Ring-opening of the γ-OH-PdG adduct promotes error-free bypass by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4.
ABSTRACT: Acrolein, a mutagenic aldehyde, reacts with deoxyguanosine (dG) to form 3-(2'-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-hydroxypyrimido[1,2-a] purin-10(3H)-one (γ-OH-PdG). When placed opposite deoxycytosine (dC) in DNA, γ-OH-PdG undergoes ring-opening to the N(2)-(3-oxopropyl)-dG. Ring-opening of the adduct has been hypothesized to facilitate nonmutagenic bypass, particularly by DNA polymerases of the Y family. This study examined the bypass of γ-OH-PdG by Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4, the prototypic Y-family DNA polymerase, using templates that contained the adduct in either the 5'-CXG-3' or the 5'-TXG-3' sequence context. Although γ-OH-PdG partially blocked Dpo4-catalyzed DNA synthesis, full primer extension was observed, and the majority of bypass products were error-free. Conversion of the adduct into an irreversibly ring-opened derivative prior to reaction facilitated bypass and further improved the fidelity. Structures of ternary Dpo4·DNA·dNTP complexes were determined with primers that either were positioned immediately upstream of the lesion (preinsertion complexes) or had a 3'-terminal dC opposite the lesion (postinsertion complexes); the incoming nucleotides, either dGTP or dATP, were complementary to the template 5'-neighbor nucleotide. In both postinsertion complexes, the adduct existed as ring-opened species, and the resulting base-pair featured Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding. The incoming nucleotide paired with the 5'-neighbor template, while the primer 3'-hydroxyl was positioned to facilitate extension. In contrast, γ-OH-PdG was in the ring-closed form in both preinsertion complexes, and the overall structure did not favor catalysis. These data provide insights into γ-OH-PdG chemistry during replication bypass by the Dpo4 DNA polymerase and may explain why γ-OH-PdG-induced mutations due to primer-template misalignment are uncommon.
Project description:7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG), the predominant lesion formed following oxidative damage of DNA by reactive oxygen species, is processed differently by replicative and bypass polymerases. Our kinetic primer extension studies demonstrate that the bypass polymerase Dpo4 preferentially inserts C opposite oxoG, and also preferentially extends from the oxoG*C base pair, thus achieving error-free bypass of this lesion. We have determined the crystal structures of preinsertion binary, insertion ternary, and postinsertion binary complexes of oxoG-modified template-primer DNA and Dpo4. These structures provide insights into the translocation mechanics of the bypass polymerase during a complete cycle of nucleotide incorporation. Specifically, during noncovalent dCTP insertion opposite oxoG (or G), the little-finger domain-DNA phosphate contacts translocate by one nucleotide step, while the thumb domain-DNA phosphate contacts remain fixed. By contrast, during the nucleotidyl transfer reaction that covalently incorporates C opposite oxoG, the thumb-domain-phosphate contacts are translocated by one nucleotide step, while the little-finger contacts with phosphate groups remain fixed. These stepwise conformational transitions accompanying nucleoside triphosphate binding and covalent nucleobase incorporation during a full replication cycle of Dpo4-catalyzed bypass of the oxoG lesion are distinct from the translocation events in replicative polymerases.
