Volumetric determination of apolipoprotein stoichiometry of circulating HDL subspecies.
ABSTRACT: Although HDL is inversely correlated with coronary heart disease, elevated HDL-cholesterol is not always protective. Additionally, HDL has biological functions that transcend any antiatherogenic role: shotgun proteomics show that HDL particles contain 84 proteins (latest count), many correlating with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of HDL. ApoA-I has been suggested to serve as a platform for the assembly of these protein components on HDL with specific functions - the HDL proteome. However, the stoichiometry of apoA-I in HDL subspecies is poorly understood. Here we use a combination of immunoaffinity chromatography data and volumetric analysis to evaluate the size and stoichiometry of LpA-I and LpA-I,A-II particles. We conclude that there are three major LpA-I subspecies: two major particles, HDL in the HDL3 size range (d = 85.0 ± 1.2 Å) and HDL in the HDL2 size range (d = 108.5 ± 3.8 Å) with apoA-I stoichiometries of 3 and 4, respectively, and a small minor particle, HDL (d = 73.8 ± 2.1Å) with an apoA-I stoichiometry of 2. Additionally, we conclude that the molar ratio of apolipoprotein to surface lipid is significantly higher in circulating HDL subspecies than in reconstituted spherical HDL particles, presumably reflecting a lack of phospholipid transfer protein in reconstitution protocols.
Project description:HDLs are a family of heterogeneous particles that vary in size, composition, and function. The structure of most HDLs is maintained by two scaffold proteins, apoA-I and apoA-II, but up to 95 other "accessory" proteins have been found associated with the particles. Recent evidence suggests that these accessory proteins are distributed across various subspecies and drive specific biological functions. Unfortunately, our understanding of the molecular composition of such subspecies is limited. To begin to address this issue, we separated human plasma and HDL isolated by ultracentrifugation (UC-HDL) into particles with apoA-I and no apoA-II (LpA-I) and those with both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I/A-II). MS studies revealed distinct differences between the subfractions. LpA-I exhibited significantly more protein diversity than LpA-I/A-II when isolated directly from plasma. However, this difference was lost in UC-HDL. Most LpA-I/A-II accessory proteins were associated with lipid transport pathways, whereas those in LpA-I were associated with inflammatory response, hemostasis, immune response, metal ion binding, and protease inhibition. We found that the presence of apoA-II enhanced ABCA1-mediated efflux compared with LpA-I particles. This effect was independent of the accessory protein signature suggesting that apoA-II induces a structural change in apoA-I in HDLs.
Project description:It is expected that the attendant structural heterogeneity of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexes is a determinant of its varied metabolic functions. To determine the structural heterogeneity of HDL, we determined major apolipoprotein stoichiometry profiles in human HDL. First, HDL was separated into two main populations, with and without apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II, respectively. Each main population was further separated into six individual subfractions using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Protein proximity profiles (PPPs) of major apolipoproteins in each individual subfraction was determined by optimally cross-linking apolipoproteins within individual particles with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)), a bifunctional cross-linker, followed by molecular mass determination by MALDI-MS. The PPPs of LpA-I subfractions indicated that the number of apoA-I molecules increased from two to three to four with an increase in the LpA-I particle size. On the other hand, the entire population of LpA-I/A-II demonstrated the presence of only two proximal apoA-I molecules per particle, while the number of apoA-II molecules varied from one dimeric apoA-II to two and then to three. For most of the PPPs described above, an additional population that contained a single molecule of apoC-III in addition to apoA-I and/or apoA-II was detected. Upon composition analyses of individual subpopulations, LpA-I/A-II exhibited comparable proportions for total protein (?58%), phospholipids (?21%), total cholesterol (?16%), triglycerides (?5%), and free cholesterol (?4%) across subfractions. LpA-I components, on the other hand, showed significant variability. This novel information about HDL subfractions will form a basis for an improved understanding of particle-specific functions of HDL.
