Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates: antibiotic susceptibility, molecular characteristics, and ability to form biofilm.
ABSTRACT: Periodic monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus characteristics in a locality is imperative as their drug-resistant variants cause treatment problem. In this study, antibiograms, prevalence of toxin genes (sea-see, seg-ser, seu, tsst-1, eta, etb, and etd), PFGE types, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, and ability to form biofilm of 92 S. aureus Thailand clinical isolates were investigated. They were classified into 10 drug groups: groups 1-7 (56 isolates) were methicillin resistant (MRSA) and 8-10 (36 isolates) were methicillin sensitive (MSSA). One isolate did not have any toxin gene, 4 isolates carried one toxin gene (seq), and 87 isolates had two or more toxin genes. No isolate had see, etb, or tsst-1; six isolates had eta or etd. Combined seg-sei-sem-sen-seo of the highly prevalent egc locus was 26.1%. The seb, sec, sel, seu, and eta associated significantly with MSSA; sek was more in MRSA. The sek-seq association was 52.17% while combined sed-sej was not found. Twenty-three PFGE types were revealed, no association of toxin genes with PFGE types. All four agr groups were present; agr group 1 was predominant (58.70%) but agr group 2 strains carried more toxin genes and were more frequent toxin producers. Biofilm formation was found in 72.83% of the isolates but there was no association with antibiograms. This study provides insight information on molecular and phenotypic markers of Thailand S. aureus clinical isolates which should be useful for future active surveillance that aimed to control a spread of existing antimicrobial resistant bacteria and early recognition of a newly emerged variant.
Project description:A total of 108 S. aureus isolates from 16 major hospitals located in 14 different provinces in China were characterized for the profiles of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes, 3 exfoliatin genes (eta, etb and etd), and the toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tsst) by PCR. The genomic diversity of each isolate was also evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing. Of these strains, 90.7% (98/108) harbored toxin genes, in which tsst was the most prevalent toxin gene (48.1%), followed by sea (44.4%), sek (42.6%) and seq (40.7%). The see and etb genes were not found in any of the isolates tested. Because of high-frequency transfer of toxin gene-containing mobile genetic elements between S. aureus strains, a total of 47 different toxin gene combinations were detected, including a complete egc cluster in 19 isolates, co-occurrence of sea, sek and seq in 38 strains, and sec and sel together in 11 strains. Genetic typing by PFGE grouped all the strains into 25 clusters based on 80% similarity. MLST revealed 25 sequence types (ST) which were assigned into 16 clonal complexes (CCs) including 2 new singletons. Among these, 11 new and 6 known STs were first reported in the S. aureus strains from China. Overall, the genotyping results showed high genetic diversity of the strains regardless of their geographical distributions, and no strong correlation between genetic background and toxin genotypes of the strains. For genotyping S. aureus, PFGE appears to be more discriminatory than MLST. However, toxin gene typing combined with PFGE or MLST could increase the discriminatory power of genotyping S. aureus strains.
Project description:The impact of bacterial genetic characteristics on the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections is uncertain. This investigation evaluated potential associations between bacterial genotype and clinical outcome using isolates collected as part of an international phase 2 clinical trial (FAST II) evaluating telavancin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Ninety S. aureus isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients with cSSSI enrolled in the FAST II trial from 11 sites in the United States (56 isolates, or 62%) and 7 sites in South Africa (34 isolates, or 38%) were examined for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, agr, and the presence of 31 virulence genes and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). South African methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were more likely to carry certain virulence genes, including sdrD (P = 0.01), sea (P < 0.01), and pvl (P = 0.01). All 44 (49%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were from the United States; 37 (84%) were strain USA 300 by PFGE. In the United States, MRSA isolates were more likely than MSSA isolates to carry genes for sdrC (P = 0.03), map/eap (P = 0.05), fnbB (P = 0.11), tst (P = 0.02), sea (P = 0.04), sed (P = 0.04), seg (P = 0.11), sej (P = 0.11), agr (P = 0.09), V8 (P = 0.06), sdrD, sdrE, eta, etb, and see (P < 0.01 for all). MRSA isolates were more often clonal than MSSA isolates by PFGE. Isolates from patients who were cured were significantly more likely to contain the pvl gene than isolates from patients that failed or had indeterminate outcomes (79/84 [94%] versus 3/6 [50%]; P = 0.01). S. aureus strains from different geographic regions have different distributions of virulence genes.
