Celebrities and screening: a measurable impact on high-grade cervical neoplasia diagnosis from the 'Jade Goody effect' in the UK.
ABSTRACT: The celebrity Jade Goody's cervical cancer diagnosis was associated with increased UK cervical screening attendance. We wanted to establish if there was an increase in high-grade (HG) cervical neoplasia diagnoses, and if so, what the characteristics of the women with HG disease were.We analysed prospective data on 3233 consecutive colposcopy referrals in North East London, UK, from 01 April 2005 to 30 June 2010. Characteristics and outcomes of pre- and post-Goody cohorts were compared.Goody's diagnosis was associated with an increased incidence of colposcopy referrals in all subsequent annual quarters (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3-1.9, P<0.002-P<0.0005) and increased HG disease diagnoses in the fourth quarter 2008/2009 (IRR 1.3, P=0.05) and first quarter 2009/2010 (IRR 1.3, P=0.07). We observed 1.90-fold (CI: 1.06-3.39), 2.06 (CI: 1.13-3.76) and 2.13-fold (CI: 1.07-4.25) respective increases in the odds of HG disease women being screening-naive in the first and second quarter 2009/2010, and the first quarter 2010/2011 (P<0.04, P<0.02 and P<0.04, respectively). There was a 2.23-fold increase in the odds of screening-naive HG disease women being symptomatic post-Goody's diagnosis (P=0.023). The age distributions of the pre- and post-Goody cohorts did not differ in any study group.Continued publicity about celebrities' diagnoses might encourage screening in at-risk populations.
Project description:Little is known about the effect of evolving risk-based cervical cancer screening and management guidelines on United States (US) clinical practice and patient outcomes. We describe the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR I) consortium, methods and baseline findings from its cervical sites: Kaiser Permanente Washington, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Parkland Health & Hospital System/University of Texas Southwestern (Parkland-UTSW) and New Mexico HPV Pap Registry housed by University of New Mexico (UNM-NMHPVPR). Across these diverse healthcare settings, we collected data on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations, screening tests/results, diagnostic and treatment procedures/results and cancer diagnoses on nearly 4.7 million women aged 18-89 years from 2010 to 2014. We calculated baseline (2012 for UNM-NMHPVPR; 2010 for other sites) frequencies for sociodemographics, cervical cancer risk factors and key screening process measures for each site's cohort. Healthcare delivery settings, cervical cancer screening strategy, race/ethnicity and insurance status varied among sites. The proportion of women receiving a Pap test during the baseline year was similar across sites (26.1-36.1%). Most high-risk HPV tests were performed either reflexively or as cotests, and utilization pattern varied by site. Prevalence of colposcopy or biopsy was higher at Parkland-UTSW (3.6%) than other sites (1.3-1.4%). Incident cervical cancer was rare. HPV vaccination among age-eligible women not already immunized was modest across sites (0.1-7.2%). Cervical PROSPR I makes available high-quality, multilevel, longitudinal screening process data from a large and diverse cohort of women to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of US cervical cancer screening delivery.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the demand for colposcopy in the Cervical Screening Wales programme after the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening, which coincided with the start of screening of women vaccinated against HPV types 16/18.<h4>Design</h4>The study used a computational model that assigns screening and screening-related colposcopy events to birth cohorts in individual calendar years.<h4>Setting</h4>Cervical Screening Wales.<h4>Population</h4>Women aged 25-64 years from birth cohorts 1953-2007.<h4>Methods and main outcome measures</h4>We estimated the numbers of colposcopies and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN2+) within Cervical Screening Wales in 2018-32, using official population projections for Wales and published estimates of the effects of HPV screening and vaccination.<h4>Results</h4>Vaccination will reduce the number of colposcopies by 10% within the first 3-4 years after the national roll-out of HPV screening, and by about 20% thereafter. The number of screening colposcopies is estimated to increase from 6100 in 2018 and peak at 8000 (+31%) in 2021, assuming current screening intervals are maintained. The numbers of CIN2+ lesions follow similar patterns, stabilising at around 1000 diagnoses per year by 2026, approximately 60% lower than at present. Extending the screening intervals to 5 years for all women shows similar trends but introduces peaks and troughs over the years.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vaccination will not fully prevent an increase in colposcopies and detected CIN2+ lesions during the first 2-3 years of HPV-based screening but the numbers are expected to decrease substantially after 5-6 years.<h4>Tweetable abstract</h4>HPV-based cervical screening will initially increase colposcopy referral. In 6 years, this increase will be reversed, partly by HPV vaccination.
