Catabolism of exogenous lactate reveals it as a legitimate metabolic substrate in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Lactate accumulation in tumors has been associated with metastases and poor overall survival in cancer patients. Lactate promotes angiogenesis and metastasis, providing rationale for understanding how it is processed by cells. The concentration of lactate in tumors is a balance between the amount produced, amount carried away by vasculature and if/how it is catabolized by aerobic tumor or stromal cells. We examined lactate metabolism in human normal and breast tumor cell lines and rat breast cancer: 1. at relevant concentrations, 2. under aerobic vs. hypoxic conditions, 3. under conditions of normo vs. hypoglucosis. We also compared the avidity of tumors for lactate vs. glucose and identified key lactate catabolites to reveal how breast cancer cells process it. Lactate was non-toxic at clinically relevant concentrations. It was taken up and catabolized to alanine and glutamate by all cell lines. Kinetic uptake rates of lactate in vivo surpassed that of glucose in R3230Ac mammary carcinomas. The uptake appeared specific to aerobic tumor regions, consistent with the proposed "metabolic symbiont" model; here lactate produced by hypoxic cells is used by aerobic cells. We investigated whether treatment with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC), a MCT1 inhibitor, would kill cells in the presence of high lactate. Both 0.1 mM and 5 mM CHC prevented lactate uptake in R3230Ac cells at lactate concentrations at ? 20 mM but not at 40 mM. 0.1 mM CHC was well-tolerated by R3230Ac and MCF7 cells, but 5 mM CHC killed both cell lines ± lactate, indicating off-target effects. This study showed that breast cancer cells tolerate and use lactate at clinically relevant concentrations in vitro (± glucose) and in vivo. We provided additional support for the metabolic symbiont model and discovered that breast cells prevailingly take up and catabolize lactate, providing rationale for future studies on manipulation of lactate catabolism pathways for therapy.
Project description:Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) provide transmembrane transport of monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate. The present results showed that ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC), an inhibitor of MCTs, promoted osteoclast differentiation from macrophages at lower concentrations (0.1-0.3?mM) and suppressed that at a higher concentration (1.0?mM). On the other hand, CHC reduced the number of mature osteoclasts on the surface of dentin in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, macrophages and osteoclasts were found to express the Mct1, Mct2, and Mct4 genes, with Mct1 and Mct4 expression higher in macrophages, and that of Mct2 higher in osteoclasts. Although Mct1 gene knockdown in macrophages enhanced osteoclast formation induced by RANKL, Mct2 gene knockdown suppressed that. Finally, Mct2 gene silencing in mature osteoclasts decreased their number and, thereby, bone resorption. These results suggest that MCT1 is a negative regulator and MCT2 a positive regulator of osteoclast differentiation, while MCT2 is required for bone resorption by osteoclasts.
Project description:Most normal cells in the presence of oxygen utilize glucose for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, many cancer cells rapidly convert glucose to lactate in the cytosol, a process termed aerobic glycolysis. This glycolytic phenotype is enabled by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize potent and selective inhibitors of LDHA.High throughput screening and lead optimization were used to generate inhibitors of LDHA enzymatic activity. Effects of these inhibitors on metabolism were evaluated using cell-based lactate production, oxygen consumption, and 13C NMR spectroscopy assays. Changes in comprehensive metabolic profile, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed upon compound treatment.3-((3-carbamoyl-7-(3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)-6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl) amino) benzoic acid was identified as an NADH-competitive LDHA inhibitor. Lead optimization yielded molecules with LDHA inhibitory potencies as low as 2 nM and 10 to 80-fold selectivity over LDHB. Molecules in this family rapidly and profoundly inhibited lactate production rates in multiple cancer cell lines including hepatocellular and breast carcinomas. Consistent with selective inhibition of LDHA, the most sensitive breast cancer cell lines to lactate inhibition in hypoxic conditions were cells with low expression of LDHB. Our inhibitors increased rates of oxygen consumption in hepatocellular carcinoma cells at doses up to 3 microM, while higher concentrations directly inhibited mitochondrial function. Analysis of more than 500 metabolites upon LDHA inhibition in Snu398 cells revealed that intracellular concentrations of glycolysis and citric acid cycle intermediates were increased, consistent with enhanced Krebs cycle activity and blockage of cytosolic glycolysis. Treatment with these compounds also potentiated PKM2 activity and promoted apoptosis in Snu398 cells.Rapid chemical inhibition of LDHA by these quinoline 3-sulfonamids led to profound metabolic alterations and impaired cell survival in carcinoma cells making it a compelling strategy for treating solid tumors that rely on aerobic glycolysis for survival.