Project description:The emergence and prevalence of high-level mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MuH MRSA) is challenging the eradication of MRSA nasal carriage and the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. To understand the potentially pathogenetic capacity and the genetic basis of MuH MRSA, it is important to have a detailed knowledge of the molecular traits of this organism. Fifty three MuH MRSA isolates were gathered from Shanghai (28 isolates) and Wenzhou (25 isolates) in China. These isolates, consisting of 27 different PFGE-SCCmec-spa patterns, were examined by PCR for 35 virulence genes and further typed using agr (accessory gene regulator) typing and MLST (multilocus sequence typing). All 53 strains were positive for the genes hlg/hlg variant and icaD, and negative for seb, sed, see, seh, eta, etb, hld, cap-5, and ACME-arcA. Compared with Wenzhou isolates, Shanghai isolates were more likely to carry seg (P = 0.002) and several other genes which were not found in Wenzhou strains such as sec, sei, tst (P<0.001 each), and pvl (P = 0.012), and less likely to contain sea (P<0.001), cna (P = 0.031), and efb (P = 0.045). MLST and agr typing showed that ST239-agr1, ST5-agr1, and ST239-agr2 were the common lineages in MuH MRSA isolates from these two different regions. Our results indicated that MuH MRSA strains from two different geographic regions of China have differences in distribution of some virulence genes, while their major MLST-agr genetic backgrounds were accordant.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the subtypes and virulence profiles of 69 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from retail ready-to-eat food in China. The isolates were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of important virulence factor genes, including the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej), the exfoliative toxin genes (eta and etb), the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene (tst), and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin-encoding gene (pvl). The isolates encompassed 26 different sequence types (STs), including four new STs (ST3482, ST3484, ST3485, ST3504), clustered in three clonal complexes and 17 singletons. The most prevalent STs were ST1, ST6, and ST15, constituting 34.8% of all isolates. Most STs (15/26, 57.7%) detected have previously been associated with human infections. All 13 toxin genes examined were detected in the S. aureus isolates, with 84.1% of isolates containing toxin genes. The three most prevalent toxin genes were seb (36.2%), sea (33.3%), and seg (33.3%). The classical SE genes (sea-see), which contribute significantly to staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), were detected in 72.5% of the S. aureus isolates. In addition, pvl, eta, etb, and tst were found in 11.6, 10.1, 10.1, and 7.2% of the S. aureus isolates, respectively. Strains ST6 carrying sea and ST1 harboring sec-seh enterotoxin profile, which are the two most common clones associated with SFP, were also frequently detected in the food samples in this study. This study indicates that these S. aureus isolates present in Chinese ready-to-eat food represents a potential public health risk. These data are valuable for epidemiological studies, risk management, and public health strategies.
Project description:A set of 84 Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis in Asturias (a cattle region of Spain) and six control strains were tested for sequences of genes encoding hemolysins (hla, hlb, hld, hlg, and hlg-2), leukotoxins (lukPV, lukM, and lukED), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst), and enterotoxins (sea to see, seg to ser, and seu) by conventional and multiplex PCR. It was found that 84, 83, 11, and 39 isolates carried some type of hl, luk, tst, or se gene, respectively, which were arranged in 14 exotoxin genotypes. All of the isolates were negative for lukPV, hlg, sea, sed, see, sej, sek, sep, seq, and ser. Two gene groupings could be related with pathogenicity islands-[lukED, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo +/- seu] with Sabeta-1 and [tst, sec, sel] with SaPIbov, present in 45 and 13.1% of the isolates, respectively-while 11.9% of them carried both islands. Only one contained seb (together with upsilonSabeta-1), and another contained seh (together with lukED). The isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed with SmaI. Thirty-nine SmaI profiles (similarity coefficient [S] = 0.94 to 0.21) were differentiated; 12, 1, and 10 of these, respectively, were generated by isolates presumptively carrying Sabeta-1, SaPIbov, or both. Five SmaI profiles (S > or = 0.8) formed a cluster, which contained 20 and 10 isolates carrying one (upsilonSabeta-1) or both islands. These data show the high frequency of genes encoding cytotoxins and pyrogenic toxin superantigens, their relationship with pathogenicity islands, and their distribution among a diversity of genetic types of S. aureus related to subclinical mastitis.