Project description:Background:Colposcopy is a key part of cervical cancer control. As cervical cancer screening and prevention strategies evolve, monitoring colposcopy performance will become even more critical. In the present paper, we describe population-based colposcopy quality indicators that are recommended for ongoing measurement by cervical cancer screening programs in Canada. Methods:The Pan-Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Network established a multidisciplinary expert working group to identify population-based colposcopy quality indicators. A systematic literature review was conducted to ascertain existing population and program-level colposcopy quality indicators. A systems-level cervical cancer screening pathway describing each step from an abnormal screening test, to colposcopy, and back to screening was developed. Indicators from the literature were assigned a place on the pathway to ensure that all steps were measured. A prioritization matrix scoring system was used to score each indicator based on predetermined criteria. Proposed colposcopy quality indicators were shared with provincial and territorial screening programs and subsequently revised. Results:The 10 population-based colposcopy quality indicators identified as priorities were colposcopy uptake, histologic investigation (biopsy) rate, colposcopy referral rate, failure to attend colposcopy, treatment frequency in women 18-24 years of age, re-treatment proportion, colposcopy exit-test proportion, histologic investigation (biopsy) frequency after low-grade Pap test results, length of colposcopy episode of care, and operating room treatment rate. Two descriptive indicators were also identified: colposcopist volume and number of colposcopists per capita. Summary:High-quality colposcopy services are an essential component of provincial cervical cancer screening programs. The proposed quality and descriptive indicators will permit colposcopy outcomes to be compared between provinces and across Canada so as to identify opportunities for improving colposcopy services.
Project description:To quantify the benefits (cancer prevention and down-staging) and harms (recall and excess treatment) of cervical screening starting from age 20 years rather than from age 25 years.We use routine screening and cancer incidence statistics from Wales (for screening from age 20 years) and England (screening from 25 years), and unpublished data from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancer to estimate the number of: screening tests, women with abnormal results, referrals to colposcopy, women treated, and diagnoses of micro-invasive (stage 1A) and frank-invasive (stage IB+) cervical cancers (under three different scenarios) in women invited for screening from age 20 years and from 25 years.Inviting 100,000 women from age 20 years yields an additional: 119,000 screens, 20,000 non-negative results, 8000 colposcopy referrals, and an extra 3000 women treated when compared with inviting from age 25 years. Screening from age 20 years prevents between three and nine frank invasive cancers and between 0 and 23 cancers in total (depending on the scenario). A cumulative increase of nine stage IB+ cancers corresponds to an annual rate increase of 0.9 per 100,000 women aged 20-29 years.To prevent one frank invasive cancer, one would need to do between 12,500 and 40,000 additional screening tests in the age group 20-24 years and treat between 300 and 900 women.
