Development and validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of fenoterol in human plasma and urine samples.
ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of sensitivity in current methods for the determination of fenoterol (Fen), a rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of (R,R')-Fen and (R,R';S,S')-Fen in plasma and urine. The method was fully validated and was linear from 50pg/ml to 2000pg/ml for plasma and from 2.500ng/ml to 160ng/ml for urine with a lower limit of quantitation of 52.8pg/ml in plasma. The coefficient of variation was <15% for the high QC standards and <10% for the low QC standards in plasma and was <15% for the high and low QC standards in urine. The relative concentrations of (R,R')-Fen and (S,S')-Fen were determined using a chirobiotic T chiral stationary phase. The method was used to determine the concentration of (R,R')-Fen in plasma and urine samples obtained in an oral cross-over study of (R,R')-Fen and (R,R';S,S')-Fen formulations. The results demonstrated a potential pre-systemic enantioselective interaction in which the (S,S')-Fen reduces the sulfation of the active (R,R')-Fen. The data suggest that a non-racemic mixture of the Fen enantiomers may provide better bioavailability of the active (R,R')-Fen for use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Project description:This report describes the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of glyburide (GLB), its five metabolites (M1, M2a, M2b, M3 and M4) and metformin (MET) in plasma and urine of pregnant patients under treatment with a combination of the two medications. The extraction recovery of the analytes from plasma samples was 87-99%, and that from urine samples was 85-95%. The differences in retention times among the analytes and the wide range of the concentrations of the medications and their metabolites in plasma and urine patient samples required the development of three LC methods. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of the analytes in plasma samples was as follows: GLB, 1.02 ng/mL; its five metabolites, 0.100-0.113 ng/mL; and MET, 4.95 ng/mL. The LLOQ in urine samples was 0.0594 ng/mL for GLB, 0.984-1.02 ng/mL for its five metabolites and 30.0 µg/mL for MET. The relative deviation of this method was <14% for intra-day and inter-day assays in plasma and urine samples, and the accuracy was 86-114% in plasma, and 94-105% in urine. The method described in this report was successfully utilized for determining the concentrations of the two medications in patient plasma and urine.
Project description:The binding thermodynamics of the stereoisomers of fenoterol, (R,R')-, (S,S')-, (R,S')-, and (S,R')-fenoterol, to the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) have been determined. The experiments utilized membranes obtained from HEK cells stably transfected with cDNA encoding human beta(2)-AR. Competitive displacement studies using [(3)H]CGP-12177 as the marker ligand were conducted at 4, 15, 25, 30 and 37 degrees C, the binding affinities calculated and the standard enthalpic (DeltaH degrees ) and standard entropic (DeltaS degrees ) contribution to the standard free energy change (DeltaG degrees ) associated with the binding process determined through the construction of van't Hoff plots. The results indicate that the binding of (S,S')- and (S,R')-fenoterol were predominately enthalpy-driven processes while the binding of (R,R')- and (R,S')-fenoterol were entropy-driven. All of the fenoterol stereoisomers are full agonists of the beta(2)-AR, and, therefore, the results of this study are inconsistent with the previously described "thermodynamic agonist-antagonist discrimination", in which the binding of an agonist to the beta-AR is entropy-driven and the binding of an antagonist is enthalpy-driven. In addition, the data demonstrate that the chirality of the carbon atom containing the beta-hydroxyl group of the fenoterol molecule (the beta-OH carbon) is a key factor in the determination of whether the binding process will be enthalpy-driven or entropy-driven. When the configuration at the beta-OH carbon is S the binding process is enthalpy-driven while the R configuration produces an entropy-driven process.
Project description:L-Arginine (ARG) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline (CIT) by endothelial nitric oxide synthase which is competitively inhibited by asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). We have developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of endogenous ARG, labeled ARG (¹?N?-ARG), CIT, ADMA, and its inactive isomer, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in biological samples.Concentrations of unlabeled ARG, ¹?N?-ARG, CIT, ADMA, and SDMA in EA.hy926 human endothelial cell lysate, cell incubation media, rat plasma or rat urine were measured by hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. ¹³C?-ARG, D?-CIT and D?-ADMA were used as internal standards for ARG and ¹?N?-ARG, CIT, and dimethylarginines, respectively.The calibration curves of ARG, ¹?N?-ARG, CIT, ADMA, and SDMA were linear and independent of several sample matrices. Intra- and inter-day variabilities for the quantification of all the compounds were below 15% in quality control samples. Application of this method to determine the uptake as well as efflux of these compounds was illustrated through in vitro cell study by exposing human endothelial cells to ¹?N?-ARG, which allowed the observation of generation of ¹?N?-CIT and ¹?N?-ARG in the cell lyate. Use of these isotopes adds insights into the cellular handling of endogenous vs. exogenous ARG. Application of this method for rat plasma and rat urine assays was demonstrated after ARG oral supplementation in rats.An LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 6 ARG-related compounds simultaneously, utilizing 3 separate internal standards. This assay allows concurrent monitoring of uptake, efflux and metabolic processes when isotope-labeled ARG and CIT are measured, and can be applied for determination of these compounds in rat plasma and rat urine.
