ABSTRACT: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, 'double-recombinant' EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic among population of young children in Thailand. The disease is mostly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). METHODS:This study conducted serosurveillance for neutralizing (NT) antibodies to EV71 subgenotypes B5 and C4a, and to CA16 subgenotypes B1a and B1b, in 579 subjects of various ages using a microneutralization assay in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. These test viruses were the major circulating subgenotypes associated with HFMD in Thailand during the study period. RESULTS:We found that the levels of seropositivity against all 4 study viruses were lowest in the age group of 6-11 months, i.e., 5.5% had antibody to both EV71 subgenotypes, while 14.5% and 16.4% had antibody to CA16 subgenotypes B1a and B1b, respectively. The percentages of subjects with antibodies to these 4 viruses gradually increased with age, but were still less than 50% in children younger than 3 years. These laboratory data were consistent with the epidemiological data collected by the Ministry of Public Health which showed repeatedly that the highest number of HFMD cases was in children aged 1 year. Analyses of amino acid sequences of the test viruses showed 97% identity between the two subgenotypes of EV71, and 99% between the two subgenotypes of CA16. Nevertheless, the levels of seropositivity and antibody titer against the two subgenotypes of EV71 and of CA16 were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS:This study clearly demonstrated NT antibody activity across EV71-B5 and EV71-C4a subgenotypes, and also across CA16-B1a and CA16-B1b subgenotypes. Moreover, there were no significant differences by gender in the seropositive rates and antibody levels to any of the 4 virus subgenotypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Several new EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. The mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown. RESULTS:Six EV-71 isolates from an outbreak in Malaysia, in 1997, were sequenced completely. These isolates were identified as EV-71 subgenotypes, B3, B4 and C2. A phylogenetic tree that correlated well with the present enterovirus classification scheme was established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A). Using the 5' UTR, P2 and P3 genomic regions, however, isolates of EV-71 subgenotypes B3 and C4 segregated away from other EV-71 subgenotypes into a cluster together with coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16/G10) and EV-71 subgenotype C2 clustered with CV-A8. Results from the similarity plot analyses supported the clustering of these isolates with other HEV-A. In contrast, at the same genomic regions, a CV-A16 isolate, Tainan5079, clustered with EV-71. This suggests that amongst EV-71 and CV-A16, only the structural genes were conserved. The 3' end of the virus genome varied and consisted of sequences highly similar to various HEV-A viruses. Numerous recombination crossover breakpoints were identified within the non-structural genes of some of these newer EV-71 subgenotypes. CONCLUSION:Phylogenetic evidence obtained from analyses of the full genome sequence supports the possible occurrence of inter-typic recombination involving EV-71 and various HEV-A, including CV-A16, the most common causal agent of HFMD. It is suggested that these recombination events played important roles in the emergence of the various EV-71 subgenotypes.
Project description:Background: Subgenotype C4 of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant agent of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) circulating in the mainland of China. For the first time, a subgenotype C2 of EV71 named SY30-2 was isolated from a HFMD case in Beijing, China. Since it is uncertain whether antibodies raised against subgenotype C4 of EV71 can protect C2 EV71, it is important to monitor and check the presence of cross-reactive antibodies against new EV71 subgenotypes. To find out the causes for the different NtAb, this study is to investigate the relationships between amino acid residue variations and cross-reactive antibodies against EV71 subgenotypes C2 and C4. Methods: Nucleotide and amino acid sequences from full-length genome sequence of SY30-2 were compared to EV71 reference strains. A microneutralization test was used to detect neutralizing antibody (NTAb) in the sera of subgenotype C4 of EV71 infected cases against SY30-2 and FY17 (a C4 isolate). The 3D structure of the viral capsid protein of SY30-2 was constructed. Results: Genome sequence and similarity plot analyses showed that SY30-2 shared the highest identity with subgenotype C2 of EV71 strains in every fragment of the genome. While the microneutralization test result showed that children infected with subgenotype C4 of EV71 had higher NTAb titers against FY17 than SY30-2 (p < 0.001). The amino acid sequence comparison revealed that four amino acid residues VP1-22, VP1-31, VP1-249 and VP3-93 were highly conserved in subgenotype C4 of EV71 compared with the corresponding amino acid residues on subgenotype C2 of EV71 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the 3D-structure of viral capsid protein showed that VP1-22, VP1-31 and VP3-93 were located on the surface of virion. Conclusion: This is the first report of an EV71 subgenotype C2 isolated from HFMD in Beijing, China. Only a few antigenic variations on subgenotype C2 of EV71 could have led to a great decrease in NTAb titer. Thus, imported new genotypes and subgenotypes of EV71 should be closely monitored. The efficacy of available vaccines against new viruses should be evaluated as well.
