Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.
ABSTRACT: Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR) system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.
Project description:Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) are predictive biomarkers for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Still, the relationship between the underlying cause(s) of MSI and TMB in tumors remains poorly defined. We investigated associations of TMB to mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression patterns by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MMR mutations in a diverse sample of tumors. Hypothesized differences were identified by the protein/gene affected/mutated and the tumor histology/primary site. Overall, 1057 MSI-H tumors were identified from the 32?932 tested. MSI was examined by NGS using 7000+ target microsatellite loci. TMB was calculated using only nonsynonymous missense mutations sequenced with a 592-gene panel; a subset of MSI-H tumors also had MMR IHC performed. Analyses examined TMB by MMR protein heterodimer impacted (loss of MLH1/PMS2 vs. MSH2/MSH6 expression) and gene-specific mutations. The sample was 54.6% female; mean age was 63.5?years. Among IHC tested tumors, loss of co-expression of MLH1/PMS2 was more common (n = 544/705, 77.2%) than loss of MSH2/MSH6 (n = 81/705, 11.5%; P <?.0001), and was associated with lower mean TMB (MLH1/PMS2: 25.03 mut/Mb vs MSH2/MSH6 46.83 mut/Mb; P <?.0001). TMB also varied by tumor histology: colorectal cancers demonstrating MLH1/PMS2 loss had higher TMBs (33.14 mut/Mb) than endometrial cancers (20.60 mut/Mb) and other tumors (25.59 mut/Mb; P <?.0001). MMR gene mutations were detected in 42.0% of tumors; among these, MSH6 mutations were most common (25.7%). MSH6 mutation patterns showed variability by tumor histology and TMB. TMB varies by underlying cause(s) of MSI and tumor histology; this heterogeneity may contribute to differences in response to ICI.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is uncommon in individuals <50 years old. Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with early-onset CRC, but little is known about the proportion of young patients with apparently sporadic CRC who actually have Lynch syndrome. We examined patterns of microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR genes among patients <50 years old with non-familial CRC (patients with not more than 1 family member with CRC).Tissue specimens were collected from 75 CRC patients <50 years old (mean age, 34.5 years) and analyzed using immunohistochemical analyses of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. MSI and mutations in BRAF and KRAS were also analyzed.Most cancers (72%) arose in the distal colon. MSI was detected in 21% of the samples, and loss of 1 or more MMR proteins was observed in 21%. Interestingly, only 38% of the MMR-deficient CRCs lost either MLH1 or MSH2, whereas 63% of the MMR-deficient CRC samples lost either PMS2 or MSH6. All 11 CRC samples that had lost MSH2, MLH1, or PMS2 had MSI, but only 2 of the 5 tumors that lost only MSH6 had MSI. There were no BRAF mutations in any tumor.In young patients with apparently sporadic CRC, most tumors arise in the distal colon; only 21% have features of Lynch syndrome. Loss of MSH6 or PMS2 occurred in 13.3% of these tumors. Most tumors that lose MSH6 will not be detected in screens for MSI; CRC screening might be modified to identify more patients with Lynch syndrome.
Project description:A subset of gliomas has DNA repair defects that lead to hypermutated genomes. While such tumors are resistant to alkylating chemotherapies, they may also express more mutant neoantigens on their cell surfaces, and thus be more responsive to immunotherapies. A fast, inexpensive method of screening for hypermutated gliomas would therefore be of great clinical value. Since immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2, Msh6, Mlh1, and Pms2 is already used to screen for hypermutated colorectal cancers, we sought to determine whether that panel might have similar utility in gliomas. MMR IHC was scored in 100 WHO grade I-IV gliomas (from 96 patients) with known tumor mutation burden (TMB), while blinded to TMB data. Cases included 70 grade IV GBMs, 13 grade III astrocytomas, 4 grade II astrocytomas (3 diffuse astrocytomas and 1 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma), 1 grade I pilocytic astrocytoma, 2 grade III oligodendrogliomas, 7 grade II oligodendrogliomas, and 3 grade I glioneuronal tumors. Eight of 100 tumors showed loss of one or more MMR proteins by IHC, and all 8 were hypermutated. Among the remaining 92 gliomas with intact MMR IHC, only one was hypermutated; that tumor had an inactivating mutation in another DNA repair gene, ATM. Overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for DNA MMR IHC compared to the gold standard of TMB were 99, 89, and 100%, respectively. The strongest correlates with hypermutation were prior TMZ treatment, MGMT promoter methylation, and IDH1 mutation. Among the 8 MMR-deficient hypermutated gliomas, 4 (50%) contained both MMR-lost and MMR-retained tumor cells. Together, these data suggest that MMR IHC could be a viable front-line screening test for gliomas in which immunotherapy is being considered. They also suggest that not all cells in a hypermutated glioma may actually be MMR-deficient, a finding that might need to be considered when treating such tumors with immunotherapies.