Project description:The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the generation of the metabolic signal for insulin secretion was studied after stable overexpression in INS-1 and RINm5F insulin-producing cells. INS-1 cells with a 25-fold overexpression of LDH-A, the highest level achieved, showed a 20-30% decrease in the glucose oxidation rate at glucose concentrations above 5 mM when compared with control cells, whereas values were unchanged at lower glucose concentrations. Lactate release increased in parallel with a decrease in the glucose oxidation rate. However, the INS-1 cell glucose-induced insulin secretory response, together with the rate of glucose utilization, were not significantly affected by LDH-A overexpression. Despite 3-fold overexpression of LDH-A in glucose-unresponsive RINm5F cells, there was no change in insulin secretion, glucose metabolism or lactate production in these cells. Exogenously added pyruvate and lactate potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells, an effect that was abolished after LDH-A overexpression. Both compounds significantly decreased glucose oxidation rates in control cells. After overexpression of LDH-A in INS-1 cells, the effects of pyruvate and lactate on glucose oxidation were diminished. On the other hand, after LDH-A overexpression, both glycolytic metabolites decreased the glucose utilization rate at 5 mM glucose. The present data suggest that the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is critical for correct channelling of pyruvate towards mitochondrial metabolism. Interestingly, glucokinase-mediated glycolytic flux was decreased after LDH-A overexpression. Thus preferential channelling of glucose towards aerobic metabolism by glucokinase may be determined, at least in part, by the low level of constitutive expression of LDH-A in pancreatic beta-cells. In conclusion, the level of LDH expression in insulin-secreting cells is an important determinant of the physiological insulin-secretory capacity, and also determines how pyruvate and lactate affect insulin secretion.
Project description:1. Rat heart homogenates catabolized glutamine in the presence of rotenone, an inhibitor of the respiratory chain. 2. The reaction was markedly stimulated by phosphate and inhibited by glutamate, but not greatly affected by ammonia. 3. Glutamine breakdown was enhanced by lactate, malate, citrate and ATP, and almost completely blocked by 1 mM-N-ethylmaleimide. 4. The Km for glutamine measured in homogenates supplemented with either 50 mM- or 100 mM-phosphate and at pH 7.3 or 8.0 was about 4 mM, whereas the Vmax was larger at higher anion concentrations and at the more alkaline pH. 5. Activity of glutaminase was 3-fold greater in isolated mitochondria than in muscle homogenates. Distribution of the activity was the same as that of a mitochondrial marker, cytochrome c oxidase. 6. Properties of glutaminase with respect to its dependence on the concentrations of phosphate, glutamine and H+ were the same in intact and broken mitochondria and very similar to those in homogenates. However, the specific activity of the enzyme was considerably smaller in frozen-thawed than in intact organelles. 7. It is concluded that heart mitochondria possess a kidney-type phosphate-activated glutaminase that can serve as a source of myocardial glutamate.