Project description:Aside from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), viruses that are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), epidemiological profiles of other enteroviruses that induce HFMD are limited. We collected 9949 laboratory surveillance HFMD cases and 1230 serum samples from infants and children in Shanghai from 2012-2016. Since 2013, CV-A6 has displaced EV71 and CV-A16 to become the predominant serotype. Interestingly, novel epidemiological patterns in EV71 and CV-A16 infections were observed, with one large peak in both 2012 and 2014, followed by two smaller peaks in the respective following years (2013 and 2015). Through sequencing, we found that C4a, B1b, D-Cluster-1 and B constituted the major subgenotypes of EV71, CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10, respectively. Among healthy individuals, 50.49% and 54.23% had positive neutralising antibodies (NtAbs) against EV71 and CV-A16, respectively, indicating that EV71 and CV-A16 silent infections were common. These populations may be an important potential source of infection. The overall seropositive rate of EV71 NtAbs showed a fluctuating, markedly downward trend, indicating the potential risk of a future EV71 epidemic. High CV-A16 NtAb seroprevalence corroborated a documented CV-A16 'silent' epidemic. Children aged 1-5 years had the lowest EV71 NtAb seropositive rate, whereas those aged 1-2 years exhibited the lowest CV-A16 NtAb seropositive rate. This is the first comprehensive investigation of the epidemiology and aetiology, as well as the seroprevalence, of HFMD in Shanghai between 2012 and 2016. This study provides the latest insights into developing a more efficient HMFD vaccination programme.
Project description:Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses remains a public health threat, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region during the past two decades. Moreover, the introduction of multiple subgenotypes and the emergence of recombinant viruses is of epidemiological importance. Based on either the full genome or VP1 sequences, 32 enteroviruses (30 from HFMD patients, 1 from an encephalitic patient, and 1 from an asymptomatic contact case) isolated in Thailand between 2006 and 2014 were identified as 25 enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolates (comprising 20 B5, 1 C2, 2 C4a, and 2 C4b subgenotypes) and 7 coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) isolates (comprising 6 B1a and 1 B1b subgenotypes). The EV71 subgenotype C4b was introduced into Thailand for the first time in 2006 and was replaced by subgenotype C4a strains in 2009. Phylogenetic, similarity plot and bootscan analyses of the complete viral genomes identified 12 recombinant viruses among the 32 viral isolates. Only one EV71-B5 isolate out of 20 was a recombinant virus with one region of intratypic or intertypic recombination, while all four EV71-C4 isolates were recombinant viruses having undergone double recombination, and all seven CA16 isolates were recombinant viruses. The recombination breakpoints of these recombinants are located solely within the P2 and P3 regions. Surveillance for circulating strains and subgenotype replacement are important with respect to molecular epidemiology and the selection of the upcoming EV71 vaccine. In addition, the clinical importance of recombinant viruses needs to be further explored.
