ABSTRACT: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can be either isolated or part of a larger syndrome. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a collection of autosomal-recessive disorders featuring AI associated with skin fragility and other symptoms. JEB is a recessive syndrome usually caused by mutations in both alleles of COL17A1, LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2. In rare cases, heterozygous carriers in JEB kindreds display enamel malformations in the absence of skin fragility (isolated AI). We recruited two kindreds with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) characterized by generalized severe enamel hypoplasia with deep linear grooves and pits. Whole-exome sequencing of both probands identified novel heterozygous mutations in the last exon of LAMB3 that likely truncated the protein. The mutations perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in both families. In Family 1, an 8-bp deletion (c.3446_3453del GACTGGAG) shifted the reading frame (p.Gly 1149Glufs*8). In Family 2, a single nucleotide substitution (c.C3431A) generated an in-frame translation termination codon (p.Ser1144*). We conclude that enamel formation is particularly sensitive to defects in hemidesmosome/basement-membrane complexes and that syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AI can be etiologically related.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16) in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11) in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X) in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.
Project description:The conventional approach to identifying the defective gene in a family with an inherited disease is to find the disease locus through family studies. However, the rapid development and decreasing cost of next generation sequencing facilitates a more direct approach. Here, we report the identification of a frameshift mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Whole-exome sequencing of three affected family members and subsequent filtering of shared variants, without prior genetic linkage, sufficed to identify the pathogenic variant. Simultaneous analysis of multiple family members confirms segregation, enhancing the power to filter the genetic variation found and leading to rapid identification of the pathogenic variant. LAMB3 encodes a subunit of Laminin-5, one of a family of basement membrane proteins with essential functions in cell growth, movement and adhesion. Homozygous LAMB3 mutations cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and enamel defects are seen in JEB cases. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of dominant AI due to a LAMB3 mutation in the absence of JEB.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal formation of dental enamel, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Heterozygous variants in laminin subunit beta 3 ( LAMB3) cause AI with dominant inheritance in the absence of other cosegregating clinical features. In contrast, biallelic loss-of-function variants in LAMB3 cause recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by life-threatening skin fragility. We identified 2 families segregating autosomal dominant AI with variable degrees of a distinctive hypoplastic phenotype due to pathogenic variants in LAMB3. Whole exome sequencing revealed a nonsense variant (c.3340G>T, p.E1114*) within the final exon in family 1, while Sanger sequencing in family 2 revealed a variant (c.3383-1G>A) in the canonical splice acceptor site of the final exon. Analysis of cDNA from family 2 revealed retention of the final intron leading to a premature termination codon. Two unerupted third molar teeth from individual IV:5 in family 2 were subject to computerized tomography and scanning electron microscopy. LAMB3 molar teeth have a multitude of cusps versus matched controls. LAMB3 enamel was well mineralized but pitted. The architecture of the initially secreted enamel was abnormal, with cervical enamel appearing much less severely affected than coronal enamel. This study further defines the variations in phenotype-genotype correlation for AI due to variants in LAMB3, underlines the clustering of nonsense and frameshift variants causing AI in the absence of junctional epidermolysis bullosa, and highlights the shared AI phenotype arising from variants in genes coding for hemidesmosome proteins.
Project description:Dental enamel forms through the concerted activities of specialized extracellular matrix proteins, including amelogenin, enamelin, MMP20, and KLK4. Defects in the genes encoding these proteins cause non-syndromic inherited enamel malformations collectively designated as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). These genes, however, account for only about a quarter of all AI cases. Recently we identified mutations in FAM83H that caused autosomal dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta (ADHCAI). Unlike other genes that cause AI, FAM83 H does not encode an extracellular matrix protein. Its location inside the cell is completely unknown, as is its function. We here report novel FAM83H mutations in four kindreds with ADHCAI. All are nonsense mutations in the last exon (c.1243G>T, p.E415X; c.891T>A, p.Y297X; c.1380G>A, p.W460X; and c.2029C>T, p.Q677X). These mutations delete between 503 and 883 amino acids from the C-terminus of a protein normally comprised of 1179 residues. The reason these mutations cause such extreme defects in the enamel layer without affecting other parts of the body is not known yet. However it seems evident that the large C-terminal part of the protein is essential for proper enamel calcification.
Project description:Tooth development is a complex process that involves precise and time-dependent orchestration of multiple genetic, molecular, and cellular interactions. Ameloblastin (AMBN, also named "amelin" or "sheathlin") is the second most abundant enamel matrix protein known to have a key role in amelogenesis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI [MIM: 104500]) refers to a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by inherited developmental enamel defects. The hereditary dentin disorders comprise a variety of autosomal-dominant genetic symptoms characterized by abnormal dentin structure affecting either the primary or both the primary and secondary teeth. The vital role of Ambn in amelogenesis has been confirmed experimentally using mouse models. Only two cases have been reported of mutations of AMBN associated with non-syndromic human AI. However, no AMBN missense mutations have been reported to be associated with both human AI and dentin disorders. We recruited one kindred with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta/dysplasia characterized by generalized severe enamel and dentin defects. Whole exome sequencing of the proband identified a novel heterozygous C-T point mutation at nucleotide position 1069 of the AMBN gene, causing a Pro to Ser mutation at the conserved amino acid position 357 of the protein. Exfoliated third molar teeth from the affected family members were found to have enamel and dentin of lower mineral density than control teeth, with thinner and easily fractured enamel, short and thick roots, and pulp obliteration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an AMBN missense mutation causes non-syndromic human AI and dentin disorders.
