P2Y1 receptors expressed by C1 neurons determine peripheral chemoreceptor modulation of breathing, sympathetic activity, and blood pressure.
ABSTRACT: Catecholaminergic C1 cells of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are key determinants of the sympathoexcitatory response to peripheral chemoreceptor activation. Overactivation of this reflex is thought to contribute to increased sympathetic activity and hypertension; however, molecular mechanisms linking peripheral chemoreceptor drive to hypertension remain poorly understood. We have recently determined that activation of P2Y1 receptors in the RVLM mimicked effects of peripheral chemoreceptor activation. Therefore, we hypothesize that P2Y1 receptors regulate peripheral chemoreceptor drive in this region. Here, we determine whether P2Y1 receptors are expressed by C1 neurons in the RVLM and contribute to peripheral chemoreceptor control of breathing, sympathetic activity, and blood pressure. We found that injection of a specific P2Y1 receptor agonist (MRS2365) into the RVLM of anesthetized adult rats increased phrenic nerve activity (?55%), sympathetic nerve activity (38 ± 6%), and blood pressure (23 ± 1 mm Hg), whereas application of a specific P2Y1 receptor antagonist (MRS2179) decreased peripheral chemoreceptor-mediated activation of phrenic nerve activity, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure. To establish that P2Y1 receptors are expressed by C1 cells, we determine in the brain slice preparation using cell-attached recording techniques that cells responsive to MRS2365 are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of C1 cells), and we determine in vivo that C1-lesioned animals do not respond to RVLM injection of MRS2365. These data identify P2Y1 receptors as key determinants of peripheral chemoreceptor regulation of breathing, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure.
Project description:Hypoventilation is typically treated with positive pressure ventilation or, in extreme cases, by phrenic nerve stimulation. This preclinical study explores whether direct stimulation of central chemoreceptors could be used as an alternative method to stimulate breathing.To determine whether activation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which is located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), stimulates breathing with appropriate selectivity.A lentivirus was used to induce expression of the photoactivatable cationic channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) by RVLM Phox2b-containing neurons, a population that consists of central chemoreceptors (the ccRTN neurons) and blood pressure (BP)-regulating neurons (the C1 cells). The transfected neurons were activated with pulses of laser light. Respiratory effects were measured by plethysmography or diaphragmatic EMG recording and cardiovascular effects by monitoring BP, renal sympathetic nerve discharge, and the baroreflex.The RVLM contained 600 to 900 ChR2-transfected neurons (63% C1, 37% ccRTN). RVLM photostimulation significantly increased breathing rate (+42%), tidal volume (21%), minute volume (68%), and peak expiratory flow (48%). Photostimulation increased diaphragm EMG amplitude (19%) and frequency (21%). Photostimulation increased BP (4 mmHg) and renal sympathetic nerve discharge (43%) while decreasing heart rate (15 bpm).Photostimulation of ChR2-transfected RVLM Phox2b neurons produces a vigorous stimulation of breathing accompanied by a small sympathetically mediated increase in BP. These results demonstrate that breathing can be relatively selectively activated in resting unanesthetized mammals via optogenetic manipulation of RVLM neurons presumed to be central chemoreceptors. This methodology could perhaps be used in the future to enhance respiration in humans.