Project description:The major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing, China from 2007 to 2009 were identified in this study. A total of 186 HFMD cases were included, and 136 cases (73%) were positive for enterovirus (EV). In 2007, 75% (27/36) were Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) positive and 19% (7/36) were Enterovirus 71 (EV71) positive cases. However, EV71 was the predominant virus in 2008, when 56% (31/55) of the cases were positive for EV71 and 22% (12/55) were positive for CA16. In 2009, EV71 and CA16, with positive rates of 36% (16/45) and 29% (13/45), respectively, were still the major pathogens of HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the dominant genotype of EV71 was C4, with co-circulation of genotype A in 2009. The prevalent cluster of the EV71 subgenotype C4 changed over time. A proposed new sublineage of EV71, C4a-2, was the predominant virus associated with the Beijing and nationwide HFMD outbreaks since 2008 and amino acid substitution, which possibly link to the central nervous system tropism of EV71, was found in genotype A viruses. Persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated pathogens is required for predicting potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks.
Project description:Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). EV71 infection may lead to neurologic damage, with higher incidence of fatality compared with other HFMD pathogens. An effective drug or vaccine against EV71 infection is currently unavailable. It is desirable to determine the pathogen of HFMD accurately and quickly for early treatment. In the current study, reverse-transcription and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) technology were developed to detect EV71. The efficacy of detecting EV71 was compared with regular nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After detecting 108 clinical specimens, results showed that RT-LAMP can specifically detect EV71, but not Coxsackie virus A16, and exhibited a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 97.1%, which was higher than regular RT-PCR. The findings indicate that RT-LAMP is a practical method for EV71 diagnostic applications, particularly in small county institutes of medical service. The detection ability of RT-LAMP was significantly affected by cryopreservation as the clinical specimens were repeatedly subject to freezing and thawing treatments.
Project description:The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie A16 (CA16) are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs) in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.
Project description:Background:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most commonly implicated causative agent of severe outbreaks of paediatric hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).VP1 protein, a capsid protein of EV71, is responsible for the genotype of the virus and is essential for vaccine development and effectiveness. However, the genotypes of EV71 isolates in China are still not completely clear. Methods:The VP1 gene sequences of 3712 EV71 virus strains from China, excluding repetitive sequences and 30 known EV71 genotypes as reference strains, between 1986 and 2019 were obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic tree, amino acid homology, genetic variation and genotype analyses of the EV71VP1 protein were performed with MEGA 6.0 software. Results:The amino acid identity was found to be 88.33%-100% among the 3712 EV71 strains, 93.47%-100% compared with vaccine strain H07, and 93.04%-100% compared with vaccine strains FY7VP5 or FY-23 K-B. Since 2000, the prevalent strains of EV71 were mainly of the C4 genotype. Among these, the C4a subgenotype was predominant, followed by the C4b subgenotype; other subgenotypes appeared sporadically between 2005 and 2018 in mainland China. The B4 genotype was the main genotype in Taiwan, and the epidemic strains were constantly changing. Some amino acid variations in VP1 of EV71 occurred with high frequencies, including A289T (20.99%), H22Q (16.49%), A293S (15.95%), S283T (15.11%), V249I (7.76%), N31D (7.25%), and E98K (6.65%). Conclusion:The C4 genotype of EV71 in China matches the vaccine and should effectively control EV71. However, the efficacy of the vaccine is partially affected by the continuous change in epidemic strains in Taiwan. These results suggest that the genetic characteristics of the EV71-VP1 region should be continuously monitored, which is critical for epidemic control and vaccine design to prevent EV71 infection in children.
Project description:Two outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 patients in this laboratory during this period. Of the virus isolates, enterovirus 71 (EV71) was diagnosed in 44.4% of the patients (132 of 297) in 1998, 2% (13 of 646) in 1999, and 20.5% (195 of 949) in 2000. Genetic analyses of the 5'-untranslated and VP1 regions of EV71 isolates by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing were performed to understand the diversity of EV71 in these outbreaks of HFMD. Most EV71 isolates from the 1998 epidemic belonged to genotype C, while only one-tenth of the isolates were genotype B. Interestingly, all EV71 isolates tested from 1999 to 2000 belonged to genotype B. This study indicated that two genogroups of EV71 capable of inducing severe clinical illness have been circulating in Taiwan. Furthermore, the predominant EV71 genotypes responsible for each of the two major HFMD outbreaks within the 3-year period in Taiwan were different.