Project description:Besides being a neuronal fuel, L-lactate is also a signal in the brain. Whether extracellular L-lactate affects brain metabolism, in particular astrocytes, abundant neuroglial cells, which produce L-lactate in aerobic glycolysis, is unclear. Recent studies suggested that astrocytes express low levels of the L-lactate GPR81 receptor (EC50 ? 5 mM) that is in fat cells part of an autocrine loop, in which the Gi-protein mediates reduction of cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). To study whether a similar signaling loop is present in astrocytes, affecting aerobic glycolysis, we measured the cytosolic levels of cAMP, D-glucose and L-lactate in single astrocytes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanosensors. In contrast to the situation in fat cells, stimulation by extracellular L-lactate and the selective GPR81 agonists, 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (3Cl-5OH-BA) or 4-methyl-N-(5-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-4-(2-thienyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (Compound 2), like adrenergic stimulation, elevated intracellular cAMP and L-lactate in astrocytes, which was reduced by the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Surprisingly, 3Cl-5OH-BA and Compound 2 increased cytosolic cAMP also in GPR81-knock out astrocytes, indicating that the effect is GPR81-independent and mediated by a novel, yet unidentified, excitatory L-lactate receptor-like mechanism in astrocytes that enhances aerobic glycolysis and L-lactate production via a positive feedback mechanism.
Project description:1. Anaerobic formation of lactate from glucose by isolated perfused rat kidney (411mumol/h per g dry wt.) was three times as fast as in aerobic conditions (138mumol/h per g). 2. In aerobic or in anaerobic conditions, the ratio of lactate production to glucose utilization was about 2. 3. Starvation or acidosis caused a decline of about 30% in the rate of aerobic glycolysis. 4. The rate of formation of glucose from lactate by perfused kidney from a well-fed rat, in the presence of 5mm-acetoacetate (83mumol/h per g dry wt.), was of the same order as the rate of aerobic glycolysis. 5. During perfusion with physiological concentrations of glucose (5mm) and lactate (2mm) there were negligible changes in the concentration of either substrate. 6. Comparison of kidneys perfused with lactate, from well-fed or starved rats, showed no major differences in contents of intermediates of gluconeogenesis. 7. The tissue concentrations of hexose monophosphates and C(3) phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates (except triose phosphate) were decreased in anaerobic conditions. 8. Aerobic metabolism of fructose by perfused kidney was rapid: the rate of glucose formation was 726mumol/h per g dry wt. and of lactate formation 168mumol/h per g (dry wt.). Glycerol and d-glyceraldehyde were also released into the medium. 9. Aerobically, fructose generated high concentrations of glycolytic intermediates. 10. Anaerobic production of lactate from fructose (74mumol/h per g dry wt.) was slower than the aerobic rate. 11. In both anaerobic and aerobic conditions the ratio [lactate]/[pyruvate] in kidney or medium was lower during perfusion with fructose than with glucose. 12. These results are discussed in terms of the regulation of renal carbohydrate metabolism.
Project description:Warburg and coworkers (Warburg O, Posener K, Negelein E. Z Biochem 152: 319, 1924) first reported that cancerous cells switch glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, and that this switch is important for their proliferation. Nothing is known about aerobic glycolysis in T cells from asthma. The objective was to study aerobic glycolysis in human asthma and the role of this metabolic pathway in airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Human peripheral blood and mouse spleen CD4 T cells were isolated by negative selection. T cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation. Cytokines and serum lactate were measured by ELISA. Mouse airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine was measured by a FlexiVent apparatus. The serum lactate concentration was significantly elevated in clinically stable asthmatic subjects compared with healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease controls, and negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Proliferating CD4 T cells from human asthma and a mouse model of asthma produced higher amounts of lactate upon stimulation, suggesting a heightened glycolytic activity. Lactate stimulated and inhibited T cell proliferation at low and high concentrations, respectively. Dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of aerobic glycolysis, inhibited lactate production, proliferation of T cells, and production of IL-5, IL-17, and IFN-?, but it stimulated production of IL-10 and induction of Foxp3. DCA also inhibited airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model of asthma. We conclude that aerobic glycolysis is increased in asthma, which promotes T cell activation. Inhibition of aerobic glycolysis blocks T cell activation and development of asthma.