Project description:We conducted a prospective evaluation of the diagnostic performance of high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with abnormal screening tests. Study participants underwent colposcopy, HRME and cervical biopsy. The prospective diagnostic performance of HRME using an automated morphologic image analysis algorithm was compared to that of colposcopy using histopathologic detection of CIN as the gold standard. To assess the potential to further improve performance of HRME image analysis, we also conducted a retrospective analysis assessing performance of a multi-task convolutional neural network to segment and classify HRME images. One thousand four hundred eighty-six subjects completed the study; 435 (29%) subjects had CIN Grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+) diagnosis. HRME with morphologic image analysis for detection of CIN Grade 3 or more severe diagnoses (CIN3+) was similarly sensitive (95.6% vs 96.2%, P = .81) and specific (56.6% vs 58.7%, P = .18) as colposcopy. HRME with morphologic image analysis for detection of CIN2+ was slightly less sensitive (91.7% vs 95.6%, P < .01) and specific (59.7% vs 63.4%, P = .02) than colposcopy. Images from 870 subjects were used to train a multi-task convolutional neural network-based algorithm and images from the remaining 616 were used to validate its performance. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity and specificity of HRME with neural network analysis vs colposcopy for detection of CIN2+ or CIN3+. Using a neural network-based algorithm, HRME has comparable sensitivity and specificity to colposcopy for detection of CIN2+. HRME could provide a low-cost, point-of-care alternative to colposcopy and biopsy in the prevention of cervical cancer.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To describe the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cervical screening, colposcopy and treatment volumes in Ontario, Canada.<h4>Design</h4>Population-based retrospective observational study.<h4>Setting</h4>Ontario, Canada.<h4>Population</h4>People with a cervix age of 21-69 years who completed at least one cervical screening cytology test, colposcopy or treatment procedure for cervical dysplasia between January 2019 and August 2020.<h4>Methods</h4>Administrative databases were used to compare cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment procedure volumes before (historical comparator) and during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-August 2020).<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Changes in cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment volumes; individuals with high-grade cytology awaiting colposcopy.<h4>Results</h4>During the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the monthly average number of cervical screening cytology tests, colposcopies and treatments decreased by 63.8% (range: -92.3 to -41.0%), 39.7% (range: -75.1 to -14.3%) and 31.1% (range: -43.5 to -23.6%), respectively, when compared with the corresponding months in 2019. Between March and August 2020, on average 292 (-51.0%) fewer high-grade cytological abnormalities were detected through screening each month. As of August 2020, 1159 (29.2%) individuals with high-grade screening cytology were awaiting follow-up colposcopy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on key cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario. As the pandemic continues, ongoing monitoring of service utilisation to inform system response and recovery is required. Future efforts to understand the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions on cervical cancer outcomes will be needed.<h4>Tweetable abstract</h4>COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario, Canada.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sensitivity for detection of precancers at colposcopy and reassurance provided by a negative colposcopy are in need of systematic study and improvement.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to evaluate whether selecting the appropriate women for multiple targeted cervical biopsies based on screening cytology, human papillomavirus testing, and colposcopic impression could improve accuracy and efficiency of cervical precancer detection.<h4>Study design</h4>In all, 690 women aged 18-67 years referred to colposcopy subsequent to abnormal cervical cancer screening results were included in the study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00339989). Up to 4 cervical biopsies were taken during colposcopy to evaluate the incremental benefit of multiple biopsies. Cervical cytology, human papillomavirus genotyping, and colposcopy impression were used to establish up to 24 different risk strata. Outcomes for the primary analysis were cervical precancers, which included p16<sup>+</sup> cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and all cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 that were detected by colposcopy-guided biopsy during the colposcopy visit. Later outcomes in women without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2<sup>+</sup> at baseline were abstracted from electronic medical records.<h4>Results</h4>The risk of detecting precancer ranged from 2-82% across 24 strata based on colposcopy impression, cytology, and human papillomavirus genotyping. The risk of precancer in the lowest stratum increased only marginally with multiple biopsies. Women in the highest-risk strata had risks of precancer consistent with immediate treatment. In other risk strata, multiple biopsies substantially improved detection of cervical precancer. Among 361 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia <2 at baseline, 195 (54%) had follow-up cytology or histology data with a median follow-up time of 508 days. Lack of detection of precancer at initial colposcopy that included multiple biopsies predicted low risk of precancer during follow-up.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Risk assessment at the colposcopy visit makes identification of cervical precancers more effective and efficient. Not finding precancer after a multiple-biopsy protocol provides high reassurance and allows releasing women back to regular screening.