High cost and low survival rate in high comorbidity incident elderly hemodialysis patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The comorbidity index is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients but there are few reports for predicting elderly dialysis mortality and national population-based cost studies on elderly dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term mortality of incident elderly dialysis patients using the Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and to assess the inpatient and outpatient visits along with non-dialysis costs. METHODS: Data were obtained from catastrophic illness registration of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Incident elderly dialysis patients (age ?75 years) receiving hemodialysis for more than 90 days between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2007, were included. Baseline comorbidities were determined one year prior to the first dialysis day according to ICD-9 CM codes. Survival time, mortality rate, hospitalization time, outpatient visit frequency, and costs were calculated for different age and CCI groups. RESULTS: In 10,759 incident elderly hemodialysis patients, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were significantly increased in the different age groups (p < 0.001) and CCI patients (p < 0.001). Death rates increased with both increasing age and CCI score. High comorbidity incident hemodialysis and elderly patients were found to have increased length of hospital stay and total hospitalization costs. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based cohort study indicated that both age and higher CCI values were predictors of survival in incident elderly hemodialysis. Increased costs and mortality rates were evident in the oldest patients and in those with high CCI scores. Conservative treatment might be considered in high comorbidity and low-survival rate end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Comorbid conditions are highly prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and index score is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. The aim of this study is to perform a population-based cohort study to investigate the survival rate by age and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) in incident dialysis patients. METHODS: Using the catastrophic illness registration of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for all patients from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2008, individuals newly diagnosed with ESRD and receiving dialysis for more than 90 days were eligible for our study. Individuals younger than 18 years or renal transplantation patients either before or after dialysis were excluded. We calculated the CCI, age-weighted CCI by Deyo-Charlson method according to ICD-9 code and categorized CCI into six groups as index scores <3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, >15. Cox regression models were used to analyze the association between age, CCI and survival, and the risk markers of survival. RESULTS: There were 79,645 incident dialysis patients, whose mean age (± SD) was 60.96 (±13.92) years; 51.43% of patients were women and 51.2% were diabetic. In cox proportional hazard models and stratifying by age, older patients had significantly higher mortality than younger patients. The mortality risk was higher in persons with higher CCI as compared with low CCI. Mortality increased steadily with higher age or comorbidity both for unadjusted and for adjusted models. For all age groups, mortality rates increased in different CCI groups with the highest rates occurring in the oldest age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Age and CCI are both strong predictors of survival in Taiwan. The older age or higher comorbidity index in incident dialysis patient is associated with lower long-term survival rates. These population-based estimates may assist clinicians who make decisions when patients need long-term dialysis.
Project description:Background:There is currently a controversy for the optimal vascular access option in the elderly, regarding their multiple comorbidities and life expectancies. Our study aimed to compare the survival of tunneled cuff venous catheter (CVC) and arteriovenous access (AV access) in elderly patients. Methods:A retrospective cohort study was performed by electronic medical record review. All hemodialysis patients aged 65 years and over who firstly initiated dialysis from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016 at Siriraj hospital, Thailand, were included. The primary outcomes are to compare a 2-year period of survival between CVC and AV access in terms of abandonment, death, and combined outcome. Propensity score covariate and Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCI) were used for multivariable analysis adjustment. Results:A total of 359 patients were included; 216 (60.2%) patients had initiated hemodialysis via CVC while the rest used AV access. The patients' average ages were 76.7 ± 7.0 and 74.0 ± 5.8 years (p-value<0.001) in the CVC and AV access group, respectively. The 2-year mortality rates of CVC and AV access groups were 24.1% and 15.4%, respectively (p-value = 0.038). Multivariable analyses showed that the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of combined endpoints, i.e., vascular access abandonment and death, was statistically different only in the CCI-adjusted model (aHR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-0.99). Mortality from infection cause was more common in the CVC group than the AV access group. Conclusion:CVC access maybe considers an alternative option for frail elderly patients. However, the patient selection is a crucial issue, given higher infection-related mortality in patients using CVC.