Project description:Background:Staphylococcus aureus is a human colonizer with high potential for virulence, and the spread of the virulent strains from the colonized hosts to non-carriers in the community is on the increase. However, there are few reports on comprehensive analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes with clonal lineage in S. aureus in Africa. This is essential because of diversity of cultures and habits of the people. This study analyzed spa types and enterotoxin genes in S. aureus strains previously isolated from the human nostrils, poultry and clinical samples in Southern Nigeria. Methods:Forty-seven S. aureus isolates were obtained from humans nostrils (n = 13), clinical strains (n = 21) and poultry (n = 13) from previous studies in Southern Nigeria. The strains were analyzed for mecA gene, selected toxins genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser, seu) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (lukS-PV/lukF-PV) by PCR. Population structures of the strains were detected by Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Results:Twenty different spa types were obtained with the highest percentages, 17% observed in spa type t091 from clinical, nasal and poultry samples while t069 was the most prevalent spa type in poultry. Two MRSA were only detected in human strains. The poultry strains had the highest occurrence of SE genes (18%) followed by nasal strains (15%) and clinical strains (10%). Eighty-nine percent of all tested isolates harbored at least one SE gene; seo was the most prevalent (34%) followed by seg (30%) and sea (21%), while sec, see and sej were absent in all strains. Spa type t355 was associated with lukS-PV/lukF-PV gene and complete absence of all studied SE. Sea, seq, seb, sek were associated with spa type t069; sea was associated with t127 while sep was associated with spa type t091. There were coexistences of seo/seg and sei/seg. Conclusions:The higher carriage of staphylococci enterotoxin genes by the nasal and poultry S. aureus strains suggests a high potential of spread of staphylococcal food poisoning through poultry and healthy carriers in the community. This is the first report of high occurrence of staphylococcal enterotoxins genes in poultry from Nigeria.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from sites of intramammary infection during a 10-month period and from extramammary sites (dairy cow teat skin, teat canals, and skin lesions; milking liners; and hands and nostrils of milking personnel) at two separately managed Finnish dairy herd establishments were analyzed to study the sources and reservoirs of bovine S. aureus intramammary infection. Selected isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and PCR analysis for genes encoding hemolysins (hla to hlg), leukocidins (lukED and lukM), superantigens (sea, sec, sed, seg to seo, seu, and tst), adhesins (fnbA and fnbB), and penicillin and methicillin resistance (blaZ and mecA). S. aureus was found throughout the herds in 94% of the cows. Nine PFGE types were found, with the herds each having their own predominant type and sharing one type. The degree of diversity of PFGE types in herd II, which integrated foreign heifers, was higher than that in herd I. For both herds, the majority of the PFGE-typed isolates both from milk and from extramammary sites represented the predominant PFGE types. In isolates from herd I, the most prevalent genes were hla-hlg, lukED, and fnbA; in those from herd II, they were hla, hld, hlg, lukED, and fnbA. The other genes were pulsotype linked within the herds. The predominant PFGE types carried both fnbA and fnbB; only fnbA was detected in the other PFGE types. No connection between specific virulence genes and the origins of isolates was found. The results suggest that for the two herds, most S. aureus isolates from extramammary sites were indistinguishable from the isolates infecting the mammary gland and that those sites can thus act as origins and reservoirs of intramammary infections. However, contamination in the opposite direction cannot be excluded.