Project description:Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is suggestive of a hereditary predisposition. Lynch syndrome is the most frequent CRC hereditary cause. The MUTYH gene has also been related to hereditary CRC. A systematic characterization of these two diseases has not been reported previously in this population.We studied a retrospectively collected series of 140 patients ≤50 years old diagnosed with nonpolyposis CRC. Demographic, clinical, and familial features were obtained. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis, and immunostaining for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 proteins. Germline MMR mutations were evaluated in all MMR-deficient cases. Tumor samples with loss of MLH1 or MSH2 protein expression were analyzed for somatic methylation. Germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated in all cases. BRAF V600E and KRAS somatic mutational status was also determined.Fifteen tumors (11.4%) were MSI, and 20 (14.3%) showed loss of protein expression (7 for MLH1/PMS2, 2 for isolated MLH1, 3 for MSH2/MSH6, 7 for isolated MSH6, and 1 for MSH6/PMS2). We identified 11 (7.8%) germline MMR mutations, 4 in MLH1, 1 in MSH2, and 6 in MSH6. Methylation analysis revealed one case with somatic MLH1 methylation. Biallelic MUTYH mutations were detected in four (2.8%) cases. KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations were present in 39 (27.9%) and 5 (3.6%) cases, respectively.Loss of MSH6 expression is the predominant cause of MMR deficiency in early-onset CRC. Our findings prompt the inclusion of MSH6 and MUTYH screening as part of the genetic counseling of these patients and their relatives.
Project description:Neuroendocrine neoplasms comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, categorized into neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) depending on tumor differentiation. NECs and high-grade NETs (G3) confer a poor prognosis, demanding novel treatment strategies such as immune checkpoint inhibition in tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI). To study any possible intratumoral heterogeneity of MSI, a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 199 NETs and 40 NECs was constructed to screen for MSI using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6. Four cases suspicious for MSI were identified. Validation of MSI by repeated IHC on large sections and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis using the "Bethesda Panel" confirmed MSI in 3 cecal NECs. One pancreatic NET G3 with MSI-compatible TMA results was MMR intact on large section IHC and microsatellite stable (MSS). The remaining 235 tumors exhibited intact MMR. Protein loss of MLH1/PMS2 was found in two and MSH6 loss in one cancer with MSI. Large section IHC on all available tumor-containing tissue blocks in NECs with MSI did not identify aberrant tumor areas with intact MMR. Our data indicate that MSI is common in colorectal NECs (3 out of 10) but highly infrequent in neuroendocrine neoplasms from many other sites. The lack of intratumoral heterogeneity of MMR deficiency suggests early development of MSI during tumorigenesis in a subset of colorectal NECs and indicates that microsatellite status obtained from small biopsies may be representative for the entire cancer mass.
Project description:Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) (Amsterdam criteria) is often caused by mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, and tumors of patients with HNPCC show microsatellite instability (MSI-high phenotype). Germline mutations of MMR genes have rarely been found in families that have HNPCC or suspected HNPCC and that do not show microsatellite instability (MSI-low phenotype). Therefore, an MSI-high phenotype is often used as an inclusion criterion for mutation testing of MMR genes. Correction of base-base mismatches is the major function of MSH6. Since mismatches present with an MSI-low phenotype, we assumed that the phenotype in patients with HNPCC-related tumors might be associated with MSH6 germline mutations. We divided 36 patients with suspected HNPCC into an MSI-low group (n=18) and an MSI-high group (n=18), on the basis of the results of MSI testing. Additionally, three unrelated patients from Amsterdam families with MSI-low tumors were investigated. All patients were screened for MSH2, MLH1, and MSH6 mutations. Four presumably causative MSH6 mutations were detected in the patients (22%) who had suspected HNPCC and MSI-low tumors. Furthermore, we detected one frameshift mutation in one of the three patients with HNPCC and MSI-low tumors. In the MSI-high group, one MSH6 missense mutation was found, but the same patient also had an MLH1 mutation, which may explain the MSI-high phenotype. These results suggest that MSH6 may be involved in a substantial proportion of patients with HNPCC or suspected HNPCC and MSI-low tumors. Our data emphasize that an MSI-low phenotype cannot be considered an exclusion criterion for mutation testing of MMR genes in general.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microsatellite instability (MSI) has emerged as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Cancer heterogeneity represents a potential obstacle for the analysis of predicitive biomarkers. MSI has been reported in pancreatic cancer, but data on the possible extent of intratumoral heterogeneity are lacking. METHODS:To study MSI heterogeneity in pancreatic cancer, a tissue microarray (TMA) comprising 597 tumors was screened by immunohistochemistry with antibodies for the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6. RESULTS:In six suspicious cases, large section immunohistochemistry and microsatellite analysis (Bethesda panel) resulted in the identification of 4 (0.8%) validated MSI cases out of 480 interpretable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. MSI was absent in 55 adenocarcinomas of the ampulla of Vater and 7 acinar cell carcinomas. MMR deficiency always involved MSH6 loss, in three cases with additional loss of MSH2 expression. Three cancers were MSI-high and one case with isolated MSH6 loss was MSS in PCR analysis. The analysis of 44 cancer-containing tumor blocks revealed that the loss of MMR protein expression was always homogeneous in affected tumors. Automated digital image analysis of CD8 immunostaining demonstrated markedly higher CD8?+?tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in tumors with (mean?=?685, median?=?626) than without (mean?=?227; median?=?124) MMR deficiency (p?<?0.0001), suggesting a role of MSI for immune response. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that MSI occurs early in a small subset of ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas and that immunohistochemical MMR analysis on limited biopsy or cytology material may be sufficient to estimate MMR status of the entire cancer mass.