Project description:1, N (2)-Propanodeoxyguanosine (PdG) is a stable structural analogue for the 3-(2'-deoxy-beta- d- erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3 H)-one (M 1dG) adduct derived from exposure of DNA to base propenals and to malondialdehyde. The structures of ternary polymerase-DNA-dNTP complexes for three template-primer DNA sequences were determined, with the Y-family Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), at resolutions between 2.4 and 2.7 A. Three template 18-mer-primer 13-mer sequences, 5'-d(TCACXAAATCCTTCCCCC)-3'.5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTT)-3' (template I), 5'-d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3'.5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' (template II), and 5'-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3'.5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' (template III), where X is PdG, were analyzed. With templates I and II, diffracting ternary complexes including dGTP were obtained. The dGTP did not pair with PdG, but instead with the 5'-neighboring template dC, utilizing Watson-Crick geometry. Replication bypass experiments with the template-primer 5'-TCACXAAATCCTTACGAGCATCGCCCCC-3'.5'-GGGGGCGATGCTCGTAAGGATTT-3', where X is PdG, which includes PdG in the 5'-CXA-3' template sequence as in template I, showed that the Dpo4 polymerase inserted dGTP and dATP when challenged by the PdG adduct. For template III, in which the template sequence was 5'-TXG-3', a diffracting ternary complex including dATP was obtained. The dATP did not pair with PdG, but instead with the 5'-neighboring T, utilizing Watson-Crick geometry. Thus, all three ternary complexes were of the "type II" structure described for ternary complexes with native DNA [Ling, H., Boudsocq, F., Woodgate, R., and Yang, W. (2001) Cell 107, 91-102]. The PdG adduct remained in the anti conformation about the glycosyl bond in each of these threee ternary complexes. These results provide insight into how -1 frameshift mutations might be generated for the PdG adduct, a structural model for the exocylic M 1dG adduct formed by malondialdehyde.
Project description:The crotonaldehyde- and acetaldehyde-derived R- and S-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts were monitored in single-stranded and duplex oligodeoxynucleotides using NMR spectroscopy. In both instances, the cis and trans diastereomers of the alpha-CH3 and gamma-OH groups underwent slow exchange, with the trans diastereomers being favored. In single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides, the aldehyde intermediates were not detected spectroscopically, but their presence was revealed through the formation of N-terminal conjugates with the tetrapeptide KWKK. When annealed into 5'-d(GCTAGCXAGTCC)-3'.5'-d(GGACTCYCTAGC)-3' containing the 5'-CpG-3' sequence context (X = R- or S-alpha-CH3-gamma-13C-OH-PdG; Y = 15N2-dG) at pH 7, partial opening of the R- or S-alpha-CH3-gamma-13C-OH-PdG adducts to the corresponding N2-(3-oxo-1-methyl-propyl)-dG aldehydes was observed at temperatures below the T(m) of the duplexes. These aldehydes equilibrated with their geminal diol hydrates; higher temperatures favored the aldehydes. When annealed opposite T, the S-alpha-CH3-gamma-13C-OH-PdG adduct was stable. At 37 degrees C, an interstrand DNA cross-link was observed spectroscopically only for the R-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-PdG adduct. Molecular modeling predicted that the interstrand cross-link formed by the R-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-PdG adduct introduced less disruption into the duplex structure than did the cross-link arising from the S-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-PdG adduct, due to differing orientations of the R- and S-CH3 groups. Modeling also predicted that the alpha-methyl group of the aldehyde arising from the R-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-PdG adduct is oriented in the 3'-direction in the minor groove, facilitating cross-linking. In contrast, the alpha-methyl group of the aldehyde arising from the S-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-PdG adduct is oriented in the 5'-direction within the minor groove, potentially hindering cross-linking. NMR revealed that for the R-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-PdG adduct, the carbinolamine form of the cross-link was favored in duplex DNA with the imine (Schiff base) form of the cross-link remaining below the level of spectroscopic detection. Molecular modeling predicted that the carbinolamine linkage maintained Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding at both of the tandem C.G base pairs. Dehydration of the carbinolamine cross-link to an imine, or cyclization of the latter to form a pyrimidopurinone cross-link, required disruption of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding at one or both of the cross-linked base pairs.
Project description:Acrolein is a cell metabolic product and a main component of cigarette smoke. Its reaction with DNA produces two guanine lesions gamma-OH-PdG, a major adduct that is nonmutagenic in mammalian cells, and the positional isomer alpha-OH-PdG. We describe here the solution structure of a short DNA duplex containing a single alpha-OH-PdG lesion, as determined by solution NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics simulations. The spectroscopic data show a mostly regular right-handed helix, locally perturbed at its center by the presence of the lesion. All undamaged residues of the duplex are in anti orientation, forming standard Watson-Crick base-pair alignments. Duplication of proton signals near the damaged site differentiates two enantiomeric duplexes, thus establishing the exocyclic nature of the lesion. At the lesion site, alpha-OH-PdG rotates to a syn conformation, pairing to its counter cytosine residue that is protonated at pH 5.9. Three-dimensional models produced by restrained molecular dynamics simulations show different hydrogen-bonding patterns between the lesion and its cytosine partner and identify further stabilization of alpha-OH-PdG in a syn conformation by intra-residue hydrogen bonds. We compare the alpha-OH-PdG.dC duplex structure with that of duplexes containing the analogous lesion propano-dG and discuss the implications of our findings for the mutagenic bypass of acrolein lesions.
