Lower maternal body condition during pregnancy affects skeletal muscle structure and glut-4 protein levels but not glucose tolerance in mature adult sheep.
ABSTRACT: Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm(2), P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm(2), P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment.
Project description:Pregnancy and lactation, especially when concurrent, create a rather metabolically demanding situation in dairy ruminants, but little is known about their effects on offspring phenotype and milk yield. Here, we evaluated the impact of pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic traits and productive performance of Lacaune dairy sheep and their offspring. Productive performance was measured in terms of milk yield, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and size. Productivity was assessed during mid-pregnancy (75 ± 5 d) and late pregnancy (142 ± 4 d) and at 52 ± 5 d in the postpartum period. During pregnancy, high-yielding ewes had higher BW, BCS, plasma glucose, cholesterol, β-OHB, and NEFA than low-yielding ewes, but lower levels of lactate and urea. High-yielding animals had lower BCS after lambing, but their lambs showed greater growth. Productivity during lactation was affected by ewe age and parity: Mature ewes (but not maiden sheep) whose BCS increased steeply during pregnancy yielded more milk in the subsequent lactation than those whose BCS did not increase. Lamb BW and size were positively associated with milk yield in the subsequent lactation. Mature ewes had higher yields than maiden sheep, and mature ewes with multiple pregnancies produced more milk than those with singleton pregnancies. Ewes with male singleton pregnancies also showed higher yield than those with female singletons. These results demonstrate that high-yielding dairy sheep, when appropriately fed and managed, can adequately cover the metabolic demands of pregnancy and high milk production (even when concurrent) without losing productivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. METHODS: Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1), medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2) or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2). Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C) in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. RESULTS: During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA) increased in LBC compared to MBC (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and HBC ewes (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). During the cold challenge, plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in LBC than MBC (P<0.05) and HBC ewes (P<0.05), and FFA and insulin concentrations were lower in LBC than HBC ewes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Leptin concentrations declined in MBC and HBC ewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (P<0.01). Glucose concentrations and internal body temperature (T(core)) increased in all treatments, although peak T(core) tended to be higher in HBC ewes (P<0.1). During the recovery phase, T4 concentrations were lower in LBC ewes (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Even though all ewes were able to increase T(core) and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metabolic syndrome (MSY) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and recurrence in breast cancer survivors (BCS). MSY is 1.5 times more common in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic women. Although exercise mitigates MSY in BCS, to the best of the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examined ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on MSY, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers in BCS. METHODS:A total of 100 eligible BCS were randomized to exercise (50 BCS) or usual care (50 BCS). The exercise intervention promoted moderate to vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise 3 times a week for 16 weeks. MSY z scores, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, after the intervention, and at the 28-week follow-up (exercise group only). Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline values of the outcome, age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, and recent physical activity were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity. RESULTS:The study sample was 57% Hispanic BCS (HBCS) and 43% non-Hispanic BCS (NHBCS). HBCS were younger, of greater adiposity, and had been diagnosed with more advanced cancers compared with NHBCS (P<.001). Ethnicity was found to moderate the mean differences in exercise training on triglycerides (-36.4 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [95% CI],-64.1 to -18.8 mg/dL), glucose (-8.6 mg/dL; 95% CI, -19.1 to -3.0 mg/dL), and C-reactive protein (-3.3 mg/L; 95% CI, -7.3 to -0.9 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS:HBCS appear to have poorer metabolic profiles and therefore may derive relatively larger metabolic changes from exercise compared with NHBCS. Clinical exercise interventions may attenuate existing health disparities across diverse groups of BCS.
Project description:The objective was to elucidate gene expression differences in uterus, caruncle, and cotyledon of ewes with subclinical pregnancy toxemia (SCPT) and healthy ewes, and to identify associated biological functions and pathways involved in pregnancy toxemia. On Day 136 (±1?day) post-breeding, ewes (n?=?18) had body condition score (BCS; 1-5; 1, emaciated; 5, obese) assessed, and blood samples were collected for plasma glucose and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) analyses. The ewes were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected from the gravid uterus and placentomes. Based on BCS (2.0?±?0.02), glucose (2.4?±?0.33), and BHBA (0.97?±?0.06) concentrations, ewes (n?=?10) were grouped as healthy (n?=?5) and subclinical SCPT (n?=?5) ewes. The mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative PCR method, and prediction of miRNA partners and target genes for the predicted miRNA were identified using miRDB (http://mirdb.org/miRDB/). Top ranked target genes were used to identify associated biological functions and pathways in response to SPCT using PANTHER. The angiogenesis genes VEGF and PlGF, and AdipoQ, AdipoR2, PPARG, LEP, IGF1, IGF2, IL1b, and TNF? mRNA expressions were lower in abundances, whereas hypoxia genes eNOS, HIF1a, and HIF 2a, and sFlt1 and KDR mRNA expressions were greater in abundances in uterus and placenta of SCPT ewes compared to healthy ewes (P?<?0.05). The predicted miRNA and associated target genes contributed to several biological processes, including apoptosis, biological adhesion, biological regulation, cellular component biogenesis, cellular process, developmental process, immune system process, localization, metabolic process, multicellular organismal process, reproduction, and response to stimulus. The target genes were involved in several pathways including angiogenesis, cytoskeletal regulation, hypoxia response via HIF activation, interleukin signaling, ubiquitin proteasome, and VEGF signaling pathway. In conclusion, genes associated with blood vessel remodeling were lower in abundances and that the genes associated with hypoxic conditions were greater in abundances in the uteroplacental compartment of SCPT ewes. It is obvious that the factors that influence placental vascular development and angiogenesis as noted in this study set the course for hemodynamic changes and hence have a major impact on the rate of transplacental nutrient exchange, fetal growth, and health of the dam.
