Pathogenic mouse hepatitis virus or poly(I:C) induce IL-33 in hepatocytes in murine models of hepatitis.
ABSTRACT: The IL-33/ST2 axis is known to be involved in liver pathologies. Although, the IL-33 levels increased in sera of viral hepatitis patients in human, the cellular sources of IL-33 in viral hepatitis remained obscure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the expression of IL-33 in murine fulminant hepatitis induced by a Toll like receptor (TLR3) viral mimetic, poly(I:C) or by pathogenic mouse hepatitis virus (L2-MHV3). The administration of poly(I:C) plus D-galactosamine (D-GalN) in mice led to acute liver injury associated with the induction of IL-33 expression in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and vascular endothelial cells (VEC), while the administration of poly(I:C) alone led to hepatocyte specific IL-33 expression in addition to vascular IL-33 expression. The hepatocyte-specific IL-33 expression was down-regulated in NK-depleted poly(I:C) treated mice suggesting a partial regulation of IL-33 by NK cells. The CD1d KO (NKT deficient) mice showed hepatoprotection against poly(I:C)-induced hepatitis in association with increased number of IL-33 expressing hepatocytes in CD1d KO mice than WT controls. These results suggest that hepatocyte-specific IL-33 expression in poly(I:C) induced liver injury was partially dependent of NK cells and with limited role of NKT cells. In parallel, the L2-MHV3 infection in mice induced fulminant hepatitis associated with up-regulated IL-33 expression as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment in liver. The LSEC and VEC expressed inducible expression of IL-33 following L2-MHV3 infection but the hepatocyte-specific IL-33 expression was only evident between 24 to 32h of post infection. In conclusion, the alarmin cytokine IL-33 was over-expressed during fulminant hepatitis in mice with LSEC, VEC and hepatocytes as potential sources of IL-33.
Project description:The protein kinase RIPK1 plays a crucial role at the crossroad of stress-induced signaling pathways that affects cell's decision to live or die. The present study aimed to define the role of RIPK1 in hepatocytes during fulminant viral hepatitis, a worldwide syndrome mainly observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients. Mice deficient for RIPK1, specifically in liver parenchymal cells (Ripk1LPC-KO) and their wild-type littermates (Ripk1fl/fl), were challenged by either the murine hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) or poly I:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA mimicking viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Ripk1LPC-KO mice developed more severe symptoms at early stage of the MHV3-induced fulminant hepatitis. Similarly, administration of poly I:C only triggered increase of systemic transaminases in Ripk1LPC-KO mice, reflecting liver damage through induced apoptosis as illustrated by cleaved-caspase 3 labeling of liver tissue sections. Neutralization of TNF-? or prior depletion of macrophages were able to prevent the appearance of apoptosis of hepatocytes in poly I:C-challenged Ripk1LPC-KO mice. Moreover, poly I:C never induced direct hepatocyte death in primary culture whatever the murine genotype, while it always stimulated an anti-viral response. Our investigations demonstrated that RIPK1 protects hepatocytes from TNF-? secreted from macrophages during viral induced fulminant hepatitis. These data emphasize the potential worsening risks of an HBV infection in people with polymorphism or homozygous amorphic mutations already described for the RIPK1 gene.
Project description:Viral replication in the liver is generally detected by cellular endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic helicase sensors that trigger antiviral inflammatory responses. Recent evidence suggests that surface TLR2 may also contribute to viral detection through recognition of viral coat proteins but its role in the outcome of acute viral infection remains elusive. In this study, we examined in vivo the role of TLR2 in acute infections induced by the highly hepatotrophic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) type 3 and weakly hepatotrophic MHV-A59 serotype. To address this, C57BL/6 (wild-type; WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) groups of mice were intraperitoneally infected with MHV3 or MHV-A59. MHV3 infection provoked a fulminant hepatitis in WT mice, characterized by early mortality and high alanine and aspartate transaminase levels, histopathological lesions and viral replication whereas infection of TLR2 KO mice was markedly less severe. MHV-A59 provoked a comparable mild and subclinical hepatitis in WT and TLR2 KO mice. MHV3-induced fulminant hepatitis in WT mice correlated with higher hepatic expression of interferon-?, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-?, CXCL1, CCL2, CXCL10 and alarmin (interleukin-33) than in MHV-A59-infected WT mice and in MHV3-infected TLR2 KO mice. Intrahepatic recruited neutrophils, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells or macrophages rapidly decreased in MHV3-infected WT mice whereas they were sustained in MHV-A59-infected WT mice and MHV3-infected TLR2 KO. MHV3 in vitro infection of macrophagic cells induced rapid and higher viral replication and/or interleukin-6 induction in comparison to MHV-A59, and depended on viral activation of TLR2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Taken together, these results support a new aggravating inflammatory role for TLR2 in MHV3-induced acute fulminant hepatitis.
