Detection of seizure-associated high-frequency oscillations above 500Hz.
ABSTRACT: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) of up to 500Hz in EEG are considered to have close relation with ictogenesis. We had the unique opportunity to record a seizure in EEG with intracerebral macroelectrodes and a sampling frequency of 10kHz. Considering the notion that faster HFOs are likely more ictogenic, we investigated this ictal EEG data to find if even faster HFOs were present. HFOs were investigated in interictal spikes and seizure activity using time-frequency spectra: t values corresponding to frequencies from 100 to 1000Hz were obtained by comparison to the background and controlled by the false discovery rate (FDR). The seizure had a right hippocampal onset. HFOs up to 800Hz as well as HFOs below 500Hz built up in the hippocampal discharges more at the beginning of the seizure and during the preictal period than in the interictal period. These HFOs were visually confirmed in temporally expanded EEG traces. We demonstrated for the first time the existence of HFOs above 500Hz and up to 800Hz with intracerebral macroelectrodes in an epileptic patient; they occurred primarily in association with the seizure discharge. HFOs above 500Hz possibly reflect facilitation of ictogenic neuronal hypersynchronization.
Project description:High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) have been linked to the seizure onset zone (SOZ). We investigated whether HFOs can delineate epileptogenic areas even outside the SOZ by correlating the resection of HFO-generating areas with surgical outcome.Twenty patients who underwent a surgical resection for medically intractable epilepsy were studied. All had presurgical intracerebral EEG (500Hz filter and 2,000Hz sampling rate), at least 12-month postsurgical follow-up, and a postsurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). HFOs (ripples, 80-250Hz; fast ripples, >250Hz) were identified visually during 5 to 10 minutes of slow-wave sleep. Rates and extent of HFOs and interictal spikes in resected versus nonresected areas, assessed on postsurgical MRIs, were compared with surgical outcome (Engel's classification). We also evaluated the predictive value of removing the SOZ in terms of surgical outcome.The mean duration of follow-up was 22.7 months. Eight patients had good (Engel classes 1 and 2) and 12 poor (classes 3 and 4) surgical outcomes. Patients with a good outcome had a significantly larger proportion of HFO-generating areas removed than patients with a poor outcome. No such difference was seen for spike-generating regions or the SOZ.The correlation between removal of HFO-generating areas and good surgical outcome indicates that HFOs could be used as a marker of epileptogenicity and may be more accurate than spike-generating areas or the SOZ. In patients in whom the majority of HFO-generating tissue remained, a poor surgical outcome occurred.
Project description:High frequency oscillations (HFOs) have been associated with epileptogenicity. In rats, the extent of HFOs (>200 Hz) is correlated with seizure frequency. We studied whether the same applies to patients with focal epilepsy. Thirty-nine patients with intracerebral EEG sampled at 2000 Hz were studied for interictal ripples (80-250 Hz), fast ripples (FR, 250-500 Hz) and spikes. Seizure frequency before implantation was compared to numbers of channels with HFOs (>1/min). Analyses were repeated for HFO rates of >5, >10 and >20. Separate analyses were done for 25 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy only and for a selection of similar unilateral temporal channels in 12 patients. No linear correlation or trend was found relating the number of channels with HFOs and seizure frequency. There was a linear positive correlation between the number of channels with more than 20 FRs/min and seizure frequency. The hypothesis that the more tissue generating HFOs, the higher the seizure frequency, was not confirmed, though there might be a correlation for high FR rates.
Project description:High frequency oscillations (HFOs) called ripples (80-250 Hz) and fast ripples (FR, 250-500 Hz) can be recorded from intracerebral EEG macroelectrodes in patients with intractable epilepsy. HFOs occur predominantly in the seizure onset zone (SOZ) but their relationship to the underlying pathology is unknown. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether HFOs are specific to the SOZ or result from pathologically changed tissue, whether or not it is epileptogenic. Patients with different lesion types, namely mesial temporal atrophy (MTA), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and nodular heterotopias (NH) were investigated. Intracranial EEG was recorded from depth macroelectrodes with a sampling rate of 2000 Hz. Ripples (80-250 Hz) and Fast Ripples (250-500 Hz) were visually marked in 12 patients: five with MTA, four with FCD and three with NH. Rates of events were statistically compared in channels in four areas: lesional SOZ, non-lesional SOZ, lesional non-SOZ and non-lesional non-SOZ. HFO rates were clearly more linked to the SOZ than to the lesion. They were highest in areas in which lesion and SOZ overlap, but in patients with a SOZ outside the lesion, such as in NHs, HFO rates were clearly higher in the non-lesional SOZ than in the inactive lesions. No specific HFO pattern could be identified for the different lesion types. The findings suggest that HFOs represent a marker for SOZ areas independent of the underlying pathology and that pathologic tissue changes alone do not lead to high rates of HFOs.
