Reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression in cucumber grown under different nitrogen nutrition.
ABSTRACT: In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EF? proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress.
Project description:Background:Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used high-throughput technique to measure mRNA transcript levels. The accuracy of this evaluation of gene expression depends on the use of optimal reference genes. Cucumber-pumpkin grafted plants, made by grafting a cucumber scion onto pumpkin rootstock, are superior to either parent plant, as grafting conveys many advantages. However, although many reliable reference genes have been identified in both cucumber and pumpkin, none have been obtained for cucumber-pumpkin grafted plants. Methods:In this work, 12 candidate reference genes, including eight traditional genes and four novel genes identified from our transcriptome data, were selected to assess their expression stability. Their expression levels in 25 samples, including three cucumber and three pumpkin samples from different organs, and 19 cucumber-pumpkin grafted samples from different organs, conditions, and varieties, were analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the stability of their expression was assessed by the comparative ?Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. Results:The results showed that the most suitable reference gene varied dependent on the organs, conditions, and varieties. CACS and 40SRPS8 were the most stable reference genes for all samples in our research. TIP41 and CACS showed the most stable expression in different cucumber organs, TIP41 and PP2A were the optimal reference genes in pumpkin organs, and CACS and 40SRPS8 were the most stable genes in all grafted cucumber samples. However, the optimal reference gene varied under different conditions. CACS and 40SRPS8 were the best combination of genes in different organs of cucumber-pumpkin grafted plants, TUA and RPL36Aa were the most stable in the graft union under cold stress, LEA26 and ARF showed the most stable expression in the graft union during the healing process, and TIP41 and PP2A were the most stable across different varieties of cucumber-pumpkin grafted plants. The use of LEA26, ARF and LEA26+ARF as reference genes were further verified by analyzing the expression levels of csaCYCD3;1, csaRUL, cmoRUL, and cmoPIN in the graft union at different time points after grafting. Discussion:This work is the first report of appropriate reference genes in grafted cucumber plants and provides useful information for the study of gene expression and molecular mechanisms in cucumber-pumpkin grafted plants.
Project description:Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR. In this study, the expression of 11 candidate reference genes, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Actin, ?-Tub (?-tubulin), ?-Tub (?-tubulin), EF1-? (Elongation factor 1-?), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), UBQ (Polyubiquitin), CYP (Cyclophilin), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), CAC (Clathrin adaptor complexes), and DNAJ (DnaJ-like protein), was analyzed in S. europaea samples, which were classified into groups according to various abiotic stresses (NaCl, nitrogen, drought, cold and heat), tissues and ages. Three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of gene expression, and comprehensive ranks of stability were generated by aggregate analysis. The results show that the relatively stable genes for each group are the following: (1) CAC and UBC for whole samples; (2) CAC and UBC for NaCl stress; (3) Actin and ?-Tub for nitrogen treatment; (4) Actin and GAPDH for drought stress; (5) ?-Tub and UBC for cold stress; (6) TIP41 and DNAJ for heat stress; (7) UBC and UBQ for different tissues; and (8) UBC and Actin for various developmental stages. These genes were validated by comparing transcriptome profiles. Using two stable reference genes was recommended in the normalization of RT-qPCR data. This study identifies optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in S. europaea, which will benefit gene expression analysis under these conditions.
Project description:Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses.
Project description:Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.