Project description:Although the partitioning of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules in plasma between high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound and -unbound states is an integral part of HDL metabolism, the factors that control binding of apoA-I to HDL particles are poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated how the properties of the apoA-I tertiary structure domains and surface characteristics of spherical HDL particles influence apoA-I binding. The abilities of (14)C-labeled human and mouse apoA-I variants to associate with human HDL and lipid emulsion particles were determined using ultracentrifugation to separate free and bound protein. The binding of human apoA-I (243 amino acids) to HDL is largely mediated by its relatively hydrophobic C-terminal domain; the isolated N-terminal helix bundle domain (residues 1-190) binds poorly. Mouse apoA-I, which has a relatively polar C-terminal domain, binds to human HDL to approximately half the level of human apoA-I. The HDL binding abilities of apoA-I variants correlate strongly with their abilities to associate with phospholipid (PL)-stabilized emulsion particles, consistent with apoA-I-PL interactions at the particle surface being important. When equal amounts of HDL2 and HDL3 are present, all of the apoA-I variants partition preferentially to HDL3. Fluorescence polarization measurements using Laurdan-labeled HDL2 and HDL3 indicate that PL molecular packing is looser on the more negatively charged HDL3 particle surface, which promotes apoA-I binding. Overall, it is clear that both apoA-I structural features, especially the hydrophobicity of the C-terminal domain, and HDL surface characteristics such as the availability of free space influence the ability of apoA-I to associate with HDL particles.
Project description:The objective of this study was to establish the role of apoA-IV, ABCA1, and LCAT in the biogenesis of apoA-IV-containing HDL (HDL-A-IV) using different mouse models. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) mice did not change plasma lipid levels. ApoA-IV floated in the HDL2/HDL3 region, promoted the formation of spherical HDL particles as determined by electron microscopy, and generated mostly ?- and a few pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) × apoE(-/-) mice increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and 80% of the protein was distributed in the VLDL/IDL/LDL region. This treatment likewise generated ?- and pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Spherical and ?-migrating HDL particles were not detectable following gene transfer of apoA-IV in ABCA1(-/-) or LCAT(-/-) mice. Coexpression of apoA-IV and LCAT in apoA-I(-/-) mice restored the formation of HDL-A-IV. Lipid-free apoA-IV and reconstituted HDL-A-IV promoted ABCA1 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI)-mediated cholesterol efflux, respectively, as efficiently as apoA-I and apoE. Our findings are consistent with a novel function of apoA-IV in the biogenesis of discrete HDL-A-IV particles with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT, and may explain previously reported anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apoA-IV.
Project description:High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) mediate cholesterol transport and protection from cardiovascular disease. Although synthetic HDLs have been studied for 30 years, the structures of human plasma-derived HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein apoA-I are unknown. We separated normal human HDL into five density subfractions and then further isolated those containing predominantly apoA-I (LpA-I). Using cross-linking chemistry and mass spectrometry, we found that apoA-I adopts a structural framework in these particles that closely mirrors that in synthetic HDL. We adapted established structures for synthetic HDL to generate the first detailed models of authentic human plasma HDL in which apoA-I adopts a symmetrical cage-like structure. The models suggest that HDL particle size is modulated by means of a twisting motion of the resident apoA-I molecules. This understanding offers insights into how apoA-I structure modulates HDL function and its interactions with other apolipoproteins.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the role of positively and negatively charged amino acids within the 89-99 region of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which are highly conserved in mammals, on plasma lipid homeostasis and the biogenesis of HDL. We previously showed that deletion of the 89-99 region of apoA-I increased plasma cholesterol and phospholipids, but it did not affect plasma triglycerides. Functional studies using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of two apoA-I mutants in apoA-I-deficient mice showed that apoA-I[D89A/E91A/E92A] increased plasma cholesterol and caused severe hypertriglyceridemia. HDL levels were reduced, and approximately 40% of the apoA-I was distributed in VLDL/IDL. The HDL consisted of mostly spherical and a few discoidal particles and contained pre?1 and ?4-HDL subpopulations. The lipid, lipoprotein, and HDL profiles generated by the apoA-I[K94A/K96A] mutant were similar to those of wild-type (WT) apoA-I. Coexpression of apoA-I[D89A/E91A/E92A] and human lipoprotein lipase abolished hypertriglyceridemia, restored in part the ?1,2,3,4 HDL subpopulations, and redistributed apoA-I in the HDL2/HDL3 regions, but it did not prevent the formation of discoidal HDL particles. Physicochemical studies showed that the apoA-I[D89A/E91A/E92A] mutant had reduced ?-helical content and effective enthalpy of thermal denaturation, increased exposure of hydrophobic surfaces, and increased affinity for triglyceride-rich emulsions. We conclude that residues D89, E91, and E92 of apoA-I are important for plasma cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis as well as for the maturation of HDL.