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The World Health Organization (WHO) called for global action towards the elimination of cervical cancer. One of the main strategies is to screen 70% of women at the age between 35 and 45?years and 90% of women managed appropriately by 2030. So far, approximately 85% of cervical cancers occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The colposcopy-guided biopsy is crucial for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and becomes the main bottleneck limiting screening performance. Unprecedented advances in artificial intelligence (AI) enable the synergy of deep learning and digital colposcopy, which offers opportunities for automatic image-based diagnosis. To this end, we discuss the main challenges of traditional colposcopy and the solutions applying AI-guided digital colposcopy as an auxiliary diagnostic tool in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). MAIN BODY:Existing challenges for the application of colposcopy in LMICs include strong dependence on the subjective experience of operators, substantial inter- and intra-operator variabilities, shortage of experienced colposcopists, consummate colposcopy training courses, and uniform diagnostic standard and strict quality control that are hard to be followed by colposcopists with limited diagnostic ability, resulting in discrepant reporting and documentation of colposcopy impressions. Organized colposcopy training courses should be viewed as an effective way to enhance the diagnostic ability of colposcopists, but implementing these courses in practice may not always be feasible to improve the overall diagnostic performance in a short period of time. Fortunately, AI has the potential to address colposcopic bottleneck, which could assist colposcopists in colposcopy imaging judgment, detection of underlying CINs, and guidance of biopsy sites. The automated workflow of colposcopy examination could create a novel cervical cancer screening model, reduce potentially false negatives and false positives, and improve the accuracy of colposcopy diagnosis and cervical biopsy. CONCLUSION:We believe that a practical and accurate AI-guided digital colposcopy has the potential to strengthen the diagnostic ability in guiding cervical biopsy, thereby improves cervical cancer screening performance in LMICs and accelerates the process of global cervical cancer elimination eventually.
Project description:Forthcoming cervical cancer screening strategies involving human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women not vaccinated against HPV infections may increase colposcopy referral rates. We quantified health and resource trade-offs associated with alternative HPV-based algorithms to inform decision-makers when choosing between candidate algorithms.We used a mathematical simulation model of HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis in Norway. We compared the current cytology-based strategy to alternative strategies that varied by the switching age to primary HPV testing (ages 25-34 years), the routine screening frequency (every 3-10 years), and management of HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. Model outcomes included reductions in lifetime cervical cancer risk, relative colposcopy rates, and colposcopy rates per cervical cancer prevented.The age of switching to primary HPV testing and the screening frequency had the largest impacts on cancer risk reductions, which ranged from 90.9% to 96.3% compared to no screening. In contrast, increasing the follow-up intensity of HPV-positive, cytology-negative women provided only minor improvements in cancer benefits, but generally required considerably higher rates of colposcopy referrals compared to current levels, resulting in less efficient cervical cancer prevention.We found that in order to maximise cancer benefits HPV-based screening among unvaccinated women should not be delayed: rather, policy makers should utilise the triage mechanism to control colposcopy referrals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A considerable proportion of cervical cancer diagnoses in high-income countries are due to lack of timely follow-up of an abnormal screening result. We estimated colposcopy non-attendance, examined the potential factors associated and described non-attendance reasons in a population-based screening study.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from the MARZY prospective cohort study were analysed. Co-test screen-positive women (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse [ASC-US+] or high-risk human papillomavirus [hrHPV] positive) aged 30 to 65 years were referred to colposcopy within two screening rounds (3-year interval). Women were surveyed for sociodemographic, HPV-related and other data, and interviewed for non-attendance reasons. Logistic regression was used to examine potential associations with colposcopy attendance.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, 2,627 women were screened (screen-positive = 8.7%), and 2,093 again at follow-up (screen-positive = 5.1%; median 2.7 years later). All screen-positives were referred to colposcopy, however 28.9% did not attend despite active recall. Among co-test positives (ASC-US+ and hrHPV) and only hrHPV positives, 19.6% were non-attendees. Half of only ASC-US+ screenees attended colposcopy. Middle age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.55, 95% CI 1.02, 4.96) and hrHPV positive result (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.49, 7.22) were associated with attendance. Non-attendance was associated with having ≥ 3 children (aOR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.10, 0.86). Major reasons for non-attendance were lack of time, barriers such as travel time, need for childcare arrangements and the advice against colposcopy given by the gynaecologist who conducted screening.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Follow-up rates of abnormal screening results needs improvement. A systematic recall system integrating enhanced communication and addressing follow-up barriers may improve screening effectiveness.