Project description:Non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collection of isolated inherited enamel malformations that follow X-linked, autosomal-dominant, or autosomal-recessive patterns of inheritance. The AI phenotype is also found in syndromes. We hypothesized that whole-exome sequencing of AI probands showing simplex or recessive patterns of inheritance would identify causative mutations among the known candidate genes for AI. DNA samples obtained from 12 unrelated probands with AI were analyzed. Disease-causing mutations were identified in three of the probands: a novel single-nucleotide deletion in both KLK4 alleles (g.6930delG; c.245delG; p.Gly82Alafs*87) that shifted the reading frame, a novel missense transition mutation in both MMP20 alleles (g.15390A>G; c.611A>G; p.His204Arg) that substituted arginine for an invariant histidine known to coordinate a structural zinc ion, and a previously described nonsense transition mutation in a single allele of FAM83H (c.1379G>A; g.5663G>A; p.W460*). Erupted molars and cross-sections from unerupted parts of the mandibular incisors of Mmp20 null mice were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Their enamel malformations closely correlated with the enamel defects displayed by the proband with the MMP20 mutation. We conclude that whole-exome sequencing is an effective means of identifying disease-causing mutations in kindreds with AI, and this technique should prove clinically useful for this purpose.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders affecting tooth enamel. The affected enamel can be hypoplastic and/or hypomineralized. In this study, we identified ACPT (testicular acid phosphatase) biallelic mutations causing non-syndromic, generalized hypoplastic autosomal-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in individuals from six apparently unrelated Turkish families. Families 1, 4, and 5 were affected by the homozygous ACPT mutation c.713C>T (p.Ser238Leu), family 2 by the homozygous ACPT mutation c.331C>T (p.Arg111Cys), family 3 by the homozygous ACPT mutation c.226C>T (p.Arg76Cys), and family 6 by the compound heterozygous ACPT mutations c.382G>C (p.Ala128Pro) and 397G>A (p.Glu133Lys). Analysis of the ACPT crystal structure suggests that these mutations damaged the activity of ACPT by altering the sizes and charges of key amino acid side chains, limiting accessibility of the catalytic core, and interfering with homodimerization. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed localization of ACPT in secretory-stage ameloblasts. The study results provide evidence for the crucial function of ACPT during amelogenesis.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) describes a heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects reflecting failure of normal amelogenesis. Ameloblastin (AMBN) is the second most abundant enamel matrix protein expressed during amelogenesis. The pivotal role of AMBN in amelogenesis has been confirmed experimentally using mouse models. However, no AMBN mutations have been associated with human AI. Using autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified genomic deletion of AMBN exon 6 in a second cousin consanguineous family with three of the six children having hypoplastic AI. The genomic deletion corresponds to an in-frame deletion of 79 amino acids, shortening the protein from 447 to 368 residues. Exfoliated primary teeth (unmatched to genotype) were available from family members. The most severely affected had thin, aprismatic enamel (similar to that reported in mice homozygous for Ambn lacking exons 5 and 6). Other teeth exhibited thicker but largely aprismatic enamel. One tooth had apparently normal enamel. It has been suggested that AMBN may function in bone development. No clinically obvious bone or other co-segregating health problems were identified in the family investigated. This study confirms for the first time that AMBN mutations cause non-syndromic human AI and that mouse models with disrupted Ambn function are valid.
Project description:Hereditary defects in tooth enamel formation, amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), can be non-syndromic or syndromic phenotype. Integrins are signaling proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix communication, and their involvement in tooth development is well known. The purposes of this study were to identify genetic cause of an AI family and molecular pathogenesis underlying defective enamel formation.We recruited a Turkish family with isolated AI and performed mutational analyses to clarify the underlying molecular genetic etiology.Autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous ITGB6 transversion mutation in exon 4 (c.517G>C, p.Gly173Arg). The glycine at this position in the middle of the βI-domain is conserved among a wide range of vertebrate orthologs and human paralogs. Clinically, the enamel was generally thin and pitted with pigmentation. Thicker enamel was noted at the cervical area of the molars.In this study, we identified a novel homozygous ITGB6 mutation causing isolated AI, and this advances the understanding of normal and pathologic enamel development.
Project description:In a highly inbred Australian Shepherd litter, three of the five puppies developed widespread ulcers of the skin, footpads, and oral mucosa within the first weeks of life. Histopathological examinations demonstrated clefting of the epidermis from the underlying dermis within or just below the basement membrane, which led to a tentative diagnosis of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) with autosomal recessive inheritance. Endoscopy in one affected dog also demonstrated separation between the epithelium and underlying tissue in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result of the severity of the clinical signs, all three dogs had to be euthanized. We sequenced the genome of one affected puppy and compared the data to 73 control genomes. A search for private variants in 37 known candidate genes for skin fragility phenotypes revealed a single protein-changing variant, LAMB3:c.1174T>C, or p.Cys392Arg. The variant was predicted to change a conserved cysteine in the laminin ?3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-322, which mediates the binding of the epidermal basement membrane to the underlying dermis. Loss-of-function variants in the human LAMB3 gene lead to recessive forms of JEB. We confirmed the expected co-segregation of the genotypes in the Australian Shepherd family. The mutant allele was homozygous in two genotyped cases and heterozygous in three non-affected close relatives. It was not found in 242 other controls from the Australian Shepherd breed, nor in more than 600 other controls. These data suggest that LAMB3:c.1174T>C represents the causative variant. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of a LAMB3-related JEB in domestic animals.