Project description:This study was undertaken to identify metabolite differences in plasma of dairy cows with a normal or high calving body condition score (CBCS), using untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics. Sixteen multiparous dairy cows were assigned to one of two groups based on CBCS (0 to 5 scale): Normal group (NBCS, 3.25 ? BCS ? 3.5, n = 8), and high BCS group (HBCS, BCS ? 4, n = 8). Plasma samples were collected for metabolomics analysis and evaluation of biomarkers of lipid metabolism (nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)), and cytokines (leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)). A total of 23 differential metabolites were identified, and functional analyses were performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Among these metabolites, the concentrations of six lysophosphatidylcholines and one phosphatidylethanolamine, were lower in the HBCS group than in the NBCS group (p < 0.01). Furthermore, these metabolites were involved in these four pathways, among others: glycerophospholipid metabolism, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, autophagy, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis (p < 0.05). In addition, plasma concentrations of leptin (p = 0.06) and TNF-? (p = 0.08) tended to be greater while adiponectin (p = 0.09) lower in HBCS cows than in NBCS cows. The concentrations of NEFA, BHB, or IL-6 did not differ between NBCS and HBCS groups. More importantly, based on the results of the Spearman's correlation analysis, the seven important metabolites were negatively correlated with indices of lipid metabolisms, proinflammatory cytokines, and leptin, but positively correlated with adiponectin. These results demonstrate that CBCS has a measurable impact on the plasma metabolic profile, even when NEFA and BHB are not different. In addition, the identified differential metabolites were significantly correlated to lipid metabolism and inflammation in the over-conditioned fresh cows, which are expected to render a metabolic basis for the diseases associated with over-conditioned dry cows.
Project description:To determine the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring body and organ growth during gestation, pregnant Western White-faced ewes (n = 82) were randomly assigned into a 3 × 4 factorial treatment structure at d 30.2 ± 0.2 of gestation (n = 5 to 7 ewes per treatment). Ewes were individually fed 100% (control), 60% (restricted) or 140% (over) of NRC requirements for TDN. Ewes were euthanized at d 45, 90 or 135 of gestation or underwent parturition (birth) and tissues were collected from the offspring (n = 10 to 15 offspring per treatment). Offspring from control, restricted and overfed ewes are referred to as CON, RES and OVER, respectively. Ewe data were analyzed as a completely randomized design and offspring data were analyzed as a split-plot design using PROC MIXED. Ewe BW did not differ at d 30 (P ? 0.43), however restricted ewes weighed less than overfed and overfed were heavier than controls at d 45, and restricted weighed less and overfed were heavier than controls at d 90 and 135 and birth (P ? 0.05). Ewe BCS was similar at d 30, 45 and 90 (P ? 0.07), however restricted ewes scored lower than control at d 135 and birth (P ? 0.05) and over ewes scored higher than control at d 135 (P ? 0.05) but not at birth (P = 0.06). A maternal diet by day of gestation interaction indicated that at birth the body weight (BW) of RES offspring was less than CON and OVER (P ? 0.04) and heart girth of RES was smaller than CON and OVER (P ? 0.004). There was no interaction of maternal diet and day of gestation on crown-rump, fetal, or nose occipital length, or orbit or umbilical diam. (P ? 0.31). A main effect of maternal diet indicated that the RES crown-rump length was shorter than CON and OVER (P ? 0.05). An interaction was observed for liver, kidney and renal fat (P ? 0.02). At d 45 the liver of RES offspring was larger than CON and OVER (P ? 0.002), but no differences observed at d 90, 135 or birth (P ? 0.07). At d 45, the kidneys of OVER offspring were larger than CON and RES (P ? 0.04), but no differences observed at d 90, 135 or birth (P ? 0.60). At d 135, OVER had more perirenal fat than CON and RES (P ? 0.03), and at birth RES had more perirenal fat than CON and OVER (P ? 0.04). There was no interaction observed for offspring heart weight, length or width, kidney length, adrenal gland weight, loin eye area or rib width (P ? 0.09). In conclusion, poor maternal nutrition differentially alters offspring body size and organ growth depending on the stage of gestation.