Project description:Accentuated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. In this review, we investigate our working hypothesis that potentiated activity of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is the primary cause of experimental and essential hypertension. Over the past decade, we have examined how RVLM neurons regulate peripheral SNA, how the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems are correlated and how the sympathetic system can be suppressed to prevent cardiovascular events in patients. Based on results of whole-cell patch-clamp studies, we report that angiotensin II (Ang II) potentiated the activity of RVLM neurons, a sympathetic nervous center, whereas Ang II receptor blocker (ARB) reduced RVLM activities. Our optical imaging demonstrated that a longitudinal rostrocaudal column, including the RVLM and the caudal end of ventrolateral medulla, acts as a sympathetic center. By organizing and analyzing these data, we hope to develop therapies for reducing SNA in our patients. Recently, 2-year depressor effects were obtained by a single procedure of renal nerve ablation in patients with essential hypertension. The ablation injured not only the efferent renal sympathetic nerves but also the afferent renal nerves and led to reduced activities of the hypothalamus, RVLM neurons and efferent systemic sympathetic nerves. These clinical results stress the importance of the RVLM neurons in blood pressure regulation. We expect renal nerve ablation to be an effective treatment for congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease, such as diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maternal protein restriction in rats increases the risk of adult offspring arterial hypertension through unknown mechanisms. OBJECTIVES:The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of a low-protein (LP) diet during pregnancy and lactation on baseline sympathetic and respiratory activities and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in the rat offspring. METHODS:Wistar rat dams were fed a control [normal-protein (NP); 17% protein] or an LP (8% protein) diet during pregnancy and lactation, and their male offspring were studied at 30 d of age. Direct measurements of baseline arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory frequency (Rf) as well as peripheral chemoreflex activation (potassium cyanide: 0.04%) were recorded in pups while they were awake. In addition, recordings of the phrenic nerve (PN) and thoracic sympathetic nerve (tSN) activities were obtained from the in situ preparations. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression was also evaluated in carotid bifurcation through a Western blotting assay. RESULTS:At 30 d of age, unanesthetized LP rats exhibited enhanced resting Rf (P = 0.001) and similar ABP and HR compared with the NP rats. Despite their similar baseline ABP values, LP rats exhibited augmented low-frequency variability (∼91%; P = 0.01). In addition, the unanesthetized LP rats showed enhanced pressor (P = 0.01) and tachypnoeic (P = 0.03) responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation. The LP rats displayed elevated baseline tSN activity (∼86%; P = 0.02) and PN burst frequency (45%; P = 0.01) and amplitude (53%; P = 0.001) as well as augmented sympathetic (P = 0.01) and phrenic (P = 0.04) excitatory responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation compared with the NP group. Furthermore, LP rats showed an increase of ∼100% in HIF-1α protein density in carotid bifurcation compared with NP rats. CONCLUSION:Sympathetic-respiratory overactivity and amplified peripheral chemoreceptor responses, potentially through HIF-1α-dependent mechanisms, precede the onset of hypertension in juvenile rats exposed to protein undernutrition during gestation and lactation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of orexin A (OX-A) increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), but the effects of OX-A on sympathetic and phrenic, nerve activity, and the baroreflex(es), somato-sympathetic and hypoxic chemoreflex(es) are unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized and artificially ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined in this study. The effects of i.t. OX-A (20 nmol 10 µL?¹) on cardiorespiratory parameters, and responses to stimulation of the sciatic nerve (electrical), arterial baroreceptors (phenylephrine hydrochloride, 0.01 mg kg?¹ i.v.) and peripheral (hypoxia) chemoreceptors were also investigated. KEY RESULTS: i.t. OX-A caused a prolonged dose-dependent sympathoexcitation, pressor response and tachycardia. The peak effect was observed at 20 nmol with increases in mean arterial pressure, HR and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA) of 32 mmHg, 52 beats per minute and 100% from baseline respectively. OX-A also dose-dependently increased respiratory drive, as indicated by a rise in phrenic nerve amplitude and a fall in phrenic nerve frequency, an increase in neural minute ventilation, a lengthening of the expiratory period, and a shortening of the inspiratory period. All effects of OX-A (20 nmol) were attenuated by the orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB 334867. OX-A significantly reduced both sympathoexcitatory peaks of somato-sympathetic reflex while increasing baroreflex sensitivity. OX-A increased the amplitude of the pressor response and markedly amplified the effect of hypoxia on sSNA. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, activation of OX receptors in rat spinal cord alters cardiorespiratory function and differentially modulates sympathetic reflexes.