Project description:The alarmin IL-33 has been described to be upregulated in human and murine viral hepatitis. However, the role of endogenous IL-33 in viral hepatitis remains obscure. We aimed to decipher its function by infecting IL-33-deficient mice (IL-33 KO) and their wild-type (WT) littermates with pathogenic mouse hepatitis virus (L2-MHV3). The IL-33 KO mice were more sensitive to L2-MHV3 infection exhibiting higher levels of AST/ALT, higher tissue damage, significant weight loss, and earlier death. An increased depletion of B and T lymphocytes, NKT cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages was observed 48?h postinfection (PI) in IL-33 KO mice than that in WT mice. In contrast, a massive influx of neutrophils was observed in IL-33 KO mice at 48?h PI. A transcriptomic study of inflammatory and cell-signaling genes revealed the overexpression of IL-6, TNF?, and several chemokines involved in recruitment/activation of neutrophils (CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL2, and CCL6) at 72?h PI in IL-33 KO mice. However, the IFN? was strongly induced in WT mice with less profound expression in IL-33 KO mice demonstrating that endogenous IL-33 regulated IFN? expression during L2-MHV3 hepatitis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that endogenous IL-33 had multifaceted immunoregulatory effect during viral hepatitis via induction of IFN?, survival effect on immune cells, and infiltration of neutrophils in the liver.
Project description:In rare cases, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH), characterized by massive hepatocyte necrosis and an inflammatory infiltrate. Other viral etiologies of FVH are rarer. FVH is life-threatening, but the patients are typically otherwise healthy, and normally resistant to other microbes. Only a small minority of infected individuals develop FVH, and this is the key issue to be addressed for this disease. In mice, mouse hepatitis virus 3 (MHV3) infection is the main model for dissecting FVH pathogenesis. Susceptibility to MHV3 differs between genetic backgrounds, with high and low mortality in C57BL6 and A/J mice, respectively. FVH pathogenesis in mice is related to uncontrolled inflammation and fibrinogen deposition. In humans, FVH is typically sporadic, but rare familial forms also exist, suggesting that there may be causal monogenic inborn errors. A recent study reported a single-gene inborn error of human immunity underlying FVH. A patient with autosomal recessive complete IL-18BP deficiency was shown to have FVH following HAV infection. The mechanism probably involves enhanced IL-18- and IFN-?-dependent killing of hepatocytes by NK and CD8 T cytotoxic cells. Proof-of-principle that FVH can be genetic is important clinically, for the affected patients and their families, and immunologically, for the study of immunity to viruses in the liver. Moreover, the FVH-causing IL18BP genotype suggests that excessive IL-18 immunity may be a general mechanism underlying FVH, perhaps through the enhancement of IFN-? immunity.
Project description:CD2-like receptor activating cytotoxic cells (CRACC) is known as a critical activating receptor of natural killer (NK) cells. We have previously reported that NK cells contribute to Poly I:C/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis. Since natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) is considered critical but not the only activating receptor for NK cells, we investigated the role of CRACC in this model. We found that CRACC was abundant on hepatic NK cells but with low expression levels on Kupffer cells under normal conditions. Expression of CRACC on NK cells and Kupffer cells was remarkably upregulated after poly I:C injection. Hepatic CRACC mRNA levels were also upregulated in Poly I:C/D-GalN-treated mice, and correlated positively with the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. CRACC expression on Kupffer cells was specifically silenced by nano-particle encapsulated siRNA in vivo, which significantly reduced Poly I:C/D-GalN-induced liver injury. In co-culture experiments, it was further verified that silencing CRACC expression or blockade of CRACC activation by mAb reduced the production of interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Collectively, our findings suggest that CRACC-CRACC interaction between NK cells and resident Kupffer cells contributes to Poly I:C/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatitis.
Project description:Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) critically regulate liver homeostasis and diseases through angiocrine factors. Notch is critical in endothelial cells (ECs). In the current study, Notch signaling was activated by inducible EC-specific expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NIC). We found that endothelial Notch activation damaged liver homeostasis. Notch activation resulted in decreased fenestration and increased basement membrane, and a gene expression profile with decreased LSEC-associated genes and increased continuous EC-associated genes, suggesting LSEC dedifferentiation. Consistently, endothelial Notch activation enhanced hepatic fibrosis (HF) induced by CCl4 . Notch activation attenuated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signaling, and activation of sGC by 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) reversed the dedifferentiation phenotype. In addition, Notch activation subverted the hepatocyte-supporting angiocrine profile of LSECs by down-regulating critical hepatocyte mitogens, including Wnt2a, Wnt9b, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This led to compromised hepatocyte proliferation under both quiescent and regenerating conditions. Whereas expression of Wnt2a and Wnt9b was dependent on eNOS-sGC signaling, HGF expression was not rescued by the sGC activator, suggesting heterogeneous mechanisms of LSECs to maintain hepatocyte homeostasis.Endothelial Notch activation results in LSEC dedifferentiation and accelerated liver fibrogenesis through eNOS-sGC signaling, and alters the angiocrine profile of LSECs to compromise hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration (LR). (Hepatology 2018).