Project description:Lycoris aurea (L' Hér.) Herb, a perennial grass species, produces a unique variety of pharmacologically active Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. However, the key enzymes and their expression pattern involved in the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (especially for galanthamine) are far from being fully understood. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), a commonly used method for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. In this study, to choose the appropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions, 14 genes including YLS8 (mitosis protein YLS8), CYP2 (Cyclophilin 2), CYP 1 (Cyclophilin 1), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), EXP2 (Expressed protein 2), PTBP1 (Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1), EXP1 (Expressed protein 1), PP2A (Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), ?-TUB (?-tubulin), ?-TUB (?-tubulin), EF1-? (Elongation factor 1-?), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), ACT (Actin) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were selected from the transcriptome datasets of L. aurea. And then, expressions of these genes were assessed by qRT-PCR in various tissues and the roots under different treatments. The expression stability of the 14 candidates was analyzed by three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), and their results were further integrated into a comprehensive ranking based on the geometric mean. The results show the relatively stable genes for each subset as follows: (1) EXP1 and TIP41 for all samples; (2) UBC and EXP1 for NaCl stress; (3) PTBP1 and EXP1 for heat stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress and ABA treatment; (4) UBC and CYP2 for cold stress; (5) PTBP1 and PP2A for sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment; (6) CYP1 and TIP41 for methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment; and (7) EXP1 and TIP41 for various tissues. The reliability of these results was further enhanced through comparison between part qRT-PCR result and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. In summary, our results identified appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in L. aurea, and will facilitate gene expression studies under these conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Isatis indigotica, a traditional Chinese medicine, produces a variety of active ingredients. However, little is known about the key genes and corresponding expression profiling involved in the biosynthesis pathways of these ingredients. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful, commonly-used method for gene expression analysis, but the accuracy of the quantitative data produced depends on the appropriate selection of reference genes. RESULTS:In this study, the systematic analysis of the reference genes was performed for quantitative real-Time PCR normalization in I. indigotica. We selected nine candidate reference genes, including six traditional housekeeping genes (ACT, α-TUB, β-TUB, UBC, CYP, and EF1-α), and three newly stable internal control genes (MUB, TIP41, and RPL) from a transcriptome dataset of I. indigotica, and evaluated their expression stabilities in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, and petiole) and leaves exposed to three abiotic treatments (low-nitrogen, ABA, and MeJA) using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and comprehensive RefFind algorithms. The results demonstrated that MUB and EF1-α were the two most stable reference genes for all samples. TIP41 as the optimal reference gene for low-nitrogen stress and MeJA treatment, while ACT had the highest ranking for ABA treatment and CYP was the most suitable for different tissues. CONCLUSIONS:The results revealed that the selection and validation of appropriate reference genes for normalizing data is mandatory to acquire accurate quantification results. The necessity of specific internal control for specific conditions was also emphasized. Furthermore, this work will provide valuable information to enhance further research in gene function and molecular biology on I. indigotica and other related species.
Project description:Papaver somniferum L. is an important medical plant that produces analgesic drugs used for the pain caused by cancers and surgeries. Recent studies have focused on the expression genes involved in analgesic drugs biosynthesis, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique is the main strategy. However, no reference genes have been reported for gene expression normalization in P. somniferum. Herein, nine reference genes (actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin 2 (CYP2), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1?), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2, cytosolic (GAPC2), nuclear cap-binding protein subunit 2 (NCBP2), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), TIP41-like protein (TIP41), and tubulin beta chain (TUB)) of P. somniferum were selected and analyzed under five different treatments (cold, drought, salt, heavy metal, and hormone stress). Then, BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm, and RefFinder were employed to analyze their gene expression stability. The results reveal that NCBP2 is the most stable reference gene under various experimental conditions. The work described here is the first report regarding on reference gene selection in P. somniferum, which could be used for the accurate normalization of the gene expression involved in analgesic drug biosynthesis.