Project description:Intravaginal estradiols (VE) have been proposed as safe alternatives to systemic estrogen therapy in breast cancer survivors.Postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer or at high risk for breast cancer (n = 24) who were taking an aromatase inhibitor (AI) or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and VE for ? 90 days for atrophic vaginitis and 24 controls taking AI only participated in the study. Serum samples were drawn from VE ring patients before insertion and 30 and 60 days postinsertion, from VE tablet patients the morning before insertion and approximately 12 hours postinsertion, and once from controls. Samples were assayed for E2 concentrations by using highly sensitive radioimmunoassay after ether extraction.Mean E2 levels in controls were 3.72 pmol/L (range, < 3.0-7.7 pmol/L); mean E2 levels preinsertion and 12 weeks postinsertion in the VE ring patients were significantly greater than controls (P < .001 for each comparison). Mean preinsertion E2 levels in patients using VE tablets were not significantly different than those of controls (P = .48), and postinsertion levels were 76 pmol/L higher than preinsertion (P < .001).VE treatment increased E2 levels. Preinsertion levels for patients receiving VE tablets were not elevated compared with those of controls, suggesting that E2 elevations with this preparation may not be continuously sustained. We conclude that VE treatment, regardless of type, results in elevated circulating E2 levels in this population and should be used with caution.
Project description:The interstrand N2,N2-dG DNA cross-linking chemistry of the acrolein-derived gamma-OH-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine (gamma-OH-PdG) adduct in the 5'-CpG-3' sequence was monitored within a dodecamer duplex by NMR spectroscopy, in situ, using a series of site-specific 13C- and 15N-edited experiments. At equilibrium 40% of the DNA was cross-linked, with the carbinolamine form of the cross-link predominating. The cross-link existed in equilibrium with the non-crosslinked N2-(3-oxo-propyl)-dG aldehyde and its geminal diol hydrate. The ratio of aldehyde/diol increased at higher temperatures. The 1,N2-dG cyclic adduct was not detected. Molecular modeling suggested that the carbinolamine linkage should be capable of maintaining Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding at both of the tandem C x G base pairs. In contrast, dehydration of the carbinolamine cross-link to an imine (Schiff base) cross-link, or cyclization of the latter to form a pyrimidopurinone cross-link, was predicted to require disruption of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding at one or both of the tandem cross-linked C x G base pairs. When the gamma-OH-PdG adduct contained within the 5'-CpG-3' sequence was instead annealed into duplex DNA opposite T, a mixture of the 1,N2-dG cyclic adduct, the aldehyde, and the diol, but no cross-link, was observed. With this mismatched duplex, reaction with the tetrapeptide KWKK formed DNA-peptide cross-links efficiently. When annealed opposite dA, gamma-OH-PdG remained as the 1,N2-dG cyclic adduct although transient epimerization was detected by trapping with the peptide KWKK. The results provide a rationale for the stability of interstrand cross-links formed by acrolein and perhaps other alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. These sequence-specific carbinolamine cross-links are anticipated to interfere with DNA replication and contribute to acrolein-mediated genotoxicity.
Project description:N(6)-(2-Deoxy-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine (MeFapy-dG) arises from N7-methylation of deoxyguanosine followed by imidazole ring opening. The lesion has been reported to persist in animal tissues. Previous in vitro replication bypass investigations of the MeFapy-dG adduct revealed predominant insertion of C opposite the lesion, dependent on the identity of the DNA polymerase (Pol) and the local sequence context. Here we report crystal structures of ternary Pol·DNA·dNTP complexes between MeFapy-dG-adducted DNA template:primer duplexes and the Y-family polymerases human Pol ? and P2 Pol IV (Dpo4) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. The structures of the hPol ? and Dpo4 complexes at the insertion and extension stages, respectively, are representative of error-free replication, with MeFapy-dG in the anti conformation and forming Watson-Crick pairs with dCTP or dC.