Project description:Inhibition of cell proliferation by fenoterol and fenoterol derivatives in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells is consistent with ?(2)-adrenergic receptor (?(2)-AR) stimulation. However, the events that result in fenoterol-mediated control of cell proliferation in other cell types are not clear. Here, we compare the effect of the ?(2)-AR agonists (R,R')-fenoterol (Fen) and (R,R')-4-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol (MNF) on signaling and cell proliferation in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells by using Western blotting and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays. Despite the expression of ?(2)-AR, no cAMP accumulation was observed when cells were stimulated with isoproterenol or Fen, although the treatment elicited both mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation. Unexpectedly, isoproterenol and Fen promoted HepG2 cell growth, but MNF reduced proliferation together with increased apoptosis. The mitogenic responses of Fen were attenuated by 3-(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI 118,551), a ?(2)-AR antagonist, whereas those of MNF were unaffected. Because of the coexpression of ?(2)-AR and cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and their impact on HepG2 cell proliferation, these G?(i)/G?(o)-linked receptors may be implicated in MNF signaling. Cell treatment with (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone (WIN 55,212-2), a synthetic agonist of CB(1)R and CB(2)R, led to growth inhibition, whereas inverse agonists of these receptors blocked MNF mitogenic responses without affecting Fen signaling. MNF responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin. The ?(2)-AR-deficient U87MG cells were refractory to Fen, but responsive to the antiproliferative actions of MNF and WIN 55,212-2. The data indicate that the presence of the naphthyl moiety in MNF results in functional coupling to the CBR pathway, providing one of the first examples of a dually acting ?(2)-AR-CBR ligand.
Project description:A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs). Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction and chromatographic separation was performed on UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5-500 ng/mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra- and inter-batch precision (% CV) and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93-1.88 and 98.8-101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91-2.79 and 98.0-102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95-97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.
Project description: To compare the effectiveness of the oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban with the beta mimetic fenoterol as uterine relaxants in women undergoing external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation. Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial. Eight hospitals in the Netherlands, August 2009 to May 2014. 830 women with a singleton fetus in breech presentation and a gestational age of more than 34 weeks were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either 6.75 mg atosiban (n=416) or 40 ?g fenoterol (n=414) intravenously for uterine relaxation before ECV. The primary outcome measures were a fetus in cephalic position 30 minutes after the procedure and cephalic presentation at delivery. Secondary outcome measures were mode of delivery, incidence of fetal and maternal complications, and drug related adverse events. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Cephalic position 30 minutes after ECV occurred significantly less in the atosiban group than in the fenoterol group (34% v 40%, relative risk 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.93). Presentation at birth was cephalic in 35% (n=139) of the atosiban group and 40% (n=166) of the fenoterol group (0.86, 0.72 to 1.03), and caesarean delivery was performed in 60% (n=240) of women in the atosiban group and 55% (n=218) in the fenoterol group (1.09, 0.96 to 1.20). No significant differences were found in neonatal outcomes or drug related adverse events. In women undergoing ECV for breech presentation, uterine relaxation with fenoterol increases the rate of cephalic presentation 30 minutes after the procedure. No statistically significant difference was found for cephalic presentation at delivery. Dutch Trial Register, NTR 1877.
Project description:Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples.
Project description:Owing to their toxicity, phthalate plasticizers are currently being replaced with terephthalates in many consumer products. Nevertheless, data on human exposure to and toxicity of terephthalates are still scarce. In this study, we developed a robust analytical method for the measurement of six terephthalate metabolites (TPhMs) in human urine through their successful separation from phthalate metabolites (PhMs). Target analytes were identified, using commercially available standards, and quantified with isotopically labeled internal standards (IS). The limits of quantification (LOQ) of TPhMs were in the range of 0.12 to 0.4?ng/mL, with the exception of 2.8?ng/mL for terephthalic acid (TPA) and 3.75?ng/mL for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (mEHTP), which were found in procedural blanks at notable levels. The method developed in this study showed excellent accuracy (recoveries: 86-117%) and precision (RSD: 0.6-12.2%) for TPhMs. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 30 human urine samples collected from individuals with no known history of occupational exposure. The detection frequencies (df %) of TPhMs in urine ranged between 26.6 and 100%. This is one of the first studies that report a method for the analysis of emerging class of environmental chemicals in human specimens.
Project description:ON01910 is a small molecular weight benzyl styryl sulfone currently under investigation as a novel anticancer agent. The purpose of the investigation was to develop a sensitive and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method to quantitate levels of ON01910 in small amounts of five biological matrices; mouse plasma, feces, urine, normal brain and brain tumor. For all matrices, protein precipitation sample preparation was used that led to linear calibration curves with coefficients of determination greater than 0.99. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for all matrices was 5 ng/ml except that for mouse urine which was 10 ng/ml. The calibration standard curves were reproducible for all matrices with inter- and intra-day variability in precision and accuracy being less than 15% at all quality control concentrations except for the LLOQ in mouse plasma for which the accuracy was within 17%. The assay was successfully applied to characterize the systemic pharmacokinetics of ON01910 as well as its disposition in brain and brain tumor in mice. ON01910 exhibited a clearance of 3.61±0.85 l/h/kg and a half life of 8.66±3.30 h at 50 mg/kg dose given I.V.
Project description:Simple and sensitive methods were developed for the determination of indapamide, perindopril and its active metabolite perindoprilat in human plasma or whole blood by hyphenated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Indapamide-d3, perindopril-d4 and perindoprilat-d4 were used as the internal standards. The separation was performed on a Thermo BDS Hypersil C18 column (4.6?mm?×?100?mm, 2.4?µm) for indapamide and perindopril simultaneously following a protein precipitation pretreatment of the biosamples. The separation of perindoprilat was achieved independently on a phenomenex PFP column (4.6?mm?×?150?mm, 5?µm). All the analytes were quantitated with positive electrospray ionization and multiple reactions monitoring mode. The assay exhibited a linear range of 1-250?ng/mL for indapamide, 0.4-100?ng/mL for perindopril and 0.2-20?ng/mL for perindoprilat. The methods were fully validated to meet the requirements for bioassay in accuracy, precision, recovery, reproducibility, stabilities and matrix effects, and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of perindopril tert-butylamine/indapamide compound tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers and the comparative pharmacokinetic study between plasma and whole blood.