Project description:Elderly patients comprise the fastest growing population initiating dialysis in United States. The impact of poor functional status and pre-dialysis health status on clinical outcomes in elderly dialysis patients is not well studied.We studied a retrospective cohort of 49,645 incident end stage renal disease patients that initiated dialysis between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008 from the United States Renal Data System with linked Medicare data covering at least 2 years prior to dialysis initiation. Using logistic regression models adjusted for pre-dialysis health status and other cofounders, we examined the impact of poor functional status as defined from form 2728 on 1-year all-cause mortality as primary outcome, type of dialysis modality (hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis), and type of initial vascular access (arteriovenous access vs. central venous catheter) among hemodialysis patients as secondary outcomes.Mean age was 72?±?11 years. At dialysis initiation, 18.7% reported poor functional status, 88.9% had at least 1 pre-dialysis hospitalization, and 27.8% did not receive pre-dialysis nephrology care. In adjusted analyses, 1-year mortality was higher in patients with poor functional status (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.40-1.57). Adjusted odds of being initiated on hemodialysis than peritoneal dialysis (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.66) were higher in patients with poor functional status. Poor functional status decreased the adjusted odds of starting hemodialysis with arteriovenous access as compared to central venous catheter (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.86).Poor functional status in elderly patients with end stage renal disease is associated with higher odds of initiating hemodialysis; increases the risk of central venous catheter use, and is an independent predictor of 1-year mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred vascular access type in most hemodialysis patients. However, the optimal vascular access type in octogenarians and older (?80?years) hemodialysis patients remains widely debated given their limited life expectancy and lower AVF maturation rates. METHODS:Among incident hemodialysis patients receiving care in a large national dialysis organization during 2007-2011, we examined patterns of vascular access type conversion in 1 year following dialysis initiation in patients <80 versus ?80 years of age. Among a subcohort of patients ?80?years of age, we examined the association between vascular access type conversion and mortality using multivariable survival models. RESULTS:In the overall cohort of 100?804 patients, the prevalence of AVF/arteriovenous graft (AVG) as the primary vascular access type increased during the first year of hemodialysis, but plateaued thereafter. Among 8356 patients ?80?years of age and treated for >1 year, those with initial AVF/AVG use and placement of AVF from a central venous catheter (CVC) had lower mortality compared with patients with persistent CVC use. When the reference group was changed to patients who had AVF placement from a CVC in the first year of dialysis, those with initial AVF use had similar mortality. A longer duration of CVC use was associated with incrementally worse survival. CONCLUSIONS:Among incident hemodialysis patients ?80?years of age, placement of an AVF from a CVC within the first year of dialysis had similar mortality compared with initial AVF use. Our data suggest that initial CVC use with later placement of an AVF may be an acceptable option among elderly hemodialysis patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future, with the fastest growth seen among adults ?75 years of age. Elderly patients with advanced CKD are likely to have a higher burden of comorbidity and frailty, both of which may influence their disease outcome. For these patients, treatment decisions can be complex, with the current lack of robust prognostic tools hindering the shared decision-making process. The current study aims to assess the impact of comorbidity and frailty on the outcomes of patients referred for pre-dialysis education. METHODS:We performed a single-centre study of patients (n = 283) referred for pre-dialysis education between 2010 and 2012. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) were used to assess comorbid disease burden and frailty, respectively. Follow-up data were collected until February 2015. RESULTS:The CCI and CFS scores at the time of referral to the pre-dialysis service were independent predictors of mortality. Within the study follow-up period, 76% of patients with a high CFS score at the time of pre-dialysis education had died, with 63% of these patients not commencing dialysis before death. CONCLUSION:A relatively simple frailty scale and comorbidity score could be used to predict survival and better inform the shared decision-making process for patients with advanced kidney disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Weights assigned to comorbidities to predict mortality may vary based on the type of index disease and advances in the management of comorbidities. We aimed to develop a modified Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) in incident hemodialysis patients (mCCI-IHD), thereby improving risk stratification for mortality.<h4>Methods</h4>Data on 24,738 Koreans who received their first hemodialysis treatment between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance dataset. The mCCI-IHD score were calculated by summing up the weights which were assigned to individual comorbidities according to their relative prognostic significance determined by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. The modified index was validated in an independent nationwide prospective cohort (n=1,100).<h4>Results</h4>The Cox proportional hazards model revealed that all comorbidities in the CCI except ulcers significantly predicted mortality. Thus, the mCCI-IHD included 14 comorbidities with re-assigned severity weights. In the validation cohort, both the CCI and the mCCI-IHD were correlated with mortality. However, the mCCI-IHD showed modest but significant increases in c statistics compared with the CCI at 6 months and 1 year. The analyses using continuous net reclassification improvement revealed that the mCCI-IHD improved net mortality risk reclassification by 24.6% (95% CI, 2.5-46.7; P=0.03), 26.2% (95% CI, 1.0-51.4; P=0.04) and 42.8% (95% CI, 4.9-80.8; P=0.03) with respect to the CCI at 6 months and 1 and 2 years, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The mCCI-IHD facilitates better risk stratification for mortality in incident hemodialysis patients compared with the CCI, suggesting that it may be a preferred index for use in clinical practice and the statistical analysis of epidemiological studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Among kidney disease patients ?80 years progressing to end-stage renal disease, there is growing interest in conservative nondialytic management