Project description:Aberrant energy metabolism is critical for cancer progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can stimulate tumor angiogenesis and enhance cancer metastasis; however, the metabolic interaction between cancer cells and macrophages characterized by lactate shuttles remains unclear. Here, we showed that lactate activated human macrophages to a TAM-like phenotype and stimulated the secretion of CCL5 by activation of Notch signaling in macrophages. Reciprocally, CCL5 increased cell migration, induced cancer cell EMT, and promoted aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells, suggesting a positive metabolic feedback loop in the co-culture system. Inhibition of CCR5, the cognate receptor of CCL5, or neutralization of CCL5, broke the metabolic loop and decreased cancer cell migration and EMT. Inhibition of aerobic glycolysis significantly reduced breast cancer cell EMT, indicated that aerobic glycolysis was necessary for the invasive phenotype of cancer cells. We further showed that TGF-? signaling regulated the expression of CCR5 in the co-culture system, and CCL5 induced glycolysis by mediation of AMPK signaling. The expression of CCL5-CCR5 axis was highly associated with macrophage infiltration, TGF-? and p-AMPK in clinical samples. CCL5-CCR5 axis promoted breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggested a pivotal role of CCL5-CCR5 axis in the metabolic communication between cancer cells and macrophages.
Project description:Tumor suppressor p53 is a master regulator of apoptosis and plays key roles in cell cycle checkpoints. p53 responds to metabolic changes and alters metabolism through several mechanisms in cancer. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme in glycolysis, is highly expressed in a variety of tumors and catalyzes pyruvate to lactate. In the present study, we first analyzed the association and clinical significance of p53 and LDHA in breast cancer expressing wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and found that LDHA mRNA levels are negatively correlated with wt-p53 but not with mutation p53 mRNA levels, and low p53 and high LDHA expression are significantly associated with poor overall survival rates. Furthermore, p53 negatively regulates LDHA expression by directly binding its promoter region. Moreover, a series of LDHA gain-of-function and rescore experiments were carried out in breast cancer MCF7 cells expressing endogenous wt-p53, showing that ectopic expression of p53 decreases aerobic glycolysis, cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor formation of breast cancer cells and that restoration of the expression of LDHA in p53-overexpressing cells could abolish the suppressive effect of p53 on aerobic glycolysis and other malignant phenotypes. In conclusion, our findings showed that repression of LDHA induced by wt-p53 blocks tumor growth and invasion through downregulation of aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer, providing new insights into the mechanism by which p53 contributes to the development and progression of breast cancer.
Project description:Previously, we proposed a new model for understanding the "Warburg effect" in tumor metabolism. In this scheme, cancer-associated fibroblasts undergo aerobic glycolysis and the resulting energy-rich metabolites are then transferred to epithelial cancer cells, where they enter the TCA cycle, resulting in high ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. We have termed this new paradigm "The Reverse Warburg Effect." Here, we directly evaluate whether the end-products of aerobic glycolysis (3-hydroxy-butyrate and L-lactate) can stimulate tumor growth and metastasis, using MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts as a model system. More specifically, we show that administration of 3-hydroxy-butyrate (a ketone body) increases tumor growth by ?2.5-fold, without any measurable increases in tumor vascularization/angiogenesis. Both 3-hydroxy-butyrate and L-lactate functioned as chemo-attractants, stimulating the migration of epithelial cancer cells. Although L-lactate did not increase primary tumor growth, it stimulated the formation of lung metastases by ?10-fold. Thus, we conclude that ketones and lactate fuel tumor growth and metastasis, providing functional evidence to support the "Reverse Warburg Effect". Moreover, we discuss the possibility that it may be unwise to use lactate-containing i.v. solutions (such as Lactated Ringer's or Hartmann's solution) in cancer patients, given the dramatic metastasis-promoting properties of L-lactate. Also, we provide evidence for the up-regulation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism and the TCA cycle in human breast cancer cells in vivo, via an informatics analysis of the existing raw transcriptional profiles of epithelial breast cancer cells and adjacent stromal cells. Lastly, our findings may explain why diabetic patients have an increased incidence of cancer, due to increased ketone production, and a tendency towards autophagy/mitophagy in their adipose tissue.