Project description:Given their association with cardiovascular disease protection, there has been intense interest in understanding the biology of high density lipoproteins (HDL). HDL is actually a family of diverse particle types, each made up of discrete - but as yet undetermined - combinations of proteins drawn from up to 95 lipophilic plasma proteins. The abundant apolipoproteins (apo) of the A class (apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-IV) have been proposed to act as organizing platforms for auxiliary proteins, but this concept has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the impact of genetic knock down of each platform protein on the particle size distribution of auxiliary HDL proteins. Loss of apoA-I or apoA-II massively reduced HDL lipids and changed the plasma size pattern and/or abundance of several plasma proteins. Surprisingly though, many HDL proteins were not affected, suggesting they assemble on lipid particles in the absence of apoA-I or apoA-II. In contrast, apoA-IV ablation had minor effects on plasma lipids and proteins, suggesting that it forms particles that largely exclude other apolipoproteins. Overall, the data indicate that distinct HDL subpopulations exist that do not contain, nor depend on, apoA-I, apoA-II or apoA-IV and these contribute substantially to the proteomic diversity of HDL.Plasma levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease. These particles are becoming known as highly heterogeneous entities that have diverse compositions and functions that may impact disease. Unfortunately, we know little about the forces that maintain the composition of each particle in plasma. It has been suggested that certain 'scaffold' proteins, such as apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoA-II and apoA-IV, may act as organizing centers for the docking of myriad accessory proteins. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of the genetic tractability of the mouse model and ablated these three proteins individually. We then tracked the abundance and size profile of the remaining HDL proteins by gel filtration chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The results clearly show that certain cohorts of proteins depend on each scaffold molecule to assemble normal sized HDL particles under wild-type conditions. This work forms the basis for more detailed studies that will define the specific compositions of HDL subspecies with the possibility of connecting them to specific functions or roles in disease.
Project description:Hereditary amyloidosis due to mutations of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils constituted by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I in several organs. L75P is a variant of apoA-I associated with systemic amyloidosis predominantly involving the liver, kidneys, and testis, identified in a large number of unrelated subjects. Objective of the present paper was to evaluate the impact of the L75P apoA-I variant on HDL subpopulations and cholesterol esterification in carriers.Plasma samples were collected from 30 carriers of the amyloidogenic L75P apoA-I (Carriers) and from 15 non affected relatives (Controls). Carriers displayed significantly reduced plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I, and apoA-II compared to Controls. Plasma levels of LpA-I, but not LpA-I:A-II, were significantly reduced in Carriers. HDL subclass distribution was not affected by the presence of the variant. The unesterified to total cholesterol ratio was higher, and cholesterol esterification rate and LCAT activity were lower in Carriers than in Controls.The L75P apoA-I variant is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, a selective reduction of LpA-I particles, and a partial defect in cholesterol esterification.
Project description:Plasma HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels are strongly inversely associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the structure and protein composition of HDL particles is complex, as native and synthetic discoidal and spherical HDL particles can have from two to five apoA-I molecules per particle. To fully understand structure-function relationships of HDL, a method is required that is capable of directly determining the number of apolipoprotein molecules in heterogeneous HDL particles. Chemical cross-linking followed by SDS polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis has been previously used to determine apolipoprotein stoichiometry in HDL particles. However, this method yields ambiguous results due to effects of cross-linking on protein conformation and, subsequently, its migration pattern on the gel. Here, we describe a new method based on cross-linking chemistry followed by MALDI mass spectrometry that determines the absolute mass of the cross-linked complex, thereby correctly determining the number of apolipoprotein molecules in a given HDL particle. Using well-defined, homogeneous, reconstituted apoA-I-containing HDL, apoA-IV-containing HDL, as well as apoA-I/apoA-II-containing HDL, we have validated this method. The method has the capability to determine the molecular ratio and molecular composition of apolipoprotein molecules in complex reconstituted HDL particles.
Project description:HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is not an accurate surrogate marker to measure the cardioprotective functions of HDL in coronary artery diseases (CAD) patients. Hence, measurement of other HDL-related parameters may have prognostic superiority over HDL-C. In this work, we examined the predictive value of HDL particles profile for long-term mortality in CAD patients and to compare its informative value to that of HDL-C and apoA-I. HDL particles profiles were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 214 male participants with stable CAD (45-74 years). Median follow up was 12.5 years with a 36.4% mortality rate. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 64.5%. Mean concentrations of total HDL particles (HDL-P), small-sized HDL (SHDL-P) and apoA-I were lower in deceased than in surviving patients whereas no difference was observed according to HDL-C and large HDL particles. All NMR-HDL measures were correlated between themselves and with other HDL markers (HDL-C, apoA-I and LpA-I). In a multivariate model adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and bioclinical variables, HDL-P and SHDL-P displayed the strongest inverse association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Weaker associations were recorded for apoA-I. Based on our results, we conclude that HDL particle profile measured by NMR spectroscopy should be considered to better stratify risk in population at high risk or in the setting of pharmacotherapy.