approaches. However, among those who have initiated hemodialysis, little is known about the impact of withdrawal from dialysis on mortality, nor the patient characteristics associated with withdrawal from dialysis. STUDY DESIGN:Historical cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:We examined 133,162 incident hemodialysis patients receiving care within a large national dialysis organization from 2007 to 2011. MEASURES:We identified patients who withdrew from dialysis, either as a listed cause of death or censor reason. Incidence rates and subdistribution hazard ratios for withdrawal from dialysis as well as 4 other censoring reasons were examined across age groups. In addition, demographic and clinical characteristics associated with withdrawal from dialysis therapy among patients ?80 years old was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Among 17,296 patients aged ?80 years, 10% of patients withdrew from dialysis. Duration from the last hemodialysis treatment to death was 10 [interquartile range 6-16] days in patients with available data. Withdrawal from dialysis was the second and third most common cause of death among patients aged ?80 years and <80 years, respectively. Among patients ?80 years, minorities were much less likely than non-Hispanic whites to stop dialysis. Other factors associated with higher odds of dialysis withdrawal included having a central venous catheter compared to an arteriovenous fistula at dialysis start, dementia, living in mid-west regions, and less favorable markers associated with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome such as higher white blood cell counts and lower body mass index, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS:Among very-elderly incident hemodialysis patients, dialysis therapy withdrawal exhibits wide variations across age, race and ethnicity, regions, cognitive status, dialysis vascular access, and nutritional status. Further studies examining implications of withdrawal from dialysis in older patients are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Innovative care models such as public-private partnerships (PPPs) may help meet the challenge of providing cost-effective high-quality care for the steadily growing and complex chronic kidney disease population since they combine the expertise and efficiency of a specialized dialysis provider with the population care approach of a public entity. We report the five-years main clinical outcomes of a population of patients treated on hemodialysis within a PPP-care model in Italy. METHODS:This descriptive retrospective cohort study consisted of all consecutive hemodialysis patients treated in the NephroCare-operated Nephrology and Dialysis unit of the Seriate Hospital in 2012-2016, which exercises a PPP-care model. Clinical and treatment information was obtained from the European Clinical Database. Hospitalization outcomes and cumulative all-cause mortality incidences that accounted for competing risks were calculated. RESULTS:We included 401 hemodialysis patients (197 prevalent and 204 incident patients) in our study. The mean cohort age and age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index were 67.0?years and 6.7, respectively. Patients were treated with online high-volume hemodiafiltration or high-flux hemodialysis. Parameters of treatment efficiency were above the recommended targets throughout the study period. Patients in the PPP experienced benefits in terms of hospitalization (average number of hospital admissions/patient-year: 0.79 and 1.13 for prevalent and incident patients, respectively; average length of hospitalization: 8.9?days for both groups) and had low cumulative all-cause mortality rates (12?months: 10.6 and 7.8%, 5?years: 42.0 and 35.9%, for prevalent and incident patients, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Results of our descriptive study suggest that hemodialysis patients treated within a PPP-care model framework received care complying with recommended treatment targets and may benefit in terms of hospitalization and mortality outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of comorbidity in newly diagnosed elderly cancer cases compared with the background population and to describe its influence on overall and cancer mortality. METHODS: Population-based study of all 70+ year-olds in a Danish province diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal, prostate, or ovarian cancer from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2006. Comorbidity was measured according to Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI). Prevalence of comorbidity in newly diagnosed cancer patients was compared with a control group by conditional logistic regression, and influence of comorbidity on mortality was analysed by Cox proportional hazards method. RESULTS: A total of 6325 incident cancer cases were identified. Elderly lung and colorectal cancer patients had significantly more comorbidity than the background population. Severe comorbidity was associated with higher overall mortality in the lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer patients, hazard ratios 1.51 (95% CI 1.24-1.83), 1.41 (95% CI 1.14-1.73), and 2.14 (95% CI 1.65-2.77), respectively. Comorbidity did not affect cancer-specific mortality in general. CONCLUSION: Colorectal and lung cancer was associated with increased comorbidity burden in the elderly compared with the background population. Comorbidity was associated with increased overall mortality in elderly cancer patients but not consistently with cancer-specific mortality.
Project description:The association of hemodialysis dosage with patient survival is controversial. Here, we tested the hypothesis that methods for survival analysis may influence conclusions regarding dialysis dosage and mortality. We analyzed all-cause mortality by proportional hazards and accelerated failure time regression models in a cohort of incident hemodialysis patients who were followed for 9 yr. Both models identified age, race, heart failure, physical functioning, and comorbidity scores as important predictors of patient survival. Using proportional hazards, there was no statistically significant association between mortality and Kt/V (hazard ratio 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 1.14). In contrast, using accelerated failure time models, each 0.1-U increment of Kt/V improved adjusted median patient survival by 3.50% (95% confidence interval 0.20 to 7.08%). Proportional hazard models also yielded less accurate estimates for median survival. These findings are consistent with an additive damage model for the survival of patients who are on hemodialysis. In this conceptual model, the assumptions of the proportional hazard model are violated, leading to underestimation of the importance of dialysis dosage. These results suggest that future studies of dialysis adequacy should consider this additive damage model when selecting methods for survival analysis. Accelerated failure time models may be useful adjuncts to the Cox model when studying outcomes of dialysis patients.