Project description:Background:Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a widely cultivated vegetable crop, and its yield and quality are greatly affected by various pathogen infections. Sphaerotheca fuliginea is a pathogen that causes powdery mildew (PM) disease in cucumber. However, the genes involved in the resistance to PM in cucumber are largely unknown. Methods:In our study, a cucumber PM resistant cultivated variety "BK2" and a susceptible cultivated variety "H136" were used to screen and identify differential expressed genes (DEGs) under the S. fuliginea infection. Results:There were only 97 DEGs between BK2 and H136 under the control condition, suggesting a similarity in the basal gene expression between the resistant and susceptible cultivated varieties. A large number of hormone signaling-related DEGs (9.2% of all DEGs) between resistant and susceptible varieties were identified, suggesting an involvement of hormone signaling pathways in the resistance to PM. In our study, the defense-related DEGs belonging to Class I were only induced in susceptible cultivated variety and the defense-related DEGs belonging to Class II were only induced in resistant cultivated variety. The peroxidase, NBS, glucanase and chitinase genes that were grouped into Class I and II might contribute to production of the resistance to PM in resistant cultivated variety. Furthermore, several members of Pathogen Response-2 family, such as glucanases and chitinases, were identified as DEGs, suggesting that cucumber might enhance the resistance to PM by accelerating the degradation of the pathogen cell walls. Our data allowed us to identify and analyze more potential genes related to PM resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) data needs to be normalized for its proper interpretation. Housekeeping genes are routinely employed for this purpose, but their expression level cannot be assumed to remain constant under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, a systematic validation of reference genes is required to ensure proper normalization. For soybean, only a small number of validated reference genes are available to date. RESULTS: A systematic comparison of 14 potential reference genes for soybean is presented. These included seven commonly used (ACT2, ACT11, TUB4, TUA5, CYP, UBQ10, EF1b) and seven new candidates (SKIP16, MTP, PEPKR1, HDC, TIP41, UKN1, UKN2). Expression stability was examined by RT-qPCR across 116 biological samples, representing tissues at various developmental stages, varied photoperiodic treatments, and a range of soybean cultivars. Expression of all 14 genes was variable to some extent, but that of SKIP16, UKN1 and UKN2 was overall the most stable. A combination of ACT11, UKN1 and UKN2 would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data among different tissues, whereas the combination SKIP16, UKN1 and MTP was most suitable for developmental stages. ACT11, TUA5 and TIP41 were the most stably expressed when the photoperiod was altered, and TIP41, UKN1 and UKN2 when the light quality was changed. For six different cultivars in long day (LD) and short day (SD), their expression stability did not vary significantly with ACT11, UKN2 and TUB4 being the most stable genes. The relative gene expression level of GmFTL3, an ortholog of Arabidopsis FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T) was detected to validate the reference genes selected in this study. CONCLUSION: None of the candidate reference genes was uniformly expressed across all experimental conditions, and the most suitable reference genes are conditional-, tissue-specific-, developmental-, and cultivar-dependent. Most of the new reference genes performed better than the conventional housekeeping genes. These results should guide the selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in soybean.
Project description:Normalization to reference genes is the most common method to avoid bias in real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), which has been widely used for quantification of gene expression. Despite several studies on gene expression, Lilium, and particularly L. regale, has not been fully investigated regarding the evaluation of reference genes suitable for normalization. In this study, nine putative reference genes, namely 18S rRNA, ACT, BHLH, CLA, CYP, EF1, GAPDH, SAND and TIP41, were analyzed for accurate quantitative PCR normalization at different developmental stages and under different stress conditions, including biotic (Botrytis elliptica), drought, salinity, cold and heat stress. All these genes showed a wide variation in their Cq (quantification Cycle) values, and their stabilities were calculated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In a combination of the results from the three algorithms, BHLH was superior to the other candidates when all the experimental treatments were analyzed together; CLA and EF1 were also recommended by two of the three algorithms. As for specific conditions, EF1 under various developmental stages, SAND under biotic stress, CYP/GAPDH under drought stress, and TIP41 under salinity stress were generally considered suitable. All the algorithms agreed on the stability of SAND and GAPDH under cold stress, while only CYP was selected under heat stress by all of them. Additionally, the selection of optimal reference genes under biotic stress was further verified by analyzing the expression level of LrLOX in leaves inoculated with B. elliptica. Our study would be beneficial for future studies on gene expression and molecular breeding of Lilium.