Project description:Acrolein, a cell metabolic product and main component of cigarette smoke, reacts with DNA generating alpha-OH-PdG lesions, which have the ability to pair with dATP during replication thereby causing G to T transversions. We describe the solution structure of an 11-mer DNA duplex containing the mutagenic alpha-OH-PdG.dA base pair intermediate, as determined by solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and retrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The NMR data support a mostly regular right-handed helix that is only perturbed at its center by the presence of the lesion. Undamaged residues of the duplex are in anti orientation, forming standard Watson-Crick base pairs alignments. Duplication of proton signals at and near the damaged base pair reveals the presence of two enantiomeric duplexes, thus establishing the exocyclic nature of the lesion. The alpha-OH-PdG adduct assumes a syn conformation pairing to its partner dA base that is protonated at pH 6.6. The three-dimensional structure obtained by restrained molecular dynamics simulations show hydrogen bond interactions that stabilize alpha-OH-PdG in a syn conformation and across the lesion containing base pair. We discuss the implications of the structures for the mutagenic bypass of acrolein lesions.
Project description:Oxidative stress can induce the formation of reactive electrophiles, such as DNA peroxidation products, e.g., base propenals, and lipid peroxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde. Base propenals and malondialdehyde react with DNA to form adducts, including 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG). When paired opposite cytosine in duplex DNA at physiological pH, M1dG undergoes ring opening to form N2-(3-oxo-1-propenyl)-dG (N2-OPdG). Previous work has shown that M1dG is mutagenic in bacteria and mammalian cells and that its mutagenicity in Escherichia coli is dependent on induction of the SOS response, indicating a role for translesion DNA polymerases in the bypass of M1dG. To probe the mechanism by which translesion polymerases bypass M1dG, kinetic and structural studies were conducted with a model Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus. The level of steady-state incorporation of dNTPs opposite M1dG was reduced 260-2900-fold and exhibited a preference for dATP incorporation. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the full-length extension products revealed a spectrum of products arising principally by incorporation of dC or dA opposite M1dG followed by partial or full-length extension. A greater proportion of -1 deletions were observed when dT was positioned 5' of M1dG. Two crystal structures were determined, including a "type II" frameshift deletion complex and another complex with Dpo4 bound to a dC.M1dG pair located in the postinsertion context. Importantly, M1dG was in the ring-closed state in both structures, and in the structure with dC opposite M1dG, the dC residue moved out of the Dpo4 active site, into the minor groove. The results are consistent with the reported mutagenicity of M1dG and illustrate how the lesion may affect replication events.
Project description:Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts commonly cause replicative polymerases to stall, leading to a switch to bypass polymerases. We have investigated nucleotide incorporation opposite the major adduct of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the DinB family polymerase, Dpo4, using molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. PhIP, the most prevalent heterocyclic aromatic amine formed by cooking of proteinaceous food, is mutagenic in mammalian cells and is implicated in mammary and colon tumors. Our results show that the dG-C8-PhIP adduct can be accommodated in the spacious major groove Dpo4 open pocket, with Dpo4 capable of incorporating dCTP, dTTP or dATP opposite the adduct reasonably well. However, the PhIP ring system on the minor groove side would seriously disturb the active site, regardless of the presence and identity of dNTP. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that dATP and dTTP are better incorporated in the damaged system than in their respective mismatched but unmodified controls, suggesting that the PhIP adduct enhances incorporation of these mismatches. Finally, bulky C8-dG adducts, situated in the major groove, are likely to impede translocation in this polymerase (Rechkoblit et al. (2006), PLoS Biol., 4, e11). However, N2-dG adducts, which can reside on the minor groove side, appear to cause less hindrance when in this position.