Rac1 is deactivated at integrin activation sites through an IQGAP1-filamin-A-RacGAP1 pathway.
ABSTRACT: Cell migration makes a fundamental contribution to both normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. Integrin engagement with extracellular ligands spatially controls, via the cyclical activation and deactivation of the small GTPase Rac1, the dynamic membrane protrusion and cytoskeletal reorganization events that are required for directional migration. Although the pathways that control integrin-mediated Rac1 activation are reasonably well defined, the mechanisms that are responsible for switching off activity are poorly understood. Here, proteomic analysis of activated integrin-associated complexes suggests filamin-A and IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) as candidates that link β1 integrin to Rac1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of either filamin-A or IQGAP1 induced high, dysregulated Rac1 activity during cell spreading on fibronectin. Using immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, filamin-A and IQGAP1 were shown to be part of a complex that is recruited to active β1 integrin. Mass spectrometric analysis of individual filamin-A, IQGAP1 and Rac1 pull-downs and biochemical analysis, identified RacGAP1 as a novel IQGAP1 binding partner. Further immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that RacGAP1 is recruited to IQGAP1 and active β1 integrin, and that suppression of RacGAP1 expression triggered elevated Rac1 activity during spreading on fibronectin. Consistent with these findings, reduced expression of filamin-A, IQGAP1 or RacGAP1 triggered unconstrained membrane protrusion and disrupted directional cell migration on fibrillar extracellular matrices. These findings suggest a model whereby integrin engagement, followed by filamin-A, IQGAP1 and RacGAP1 recruitment, deactivates Rac1 to constrain its activity spatially and thereby coordinate directional cell migration.
Project description:Inhibition of ?v?3 or expression of mutant p53 promotes invasion into fibronectin (FN)-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) by enhancing Rab-coupling protein (RCP)-dependent recycling of ?5?1 integrin. RCP and ?5?1 cooperatively recruit receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR1, to regulate their trafficking and downstream signaling via protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, which, in turn, promotes invasive migration. In this paper, we identify a novel PKB/Akt substrate, RacGAP1, which is phosphorylated as a consequence of RCP-dependent ?5?1 trafficking. Phosphorylation of RacGAP1 promotes its recruitment to IQGAP1 at the tips of invasive pseudopods, and RacGAP1 then locally suppresses the activity of the cytoskeletal regulator Rac and promotes the activity of RhoA in this subcellular region. This Rac to RhoA switch promotes the extension of pseudopodial processes and invasive migration into FN-containing matrices, in a RhoA-dependent manner. Thus, the localized endocytic trafficking of ?5?1 within the tips of invasive pseudopods elicits signals that promote the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, protrusion, and invasion into FN-rich ECM.
Project description:Coordination of the activity of multiple small GTPases is required for the regulation of many physiological processes, including cell migration. There are now several examples of functional interplay between small GTPase pairs, but the mechanisms that control GTPase activity in time and space are only partially understood. Here, we build on the hypothesis that small GTPases are part of a large, integrated network and propose that key proteins within this network integrate multiple signaling events and coordinate multiple small GTPase activities. Specifically, we identify the scaffolding protein IQGAP1 as a master regulator of multiple small GTPases, including Cdc42, Rac1, Rap1, and RhoA. In addition, we demonstrate that IQGAP1 promotes Arf6 activation downstream of ?1 integrin engagement. Furthermore, following literature-curated searches and recent mass spectrometric analysis of IQGAP1-binding partners, we report that IQGAP1 recruits other small GTPases, including RhoC, Rac2, M-Ras, RhoQ, Rab10, and Rab5, small GTPase regulators, including Tiam1, RacGAP1, srGAP2 and HERC1, and small GTPase effectors, including PAK6, N-WASP, several sub-units of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin mDia1. Therefore, we propose that IQGAP1 acts as a small GTPase scaffolding platform within the small GTPase network, and recruits and/or regulates small GTPases, small GTPase regulators and effectors to orchestrate cell behavior. Finally, to identify other putative key regulators of small GTPase crosstalk, we have assembled a small GTPase network using protein-protein interaction databases.