Project description:The two epidermolytic toxins were shown to have intrinsic N-t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid alpha-phenyl esterase activity. The activity was dependent on free toxin pKa values of 6.6 and 6.8 for ETA and ETB respectively. ETB incorporated 0.97 mol of radiolabelled di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate/mol of protein with loss of esterolytic and epidermolytic activities. The correspondence of epidermolytic and esterolytic activities in ETA and ETB during thermal inactivation and reaction with di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate, together with the inactivity of the mutant protein ETA S195G, demonstrates that the two activities are dependent on a single active serine residue in each protein.
Project description:We identified a novel pathogenicity island in Staphylococcus aureus which contains open reading frames (ORFs) similar to the exfoliative toxin (ET) gene, glutamyl endopeptidase gene, and edin-B gene in tandem and the phage resistance gene, flanked by hsdM, hsdS (restriction and modification system), and IS256. The protein encoded by the ET-like gene showed 40, 59, and 68% amino acid sequence identities with exfoliative toxin A (ETA), exfoliative toxin B (ETB), and Staphylococcus hyicus ETB (ShETB), respectively. When injected into neonatal mice, the recombinant protein derived from the ET-like gene induced exfoliation of the skin with loss of cell-to-cell adhesion in the upper part of the epidermis as observed in histological examinations, just as was found in neonatal mice injected with ETA or ETB. Western blot analysis indicated that the recombinant protein is serologically distinct from ETA and ETB. Therefore, the product encoded by this new ORF is a new ET member produced by S. aureus and is termed ETD. ETD did not induce blisters in 1-day-old chickens. In the skins of mice injected with ETD, cell surface staining of desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), a cadherin type cell-to-cell adhesion molecule in desmosomes, was abolished without affecting that of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Furthermore, in vitro incubation of the recombinant extracellular domains of Dsg1 and Dsg3 with the recombinant protein demonstrated that both mouse and human Dsg1, but not Dsg3, were directly cleaved in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that ETD and ETA induce blister formation by identical pathophysiological mechanisms. Clinical strains positive for edin-B were suggested to be clonally associated, and all edin-B-positive strains tested were positive for etd. Among 18 etd-positive strains, 12 produced ETD extracellularly. Interestingly, these strains are mainly isolated from other sources of infections and not from patients with bullous impetigo or staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome. This strongly suggests that ETD might play a pathogenic role in a broader spectrum of bacterial infections than previously considered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The bicomponent leukotoxins and the pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) are important virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. It is necessary to survey the prevalence and expression of these toxin-encoding genes for understanding the possible pathogenic capacity of S. aureus to cause disease. METHODS:Five leukotoxin genes and thirteen PTSAg determinants were detected for 177 S. aureus isolates from blood (n?=?88) and wound (n?=?89) infections by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The expression of leukotoxin ED (lukED) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The genetic backgrounds of isolates were analyzed by Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing (for methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates), Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), accessory gene regulator (agr) typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, for representative isolates based on PFGE type) methods. RESULTS:99.4% (176/177) isolates contained at least one of leukotoxin genes. Among them, 94.9% (168/177), 81.4% (144/177) and 67.8% (120/177) isolates harbored hlgBC, lukED and lukAB, respectively. Compared to leukotoxin genes, there was a relatively lower overall prevalence of PTSAg genes [99.4% versus 72.9% (129/177), P?<?0.001], and they were organized in 59 patterns, with the most common combination of the egc cluster with or without other PTSAg genes. Genetic analysis showed the distributions of certain toxin genes were associated with the genetic backgrounds of isolates. The egc cluster was a common feature of CC5 isolates, among which ST5 and ST764 isolates harbored more PTSAg genes. The lukED was not present in ST398 isolates, and its expression was quite different among isolates. No significant correlations were observed between the lukED expression levels of strains and the ST or agr types. CONCLUSIONS:The present study elucidated the distribution of leukotoxin and PTSAg genes and the expression of lukED in blood and wound isolates, and analyzed the relationship between them with genetic characteristics of isolates. These data improve the current understanding of the possible pathogenicity of S. aureus.