Project description:Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease.
Project description:This study determined the nature of the relationship between liveweight and body condition score (BCS) and assessed the influence of the stage of the annual cycle and pregnancy-rank on the relationship between liveweight and BCS in Romney ewes. Data were collected from the same ewes at different ages (8-18, 19-30, 31-42, 43-54, 55-66 and ?67 months), stages of the annual cycle (pre-breeding, at pregnancy diagnosis, pre-lambing and weaning) and pregnancy-rank (non-pregnant, single or twin). Linear regression was determined as being sufficient to accurately describe the relationship between liveweight and BCS. Across all data, a one-unit change in BCS was associated with 6.2 ± 0.05 kg liveweight, however, this differed by stage of the cycle, pregnancy-rank and ewe age (p <0.05). The average liveweight per unit change in body condition score increased with the age of the ewe and was greatest at weaning and lowest pre-lambing. Among pregnancy-ranks, the average liveweight per unit change was also greater during pregnancy diagnosis than pre-lambing and was greatest among single and lowest in non-pregnant ewes. The results support the hypothesis that the relationship between liveweight and BCS is affected by the interaction between stage of the annual cycle, pregnancy-rank and ewe age.
Project description:Obesity is a growing concern in horses. The effects of maternal obesity on maternal metabolism and low-grade inflammation during pregnancy, as well as offspring growth, metabolism, low-grade inflammation, testicular maturation and osteochondrotic lesions until 18 months of age were investigated.Twenty-four mares were used and separated into two groups at insemination according to body condition score (BCS): Normal (N, n = 10, BCS ?4) and Obese (O, n = 14, BCS ?4.25). BCS and plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, urea, non-esterified fatty acid, serum amyloid A (SAA), leptin and adiponectin concentrations were monitored throughout gestation. At 300 days of gestation, a Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGT) was performed. After parturition, foals' weight and size were monitored until 18 months of age with plasma SAA, leptin, adiponectin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentrations measured at regular intervals. At 6, 12 and 18 months of age, FSIGT and osteoarticular examinations were performed. Males were gelded at one year and expression of genes involved in testicular maturation analysed by RT-qPCR.Throughout the experiment, maternal BCS was higher in O versus N mares. During gestation, plasma urea and adiponectin were decreased and SAA and leptin increased in O versus N mares. O mares were also more insulin resistant than N mares with a higher glucose effectiveness. Postnatally, there was no difference in offspring growth between groups. Nevertheless, plasma SAA concentrations were increased in O versus N foals until 6 months, with O foals being consistently more insulin resistant with a higher glucose effectiveness. At 12 months of age, O foals were significantly more affected by osteochondrosis than N foals. All other parameters were not different between groups.In conclusion, maternal obesity altered metabolism and increased low-grade inflammation in both dams and foals. The risk of developing osteochondrosis at 12 months of age was also higher in foals born to obese dams.
Project description:The body condition score (BCS) in sheep (Ovis aries) is a widely used subjective measure of body condition. Body condition score and liveweight have been reported to be statistically and often linearly related in ewes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that current BCS could be accurately and indirectly predicted using a ewe's lifetime liveweight, liveweight change, and previous BCS record. Ewes born between 2011 and 2012 (n = 11,798) were followed from 8 months to approximately 67 months of age in New Zealand. Individual ewe data was collected on liveweight and body condition scores at each stage of the annual cycle (pre-breeding, pregnancy diagnosis, pre-lambing, and weaning). Linear regression models were fitted to predict BCS at a given ewe age and stage of the annual cycle using a ewe's lifetime liveweight records (liveweight alone models). Further, linear models were then fitted using previous BCS and changes in liveweight, in addition to the lifetime liveweight records (combined models). Using the combined models improved (p < 0.01) the R2 value by 39.8% (from 0.32 to 0.45) and lowered the average prediction error by 10% to 12% (from 0.29 to 0.26 body condition scores). However, a significant portion of the variability in BCS remained unaccounted for (39% to 89%) even in the combined models. The procedures found in this study, therefore, may overestimate or underestimate measures by 0.23 to 0.32 BCS, which could substantially change the status of the ewe, leading to incorrect management decisions. However, the findings do still suggest that there is potential for predicting ewe BCS from liveweight using linear regression if the key variables affecting the relationship between BCS and liveweight are accounted for.