Project description:Integrin-mediated adhesion is a critical regulator of cell migration. Here we demonstrate that integrin-mediated adhesion to high fibronectin concentrations induces a stop signal for cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and protrusion. On fibronectin, the stop signal is generated through alpha 5 beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling to the Rho family of GTPases. Specifically, Cdc42 and Rac1 activation exhibits a biphasic dependence on fibronectin concentration that parallels optimum cell polarization and protrusion. In contrast, RhoA activity increases with increasing substratum concentration. We find that cross talk between Cdc42 and Rac1 is required for substratum-stimulated protrusion, whereas RhoA activity is inhibitory. We also show that Cdc42 activity is inhibited by Rac1 activation, suggesting that Rac1 activity may down-regulate Cdc42 activity and promote the formation of stabilized rather than transient protrusion. Furthermore, expression of RhoA down-regulates Cdc42 and Rac1 activity, providing a mechanism whereby RhoA may inhibit cell polarization and protrusion. These findings implicate adhesion-dependent signaling as a mechanism to stop cell migration by regulating cell polarity and protrusion via the Rho family of GTPases.
Project description:Leukocyte transendothelial migration involves the active participation of the endothelium through the formation of apical membrane protrusions that embrace adherent leukocytes, termed docking structures. Using live-cell imaging, we find that prior to transmigration, endothelial docking structures form around 80% of all neutrophils. Previously we showed that endothelial RhoG and SGEF control leukocyte transmigration. In this study, our data reveal that both full-length Trio and the first DH-PH (TrioD1) domain of Trio, which can activate Rac1 and RhoG, interact with ICAM-1 and are recruited to leukocyte adhesion sites. Moreover, upon clustering of ICAM-1, the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio activates Rac1, prior to activating RhoG, in a filamin-dependent manner. We further show that docking structure formation is initiated by ICAM-1 clustering into ring-like structures, which is followed by apical membrane protrusion. Interestingly, we find that Rac1 is required for ICAM-1 clustering, whereas RhoG controls membrane protrusion formation. Finally, silencing endothelial Trio expression or reducing TrioD1 activity without affecting SGEF impairs both docking structure formation and leukocyte transmigration. We conclude that Trio promotes leukocyte transendothelial migration by inducing endothelial docking structure formation in a filamin-dependent manner through the activation of Rac1 and RhoG.
Project description:Filamin A (FLNA) is an integrator of cell mechanics and signaling. The spreading and migration observed in FLNA sufficient A7 melanoma cells but not in the parental FLNA deficient M2 cells have been attributed to FLNA. In A7 and M2 cells, the normal prion (PrP) exists as pro-PrP, retaining its glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor peptide signal sequence (GPI-PSS). The GPI-PSS of PrP has a FLNA binding motif and binds FLNA. Reducing PrP expression in A7 cells alters the spatial distribution of FLNA and organization of actin and diminishes cell spreading and migration. Integrin β1 also binds FLNA. In A7 cells, FLNA, PrP, and integrin β1 exist as two independent, yet functionally linked, complexes; they are FLNA with PrP or FLNA with integrin β1. Reducing PrP expression in A7 cells decreases the amount of integrin β1 bound to FLNA. A PrP GPI-PSS synthetic peptide that crosses the cell membrane inhibits A7 cell spreading and migration. Thus, in A7 cells FLNA does not act alone; the binding of pro-PrP enhances association between FLNA and integrin β1, which then promotes cell spreading and migration. Pro-PrP is detected in melanoma in situ but not in melanocyte. Invasive melanoma has more pro-PrP. The binding of pro-PrP to FLNA, therefore, contributes to melanomagenesis.
Project description:Persistent directional cell migration is involved in animal development and diseases. The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in F-actin and focal adhesion dynamics. Local Rac1 activity is required for persistent directional migration, whereas global, hyperactivated Rac1 enhances random cell migration. Therefore, precise control of Rac1 activity is important for proper directional cell migration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of Rac1 activity in persistent directional cell migration is not fully understood. Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligase mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is involved in persistent directional cell migration. We found that knockdown of MIB1 led to an increase in random cell migration in HeLa cells in a wound-closure assay. Furthermore, we explored novel Mib1 substrates for cell migration and found that Mib1 ubiquitinates Ctnnd1. Mib1-mediated ubiquitination of Ctnnd1 K547 attenuated Rac1 activation in cultured cells. In addition, we found that posterior lateral line primordium cells in the zebrafish mib1ta52b mutant showed increased random migration and loss of directional F-actin-based protrusion formation. Knockdown of Ctnnd1 partially rescued posterior lateral line primordium cell migration defects in the mib1ta52b mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that Mib1 plays an important role in cell migration and that persistent directional cell migration is regulated, at least in part, by the Mib1-Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP?) is a key lipid messenger for regulation of cell migration. PIP? modulates many effectors, but the specificity of PIP? signalling can be defined by interactions of PIP?-generating enzymes with PIP? effectors. Here, we show that type I? phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIPKI?) interacts with the cytoskeleton regulator, IQGAP1, and modulates IQGAP1 function in migration. We reveal that PIPKI? is required for IQGAP1 recruitment to the leading edge membrane in response to integrin or growth factor receptor activation. Moreover, IQGAP1 is a PIP? effector that directly binds PIP? through a polybasic motif and PIP? binding activates IQGAP1, facilitating actin polymerization. IQGAP1 mutants that lack PIPKI? or PIP? binding lose the ability to control directional cell migration. Collectively, these data reveal a synergy between PIPKI? and IQGAP1 in the control of cell migration.
