, both mainly exercise (- 4.3 kg, p < 0.001) and diet (- 3.4 kg, p < 0.001) showed significantly reduced body weight compared to baseline. Both the mainly exercise and diet group were significantly more physically active at one year follow-up compared to baseline (PASE: + 33%, p < 0.001 and + 12%, p = 0.040, respectively; ActiGraph: + 16%, p = 0.012. and + 2.2%, p = 0.695 moderate-to-vigorous activity, respectively). Moreover, the increase in physical activity was statistically significantly when comparing exercise to diet (+ 0.6%, p = 0.035). ActiGraph data also showed significantly less sedentary time in mainly exercise group compared to baseline (- 2.1%, p = 0.018) and when comparing exercise to diet (- 1.8%, p = 0.023). No significant within group differences were found for the diet group. This study shows largely sustained weight loss one year after completing a weight loss program with and without exercise in overweight postmenopausal women. Although the mainly exercise group maintained more physically active compared to the diet group, maintenance of weight loss did not differ between groups.
Project description:This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss.The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97), exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Both interventions aimed for 5-6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire.Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1%) and 5.5 kg (6.9%) with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain 'health change' increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1) with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7) with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other.In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable diet-induced weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01511276.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study. METHODS:The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012-2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6-7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method. RESULTS:The diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9% body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (- 12.5% and - 12.0%) and exercise plus diet (- 16.0% and - 14.6%). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm2 (95%CI -18.7; - 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (- 3.8 cm2, 95%CI -9.0; 1.3). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that weight loss of 6-7% with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction. TRIAL REGISTER:NCT01511276 (clinicaltrials.gov), prospectively registered.
Project description:Background:Exercise interventions can result in weight loss, which is associated with reductions in disease risk. It is unknown how the volume of exercise prescribed in a one-time exercise intervention impacts long-term body fatness. We compared 24-month body fat changes among postmenopausal women previously prescribed 300 versus 150 minutes/week of exercise in a year-long exercise intervention trial. Methods:The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) was a two-centred randomized controlled trial in Alberta, Canada. The trial consisted of a 12-month intervention and 12-month observation period. For the intervention, participants were randomized to either a moderate-volume exercise group (150?min/week) or a high-volume exercise group (300?min/week). Participants in this study were 334 inactive postmenopausal women who had been followed-up to 24 months. The primary outcome for this study was 24-month change in total body fat using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Other measures included weight, waist and hip circumferences, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat from computed tomography scans, and lean mass. Researchers were blinded to randomization group when measuring body fat. Results:Both groups self-reported ?180 minutes/week moderate-vigorous activity at 24 months. No statistically significant difference was found in total body fat at 24 months between the two groups. Statistically significant effects (comparing high versus moderate groups) were found for BMI (least-square mean change (95% CI): -0.66 (-0.97, -0.36) versus -0.25 (-0.55, 0.05) kg/m2, P=0.04), waist-to-hip ratio (-0.033 (-0.040, -0.026) versus -0.023 (-0.030, -0.016), P=0.05), and subcutaneous abdominal fat area (-32.18 (-39.30, -25.06) versus -22.20 (-29.34, -15.05) cm2, P=0.04). Conclusion:Prescribing 300 versus 150 minutes/week of exercise to inactive postmenopausal women resulted in some long-term greater decreases in measures of body composition but no overall differences in total body fat loss. This trail is registered with NCT01435005.
Project description:Energy balance, including diet, weight, adiposity, and physical activity, is associated with carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity and sedentary and/or active behavior are risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal women and survival in both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Thus, understanding the influence of energy balance modulation on changes in gene expression patterns in the normal mammary gland is important for understanding mechanisms linking energy balance and breast cancer. In a 6-week-long study, female C57BL/6 mice (9-week-old) were randomized into four groups: (a) food consumed ad libitum (AL), (b) AL with access to running wheels (AL+EX), (c) 30% calorie restricted (CR), and (d) 30% CR with access to running wheels (CR+EX). CR mice received 70% of calories but 100% of all other nutrients compared with AL mice. Diet and exercise treatments, individually and combined, had significant effects on body composition and physical activity. Affymetrix oligomicroarrays were used to explore changes in gene expression patterns in total RNA samples from excised whole mammary glands. Contrasting AL versus CR resulted in 425 statistically significant expression changes, whereas AL versus AL+EX resulted in 45 changes, with only 3 changes included among the same genes, indicating that CR and EX differentially influence expression patterns in noncancerous mammary tissue. Differential expression was observed in genes related to breast cancer stem cells, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and the growth and survival of breast cancer cells. Thus, CR and EX seem to exert their effects on mammary carcinogenesis through distinct pathways.
Project description:Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m(2), exercising < 100 minutes/wk) were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to (1) reduced-calorie weight loss diet ("diet"; n = 118), (2) moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("exercise"; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("diet + exercise"; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary).Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P < .001) with diet, 4.9% (P = .10) with exercise, and 20.3% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P < .001) with diet and 25.8% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P < .001) with diet and 26.0% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P < .001) with diet and 15.6% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG.Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.
Project description:High levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I may increase the risk of common cancers in humans. We hypothesized that weight loss induced by diet and/or exercise would reduce IGF-I in postmenopausal women. Four hundred and thirty nine overweight or obese [body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m(2)] women (50-75 years) were randomly assigned to: (i) exercise (N = 117), (ii) dietary weight loss (N = 118), (iii) diet + exercise (N = 117), or (iv) control (N = 87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity. Fasting serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were measured at baseline and 12 months by radioimmunoassay. Higher baseline BMI was associated with lower IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. Although no significant changes in either IGF-I or IGFBP-3 were detected in any intervention arm compared with control, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in the diet (+5.0%, P < 0.01) and diet + exercise (+5.4%, P < 0.01) groups compared with control. Greater weight loss was positively associated with change in both IGF-I (P(trend) = 0.017) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (P(trend) < 0.001) in the diet group, but inversely with change in IGFBP-3 in the diet + exercise group (P(trend) = 0.01). No consistent interaction effects with baseline BMI were detected. Modified IGF-I bioavailability is unlikely to be a mechanism through which caloric restriction reduces cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
Project description:Excess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer in women. One proposed mechanism linking obesity to chronic diseases is an alteration in adipose-derived adiponectin and leptin levels. We investigated the effects of 12-month reduced calorie, weight loss and exercise interventions on adiponectin and leptin concentrations.Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (n = 439) were randomized as follows: (i) a reduced calorie, weight-loss diet (diet; N = 118), (ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (exercise; N = 117), (iii) a combination of a reduced calorie, weight-loss diet and moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (diet + exercise; N = 117), and (iv) control (N = 87). The reduced calorie diet had a 10% weight-loss goal. The exercise intervention consisted of 45 min of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity 5 days per week. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured at baseline and after 12 months of intervention using a radioimmunoassay.Adiponectin increased by 9.5% in the diet group and 6.6% in the diet + exercise group (both P ? 0.0001 vs. control). Compared with controls, leptin decreased with all interventions (diet + exercise, -40.1%, P < 0.0001; diet, -27.1%, P < 0.0001; exercise, -12.7%, P = 0.005). The results were not influenced by the baseline body mass index (BMI). The degree of weight loss was inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin (diet, P-trend = 0.0002; diet + exercise, P-trend = 0.0005) and directly associated with leptin (diet, P-trend < 0.0001; diet + exercise, P-trend < 0.0001).Weight loss through diet or diet + exercise increased adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations decreased in all of the intervention groups, but the greatest reduction occurred with diet + exercise. Weight loss and exercise exerted some beneficial effects on chronic diseases via effects on adiponectin and leptin.