Project description:Excess dietary salt intake contributes to or exacerbates some forms of hypertension by increasing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) through angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor activation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Despite this interaction among dietary salt, Ang II, and the RVLM, no studies have directly examined whether dietary salt by itself alters Ang II-dependent responses and regulation of RVLM neurons, SNA, and ABP. Therefore, the present study directly tested this hypothesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal chow and given access to water or 0.9% NaCl solution for 14 days. Unilateral injection of Ang II (0.6, 6, and 60 pmol) into the RVLM produced a significantly greater increase in renal SNA and mean ABP of rats drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water. However, dietary salt did not alter mRNA levels of RVLM Ang II type 1a receptors or the SNA and ABP responses to stimulation of the dorsolateral funinculus. Additional experiments demonstrate that blockade of RVLM Ang II type 1 receptors significantly reduced renal SNA, splanchnic SNA, and mean ABP of rats drinking 0.9% NaCl but not water. Blockade of iontotropic glutamate receptors had no effect. Altogether, these findings suggest that elevated dietary salt enhances the sympathoexcitatory actions of Ang II in the RVLM via changes in the intrinsic properties of RVLM neurons. Moreover, elevated dietary salt intake differentially affects the tonic activity of the peripheral versus brain RVLM Ang II type 1 receptors to regulate baseline SNA and ABP.
Project description:Background: Hypertension is characterized by sympathetic overactivity, which is associated with an enhancement in angiotensin receptor type I (AT1R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). β-arrestin1, a canonical scaffold protein, has been suggested to show a negative effect on G protein-coupled receptors via its internalization and desensitization and/or the biased signaling pathway. The major objectives of the present study were to observe the effect of β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM on cardiovascular regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and further determine the effect of β-arrestin1 on AT1R expression in the RVLM. Methods: The animal model of β-arrestin1 overexpression was induced by bilateral injection of adeno-associated virus containing Arrb1 gene (AAV-Arrb1) into the RVLM of WKY and SHR. Results: β-arrestin1 was expressed on the pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM, and its expression in the RVLM was significantly (P < 0.05) downregulated by an average of 64% in SHR than WKY. Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in SHR significantly decreased baseline levels of blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, and attenuated cardiovascular effects induced by RVLM injection of angiotensin II (100 pmol). Furthermore, β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM significantly reduced the expression of AT1R by 65% and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation by 66% in SHR. It was confirmed that β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM led to an enhancement of interaction between β-arrestin1 and IκB-α. Conclusion: Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in the RVLM reduces BP and sympathetic outflow in hypertension, which may be associated with NFκB-mediated AT1R downregulation.
Project description:Upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT(1)R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to the sympathoexcitation in the chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the role of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) is not clear. In this study, we measured AT(1)R and AT(2)R protein expression in the RVLM and determined their effects on renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate in anesthetized sham and CHF rats. We found that (1) although AT(1)R expression in the RVLM was upregulated, the AT(2)R was significantly downregulated (CHF: 0.06+/-0.02 versus sham: 0.15+/-0.02, P<0.05); (2) simultaneously stimulating RVLM AT(1)R and AT(2)R by angiotensin II evoked sympathoexcitation, hypertension, and tachycardia in both sham and CHF rats with greater responses in CHF; (3) stimulating RVLM AT1R with angiotensin II plus the specific AT(2)R antagonist PD123319 induced a larger sympathoexcitatory response than simultaneously stimulating AT(1)R and AT(2)R in sham rats, but not in CHF; (4) activating RVLM AT(2)R with CGP42112 induced a sympathoinhibition, hypotension, and bradycardia only in sham rats (renal sympathetic nerve activity: 36.4+/-5.1% of baseline versus 102+/-3.9% of baseline in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, P<0.05); (5) pretreatment with 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, a general inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, into the RVLM attenuates the CGP42112-induced sympathoinhibition. These results suggest that AT(2)R in the RVLM exhibits an inhibitory effect on sympathetic outflow, which is, at least partially, mediated by an arachidonic acid metabolic pathway. These data implicate a downregulation in the AT(2)R as a contributory factor in the sympathoexcitation in CHF.