Project description:The binding of integrin adhesion receptors to their extracellular matrix ligands controls cell morphology, movement, survival, and differentiation in various developmental, homeostatic, and disease processes. Here, we report a methodology to isolate complexes associated with integrin adhesion receptors, which, like other receptor-associated signaling complexes, have been refractory to proteomic analysis. Quantitative, comparative analyses of the proteomes of two receptor-ligand pairs, alpha(4)beta(1)-vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and alpha(5)beta(1)-fibronectin, defined both core and receptor-specific components. Regulator of chromosome condensation-2 (RCC2) was detected in the alpha(5)beta(1)-fibronectin signaling network at an intersection between the Rac1 and adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) subnetworks. RCC2 knockdown enhanced fibronectin-induced activation of both Rac1 and Arf6 and accelerated cell spreading, suggesting that RCC2 limits the signaling required for membrane protrusion and delivery. Dysregulation of Rac1 and Arf6 function by RCC2 knockdown also abolished persistent migration along fibronectin fibers, indicating a functional role for RCC2 in directional cell movement. This proteomics workflow now opens the way to further dissection and systems-level analyses of adhesion signaling.
Project description:Cell motility is regulated by a balance between forward protrusion and tail retraction. These phenomena are controlled by a spatial asymmetry in signals at the front and the back of the cell. We show here that the protein-tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-PEST, is required for the coupling of protrusion and retraction during cell migration. PTP-PEST null fibroblasts, which are blocked in migration, exhibit exaggerated protrusions at the leading edge and long, unretracted tails in the rear. This altered morphology is accompanied by changes in the activity of Rho GTPases, Rac1 and RhoA, which mediate protrusion and retraction, respectively. PTP-PEST null cells exhibit enhanced Rac1 activity and decreased RhoA activity. We further show that PTP-PEST directly targets the upstream regulators of Rac1 and RhoA, VAV2 and p190RhoGAP. Moreover, we demonstrate that the activities of VAV2 and p190RhoGAP are regulated by PTP-PEST. Finally, we present evidence indicating the VAV2 can be regulated by integrin-mediated adhesion. These data suggest that PTP-PEST couples protrusion and retraction by acting on VAV2 and p190RhoGAP to reciprocally modulate the activity of Rac1 and RhoA.
Project description:A common pathobiological feature of malignant gliomas is the insidious infiltration of single tumor cells into the brain parenchyma, rendering these deadly tumors virtually incurable with available therapies. In this study, we report that ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), a Ras superfamily small GTPase, is abundantly expressed in invasive human glioma cells. Cellular depletion of ARF6 by small interfering RNA decreased Rac1 activation, impaired HGF-stimulated and serum-stimulated glioma cell migration in vitro, and markedly decreased the invasive capacity of invasive glioma in the brain. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ARF6 in glioma cells promoted cell migration via the activation of Rac1. Upon stimulation of glioma cells with HGF, we show that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is recruited and overlaps with ARF6 at the leading edge of migrating cells. However, cellular depletion of ARF6 abrogated this recruitment of IQGAP1 and attenuated the formation of surface protrusions. ARF6 forms complexes with Rac1 and IQGAP1 in glioma cells upon HGF stimulation, and knockdown of IQGAP1 significantly inhibits ARF6-induced Rac1 activation and cell migration. Taken together, these data suggest that ARF6-mediated Rac1 activation is essential for glioma cell invasion via a signaling pathway that requires IQGAP1.