Project description:Mismatch repair defective (MMRd) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a distinct molecular phenotype of colorectal cancer, including 12% of sporadic CRC and 3% of Lynch Syndrome. In order to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of MMRd colorectal carcinoma, and to find the most effective method for preliminary screening, 296 CRC fulfilled revised Bethesda Guideline (RB) were selected from 1450 CRCs to perform both IHC staining for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MSI analysis. Sixty-eight tumors were classified as MSI-H by MSI test. Colorectal carcinomas with MSI-H were prone to be proximal located, poorly differentiated, and relatively early staged, with infrequent metastasis to lymph node as well as to distant organs, compared with MSS ones. All of the 68 MMRd CRCs presented abnormal expression of at least one mismatch repair protein (MMRP), with 48 concurrent negative of MLH1 and PMS2, 14 concurrent negative of MSH2 and MSH6, 4 isolated negative of MSH6, 1 isolated negative of PMS2, and 1 concurrent negative of 4 MMRPs. All of the MLH1 negative tumors also showed abnormal expression of PMS2. All of the MSH2 negative cases also presented negative expression of MSH6. The sensitivity and specificity of the 2-antibody IHC test contained only PMS2 and MSH6 for screening for MMRd CRC were 100% and 98.2% respectively, exactly the same as that of the 4-antibody IHC test with all of the 4 MMRPs. The diagnostic accordance rate of the 2-antibody approach and MSI analysis was 98.6%. In conclusion, MMRd CRC has characteristic clinicopathological features different from MSS CRCs. The 2-antibody IHC approach containing MSH6 and PMS2 is the most easy and effective way to detecting MMR deficiency in CRC.
Project description:Some 10-50% of Lynch-suspected cases with abnormal immunohistochemical (IHC) staining remain without any identifiable germline mutation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR proteins form heterodimeric complexes, giving rise to distinct IHC patterns when mutant. Potential reasons for not finding a germline mutation include involvement of an MMR gene not predicted by the IHC pattern, epigenetic mechanism of predisposition, primary mutation in another DNA repair or replication-associated gene, and double somatic MMR gene mutations. We addressed these possibilities by germline and tumor studies in 60 Lynch-suspected cases ascertained through diagnostics (n = 55) or research (n = 5). All cases had abnormal MMR protein staining in tumors but no point mutation or large rearrangement of the suspected MMR genes in the germline. In diagnostic practice, MSH2/MSH6 (MutS Homolog 2/MutS Homolog 6) deficiency prompts MSH2 mutation screening; in our study, 3/11 index individuals (27%) with this IHC pattern revealed pathogenic germline mutations in MSH6. Individuals with isolated absence of MSH6 are routinely screened for MSH6 mutations alone; we found a predisposing mutation in MSH2 in 1/7 such cases (14%). Somatic deletion of the MSH2-MSH6 region, joint loss of MSH6 and MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3) proteins, and hindered MSH2/MSH6 dimerization offered explanations to misleading IHC patterns. Constitutional epimutation hypothesis was pursued in the MSH2 and/or MSH6-deficient cases plus 38 cases with MLH1 (MutL Homolog 1)-deficient tumors; a primary MLH1 epimutation was identified in one case with an MLH1-deficient tumor. We conclude that both MSH2 and MSH6 should be screened in MSH2/6- and MSH6-deficient cases. In MLH1-deficient cases, constitutional epimutations of MLH1 warrant consideration.
Project description:Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by inherited mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes, most commonly MLH1 or MSH2. The role MSH6 plays in inherited cancer susceptibility is less well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the penetrance and expressivity of MSH6 mutations in kindreds ascertained through endometrial cancer probands unselected for family history. Detailed pedigrees were constructed for six MSH6 mutation carriers. All reported cancers and precancers were confirmed, and tissues were obtained when available. Tumors were analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI) and for expression of MSH2, MLH1, and MSH6. MSH6 mutation status was determined for 59 family members. Of these 59 individuals, 19 (32%) had confirmed cancers and precancers. There was an excess of mutation carriers among the 19 affected family members (11 [58%] of 19) compared with those among the 40 unaffecteds (8 [20%] of 40, P=.0065, odds ratio = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.66-18.19). In four of the seven tumors analyzed from mutation carriers other than the probands, MSI and/or MMR protein expression was consistent with the involvement of MSH6. Overall estimated penetrance of the MHS6 mutations was 57.7%. Of the tumors in mutation carriers, 78% were part of the extended HNPCC spectrum. This study demonstrates that MSH6 germline mutations are, indeed, associated with increased cancer risk and that the penetrance of mutations may be higher than appreciated elsewhere. A combination of MSI and immunohistochemistry analyses may be helpful in screening for MSH6 mutation carriers.