Project description:Focality in electro-clinical or neuroimaging data often motivates epileptologists to consider epilepsy surgery in patients with medically-uncontrolled seizures, while not all focal findings are causally associated with the generation of epileptic seizures. With the help of Hill's criteria, we have discussed how to establish causality in the context of the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. The strengths of EEG include the ability to determine the temporal relationship between cerebral activities and clinical events; thus, scalp video-EEG is necessary in the evaluation of the majority of surgical candidates. The presence of associated ictal discharges can confirm the epileptic nature of a particular spell and whether an observed neuroimaging abnormality is causally associated with the epileptic seizure. Conversely, one should be aware that scalp EEG has a limited spatial resolution and sometimes exhibits propagated epileptiform discharges more predominantly than in situ discharges generated at the seizure-onset zone. Intraoperative or extraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) is utilized when noninvasive presurgical evaluation, including anatomical and functional neuroimaging, fails to determine the margin between the presumed epileptogenic zone and eloquent cortex. Retrospective as well as prospective studies have reported that complete resection of the seizure-onset zone on ECoG was associated with a better seizure outcome, but not all patients became seizure-free following such resective surgery. Some retrospective studies suggested that resection of sites showing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) at >80Hz on interictal or ictal ECoG was associated with a better seizure outcome. Others reported that functionally-important areas may generate HFOs of a physiological nature during rest as well as sensorimotor and cognitive tasks. Resection of sites showing task-related augmentation of HFOs has been reported to indeed result in functional loss following surgery. Thus, some but not all sites showing interictal HFOs are causally associated with seizure generation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that some task-related HFOs can be transiently suppressed by the prior occurrence of interictal spikes. The significance of interictal HFOs should be assessed by taking into account the eloquent cortex, seizure-onset zone, and cortical lesions. Video-EEG and ECoG generally provide useful but still limited information to establish causality in presurgical evaluation. A comprehensive assessment of data derived from multiple modalities is ultimately required for successful management.
Project description:Electrical stimulation (ES) is used during intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) investigations to delineate epileptogenic areas and seizure-onset zones (SOZs) by provoking afterdischarges (ADs) or patients' typical seizure. High frequency oscillations (HFOs--ripples, 80-250 Hz; fast ripples, 250-500 Hz) are linked to seizure onset. This study investigates whether interictal HFOs are more frequent in areas with a low threshold to provoke ADs or seizures.Intracranial EEG studies were filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. HFOs were visually identified. Twenty patients underwent ES, with gradually increasing currents. Results were interpreted as agreeing or disagreeing with the intracranial study (clinical-EEG seizure onset defined the SOZ). Current thresholds provoking an AD or seizure were correlated with the rate of HFOs of each channel.ES provoked a seizure in 12 and ADs in 19 patients. Sixteen patients showed an ES response inside the SOZ, and 10 had additional areas with ADs. The response was more specific for mesiotemporal than for neocortical channels. HFO rates were negatively correlated with thresholds for ES responses; especially in neocortical regions; areas with low threshold and high HFO rate were colocalized even outside the SOZ.Areas showing epileptic HFOs colocalize with those reacting to ES. HFOs may represent a pathologic correlate of regions showing an ES response; both phenomena suggest a more widespread epileptogenicity.