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has a poor prognosis with high in-hospital mortality. Hepatic and circulating inflammatory cytokines, such as fibrinogen like protein 2 (fgl2), FasL/Fas, and TNF?/TNFR1, play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ACLF. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying constructed DNA code for non-native microRNA (miRNA) targeting mouse fgl2 (mfgl2) or both mFas and mTNFR1 on murine hepatitis virus (MHV)-3-induced fulminant hepatitis in BALB/cJ mice. Artificial miRNA eukaryotic expression plasmids against mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 were constructed, and their inhibitory effects on the target genes were confirmed in vitro. pcDNA6.2-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA?which expresses miRNA against both mFas and mTNFR1 simultaneously?was constructed. To construct a miRNA adenovirus expression vector against mfgl2, pcDNA6.2-mfgl2-miRNA was cloned using Gateway technology. Ad-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA was also constructed by the same procedure. Adenovirus vectors were delivered by tail-vein injection into MHV-3-infected BALB/cJ mice to evaluate the therapeutic effect. 8 of 18 (44.4%) mice recovered from fulminant viral hepatitis in the combined interference group treated with Ad-mfgl2-miRNA and Ad-mFas-mTNFR1-miRNA. But only 4 of 18 (22.2%) mice receiving Ad-mfgl2-miRNA and 3 of 18 (16.7%) mice receiving Ad-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA survived. These adenovirus vectors significantly ameliorated inflammatory infiltration, fibrin deposition, hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis, and prolonged survival time. Our data illustrated that combined interference using adenovirus-mediated artificial miRNAs targeting mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 might have significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of fulminant hepatitis.
Project description:The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is crucial for energy homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed that AMPK is involved in various energy-intensive pathological processes such as inflammation and apoptosis. The physiological functions of hepatic AMPK have been well studied, but the pathological significance of AMPK in liver disorders remains largely unknown. In the present study, the phosphorylation status and the roles of AMPK were investigated in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced fulminant hepatitis. The experimental data indicated that the phosphorylation of hepatic AMPK increased in mice with LPS/D-Gal-induced fulminant hepatitis. Pretreatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C enhanced the early production of pro-inflammatory cytokines but suppressed the late activation of the caspase cascade, reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells, decreased the elevation of aminotransferases, alleviated the histological abnormalities and improved the survival rate of LPS/D-Gal-insulted mice. Pretreatment with compound C suppressed LPS/D-Gal-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Inhibition of JNK alleviated LPS/D-Gal-induced liver injury, but the level of p53 remained unchanged in mice exposed to LPS/D-Gal. Post-insult treatment with the AMPK activator A-769662 further increased the phosphorylation levels of AMPK and JNK, enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis and deteriorated liver injury, all of these effects could be reversed by co-administration of the AMPK inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. Interestingly, post-insult treatment with the AMPK inhibitor also resulted in beneficial outcomes. These data suggested that AMPK might be a late detrimental factor in LPS/D-Gal-induced hepatitis via potentiating JNK-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis and AMPK might become a pharmacological target for the intervention of fulminant hepatitis.
Project description:Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) is a devastating and unexplained condition that strikes otherwise healthy individuals during primary infection with common liver-tropic viruses. We report a child who died of FVH upon infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) at age 11 yr and who was homozygous for a private 40-nucleotide deletion in IL18BP, which encodes the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). This mutation is loss-of-function, unlike the variants found in a homozygous state in public databases. We show that human IL-18 and IL-18BP are both secreted mostly by hepatocytes and macrophages in the liver. Moreover, in the absence of IL-18BP, excessive NK cell activation by IL-18 results in uncontrolled killing of human hepatocytes in vitro. Inherited human IL-18BP deficiency thus underlies fulminant HAV hepatitis by unleashing IL-18. These findings provide proof-of-principle that FVH can be caused by single-gene inborn errors that selectively disrupt liver-specific immunity. They also show that human IL-18 is toxic to the liver and that IL-18BP is its antidote.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Due to the high morbidity and mortality of fulminant hepatitis, early diagnosis followed by early effective treatment is the key for prognosis improvement. So far, little is known about the gene expression changes in the early stage of this serious illness. Identification of the genes related to the very early stage of fulminant hepatitis development may provide precise clues for early diagnosis. RESULTS: Balb/C mice were used for ConA injection to induce fulminant hepatitis that was confirmed by pathological and biochemical examination. After a gene chip-based screening, the data of gene expression in the liver, was further dissected by ANOVA analysis, gene expression profiles, gene network construction and real-time RT-PCR. At the very early stage of ConA-triggered fulminant hepatitis, totally 1,473 genes with different expression variations were identified. Among these, 26 genes were finally selected for further investigation. The data from gene network analysis demonstrate that two genes, MPDZ and Acsl1, localized in the core of the network. CONCLUSIONS: At the early stages of fulminant hepatitis, expression of twenty-six genes involved in protein transport, transcription regulation and cell metabolism altered significantly. These genes form a network and have shown strong correlation with fulminant hepatitis development. Our study provides several potential targets for the early diagnosis of fulminant hepatitis.