Project description:Communicating fibres between the phrenic nerve and sympathetic nervous system may exist, but have not been characterized histologically and immunohistochemically, even though increased sympathetic activity due to phrenic nerve stimulation for central sleep apnoea may entail morbidity and mortality. We, therefore, conducted a histological study of the phrenic nerve to establish the presence of catecholaminergic fibres throughout their course. The entire phrenic nerves of 35 formalin-fixed human cadavers were analysed morphometrically and immunohistochemically. Furthermore, the right abdominal phrenic nerve was serially sectioned and reconstructed. The phrenic nerve contained 3?±?2 fascicles in the neck that merged to form a single fascicle in the thorax and split again into 3?±?3 fascicles above the diaphragm. All phrenic nerves contained catecholaminergic fibres, which were distributed homogenously or present as distinct areas within a fascicle or as separate fascicles. The phrenicoabdominal branch of the right phrenic nerve is a branch of the celiac plexus and, therefore, better termed the "phrenic branch of the celiac plexus". The wall of the inferior caval vein in the diaphragm contained longitudinal strands of myocardium and atrial natriuretic peptide-positive paraganglia ("caval bodies") that where innervated by the right phrenic nerve.
Project description:Purinergic signaling mediated by P2 receptors (P2Rs) plays important roles in embryonic and stem cell development. However, how it mediates Ca(2+) signals in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs) remains unclear. Here, we aimed to determine the role of P2Rs in mediating Ca(2+) mobilizations of these cells. hESCs were induced to differentiate into CVPCs by our recently established methods. Gene expression of P2Rs and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) was analyzed by quantitative/RT-PCR. IP3R3 knockdown (KD) or IP3R2 knockout (KO) hESCs were established by shRNA- or TALEN-mediated gene manipulations, respectively. Confocal imaging revealed that Ca(2+) responses in CVPCs to ATP and UTP were more sensitive and stronger than those in hESCs. Consistently, the gene expression levels of most P2YRs except P2Y1 were increased in CVPCs. Suramin or PPADS blocked ATP-induced Ca(2+) transients in hESCs but only partially inhibited those in CVPCs. Moreover, the P2Y1 receptor-specific antagonist MRS2279 abolished most ATP-induced Ca(2+) signals in hESCs but not in CVPCs. P2Y1 receptor-specific agonist MRS2365 induced Ca(2+) transients only in hESCs but not in CVPCs. Furthermore, IP3R2KO but not IP3R3KD decreased the proportion of hESCs responding to MRS2365. In contrast, both IP3R2 and IP3R3 contributed to UTP-induced Ca(2+) responses while ATP-induced Ca(2+) responses were more dependent on IP3R2 in the CVPCs. In conclusion, a predominant role of P2Y1 receptors in hESCs and a transition of P2Y-IP3R coupling in derived CVPCs are responsible for the differential Ca(2+) mobilization between these cells.
Project description:The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. Somatic afferent stimulation activates neurons in the hypothalamic PVN. Parvocellular PVN neurons project to sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular regions of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulates the median nerve (P5-P6) to modulate sympathoexcitatory responses. We hypothesized that the PVN and its projections to the rVLM participate in the EA-modulation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular responses. Cats were anesthetized and ventilated. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were monitored. Application of bradykinin every 10-min on the gallbladder induced consistent pressor reflex responses. Thirty-min of bilateral EA stimulation at acupoints P5-P6 reduced the pressor responses for at least 60-min. Inhibition of the PVN with naloxone reversed the EA-inhibition. Responses of cardiovascular barosensitive rVLM neurons evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation were reduced by EA and then restored with opioid receptor blockade in the PVN. EA at P5-P6 decreased splanchnic evoked activity of cardiovascular barosensitive PVN neurons that also project directly to the rVLM. PVN neurons labeled with retrograde tracer from rVLM were co-labeled with μ-opioid receptors and juxtaposed to endorphinergic fibers. Thus, the PVN and its projection to rVLM are important in processing acupuncture modulation of elevated blood pressure responses through a PVN opioid mechanism.