Project description:Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown.We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG.Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%).Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is growing interest in high-frequency oscillations (HFO) as electrophysiological biomarkers of the epileptic brain. We evaluated the clinical utility of interictal HFO events, especially their occurrence rates, by comparing the spatial distribution with a clinically determined epileptogenic zone by using subdural macroelectrodes. METHODS: We obtained intracranial electroencephalogram data with a high temporal resolution (2000 Hz sampling rate, 0.05-500 Hz band-pass filter) from seven patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Three epochs of 5-minute, artifact-free data were selected randomly from the interictal period. HFO candidates were first detected by an automated algorithm and subsequently screened to discard false detections. Validated events were further categorized as fast ripple (FR) and ripple (R) according to their spectral profiles. The occurrence rate of HFOs was calculated for each electrode contact. An HFO events distribution map (EDM) was constructed for each patient to allow visualization of the spatial distribution of their HFO events. RESULTS: The subdural macroelectrodes were capable of detecting both R and FR events from the epileptic neocortex. The occurrence rate of HFO events, both FR and R, was significantly higher in the seizure onset zone (SOZ) than in other brain regions. Patient-specific HFO EDMs can facilitate the identification of the location of HFO-generating tissue, and comparison with findings from ictal recordings can provide additional useful information regarding the epileptogenic zone. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of interictal HFOs was reasonably consistent with the SOZ. The detection of HFO events and construction of spatial distribution maps appears to be useful for the presurgical mapping of the epileptogenic zone.
Project description:The rate of interictal high frequency oscillations (HFOs) is a promising biomarker of the seizure onset zone, though little is known about its consistency over hours to days. Here we test whether the highest HFO-rate channels are consistent across different 10-min segments of EEG during sleep. An automated HFO detector and blind source separation are applied to nearly 3000 total hours of data from 121 subjects, including 12 control subjects without epilepsy. Although interictal HFOs are significantly correlated with the seizure onset zone, the precise localization is consistent in only 22% of patients. The remaining patients either have one intermittent source (16%), different sources varying over time (45%), or insufficient HFOs (17%). Multiple HFO networks are found in patients with both one and multiple seizure foci. These results indicate that robust HFO interpretation requires prolonged analysis in context with other clinical data, rather than isolated review of short data segments.
Project description:Seizure onset in epilepsy can usually be classified as focal or generalized, based on a combination of clinical phenomenology of the seizures, EEG recordings and MRI. This classification may be challenging when seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges are infrequent or discordant, and MRI does not reveal any apparent abnormalities. To address this challenge, we introduce the concept of Ictogenic Spread (IS) as a prediction of how pathological electrical activity associated with seizures will propagate throughout a brain network. This measure is defined using a person-specific computer representation of the functional network of the brain, constructed from interictal EEG, combined with a computer model of the transition from background to seizure-like activity within nodes of a distributed network. Applying this method to a dataset comprising scalp EEG from 38 people with epilepsy (17 with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), 21 with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE)), we find that people with GGE display a higher IS in comparison to those with mTLE. We propose IS as a candidate computational biomarker to classify focal and generalized epilepsy using interictal EEG.
Project description:In patients being evaluated for epilepsy and in animal models of epilepsy, electrophysiological recordings are carried to capture seizures to determine the existence of epilepsy. Electroencephalography recordings from the scalp, or sometimes directly from the brain, are also used to locate brain areas where seizure begins, and in surgical treatment help plan the area for resection. As seizures are unpredictable and can occur infrequently, ictal recordings are not ideal in terms of time, cost, or risk when, for example, determining the efficacy of existing or new anti-seizure drugs, evaluating potential anti-epileptogenic interventions, or for prolonged intracerebral electrode studies. Thus, there is a need to identify and validate other electrophysiological biomarkers of epilepsy that could be used to diagnose, treat, cure, and prevent epilepsy. Electroencephalography recordings in the epileptic brain contain other interictal electrophysiological disturbances that can occur more frequently than seizures, such as interictal spikes (IIS) and sharp waves, and from invasive studies using wide bandwidth recording and small diameter electrodes, the discovery of pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and microseizures. Of IIS, HFOs, and microseizures, a significant amount of recent research has focused on HFOs in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Results from studies in animals with epilepsy and presurgical patients have consistently found a strong association between HFOs and epileptogenic brain tissue that suggest HFOs could be a potential biomarker of epileptogenicity and epileptogenesis. Here, we discuss several aspects of HFOs, as well as IIS and microseizures, and the evidence that supports their role as biomarkers of epilepsy.