Adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer: chemotherapy versus radiation.
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Surgery is the only curative modality, but mortality remains high because a significant number of patients have recurrence after complete surgical resection. Chemotherapy, radiation, and chemoradiotherapy have all been studied in an attempt to reduce the risk for relapse and improve survival. There is no globally accepted standard of care for resectable gastric cancer, and treatment strategies vary across the world. Postoperative chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin is most commonly practiced in the United States; however, recent clinical trials from Asia have shown benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy alone and have questioned the role of radiation. In this review, we examine the current literature on adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer and discuss the roles of radiation and chemotherapy, particularly in light of these new data and their applicability to the Western population. We highlight some of the ongoing and planned clinical trials in resectable gastric cancer and identify future directions as well as areas where further research is needed.
Project description:Gastric cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and treatment of localized disease has shifted from surgery alone to the addition of chemotherapy at various stages in treatment. The role of radiation in the management of gastric cancer has evolved significantly since the seminal publication of INT 0116 demonstrated a survival advantage to adjuvant chemoradiation. In this review, we summarize multiple landmark studies discussing the role of radiation in non-metastatic gastric cancer, both in resectable and unresectable patients. This review will additionally discuss the evidence for pre-operative chemoradiation, as the benefit has already been demonstrated in esophageal and rectal cancer.
Project description:Of all patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, only 15-20% present with resectable disease. Despite curative-intent resection, the prognosis remains poor with the majority of patients recurring, prompting the need for adjuvant therapy. Historical data support the use of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gemcitabine, but recent data suggest either gemcitabine plus capecitabine or modified FOLFIRINOX can improve overall survival when compared to gemcitabine alone. The use of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy remains controversial, primarily due to limitations in study design and mixed results of historical trials. The ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-0848 trial hopes to further define the role of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and adjuvant immunotherapy represent additional possibilities to improve outcomes, but evidence supporting their use is limited. This article reviews adjuvant therapeutic strategies for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, including chemotherapy, chemoradiation therapy, IORT and immunotherapy.
Project description:The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4(th) most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a rare tumour which is best managed by an aggressive surgical approach. The role of adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy or chemoradiation remains controversial, as no prospective randomized studies have been performed. METHODS: This review summarizes the recent literature regarding the role of radiation, chemotherapy and chemoradiation in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The results of a biliary cancer questionnaire regarding current treatment strategies are also reported. RESULTS: A number of retrospective studies have shown that patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy have prolonged survival compared with untreated patients. However, most of these reports did not control for tumour stage or performance status. A carefully controlled trial from the Johns Hopkins Hospital did not demonstrate any benefit for adjuvant radiation therapy. A number of phase II trials of chemotherapy have demonstrated modest response rates (20-40%). The best responses have been reported with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with interferon-alpha or with leucovorin and mitomycin C. Recent non-randomized reports of chemoradiation with 5-FU with or without gemcitabine as the radiosensitizer suggest, but do not prove, improved survival. Adjuvant chemoradiation is currently being employed at specialized centres most often in the Americas (71%) and the Asia/Pacific region (55%) and to a lesser degree in Europe (29%). DISCUSSION: The only chance for long-term survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma is complete resection with negative margins. Neither radiation therapy nor chemotherapy alone has been proven to prolong survival in completely or partially resected patients or in unresected patients. Recent uncontrolled data suggest that chemoradiation may improve survival in resected and locally unresectable patients. However, prospective, randomized multicentre trials need to be performed to confirm efficacy.
Project description:Expression of MDM2 protein appears to be increased in malignancy and correlated to prognosis of tumors, but its role in gastric cancer remains controversial. Our recent investigations indicated that JWA was a novel candidate biomarker for gastric cancer. To evaluate the impact of MDM2 protein expression alone, and in combination with JWA, on the prognostic and predictive of patients with resectable gastric cancer, expression of MDM2 and JWA were examined by immunohistochemistry in three large cohorts (total n = 1131) of patient with gastric cancer. We found that MDM2 protein levels were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer (70.4%, 57 of 81) compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High tumoral MDM2 expression significantly correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics, as well as with shorter overall survival (OS; P < 0.001 for all cohorts) in patients without adjuvant treatment. The effect of adjuvant fluorouracil-leucovorin-oxaliplatin (FLO) in improving OS compared with surgery alone was evident only in the high MDM2 group (hazard ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.89; P = 0.013). Furthermore, knockdown of MDM2 and overexpression of JWA had a synergistic effect on suppression of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Patients with low MDM2 and high JWA expression had a better outcome of survival compared with the other groups (P < 0.001 for all cohorts). For the first time, our data suggest that MDM2 is a potent prognostic and predictive factor for benefit from adjuvant fluorouracil-leucovorin-oxaliplatin chemotherapy in resectable gastric cancer. The combination of MDM2 expression and JWA could serve as a more effective candidate prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer.
Project description:Radical surgery is the cornerstone in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. The Intergroup 0116 and MAGIC trials have shown benefit of postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy, respectively. Since these trials cannot be compared directly, both regimens are evaluated prospectively in the CRITICS trial. This study aims to obtain an improved overall survival for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and surgery by incorporating radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy postoperatively.In this phase III multicentre study, patients with resectable gastric cancer are treated with three cycles of preoperative ECC (epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine), followed by surgery with adequate lymph node dissection, and then either another three cycles of ECC or concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy, cisplatin and capecitabine). Surgical, pathological, and radiotherapeutic quality control is performed. The primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), prediction of response, and recurrence risk assessed by genomic and expression profiling. Accrual for the CRITICS trial is from the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and more countries are invited to participate.Results of this study will demonstrate whether the combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy will improve the clinical outcome of the current European standard of perioperative chemotherapy, and will therefore play a key role in the future management of patients with resectable gastric cancer.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00407186.
Project description:Over the last 15 years, there have been major advances in the multimodal treatment of gastric cancer, in large part due to several phase III studies showing the treatment benefits of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation protocols. The objective of this editorial is to review the current high-level evidence supporting the use of chemotherapy, chemoradiation and anti-HER2 agents in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, as well as to provide a clinical framework for use of this data based on our own institutional protocol for gastric cancer. Major studies reviewed include the SWOG/INT 0116, Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC), CLASSIC, ACTS-GC, Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy in Stomach Cancer (ARTIST) and Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer trials. Although these studies have demonstrated that multiple approaches in terms of the timing and therapy for gastric cancer are effective, no standard of care is widely accepted and questions regarding the optimal timing of chemotherapy, the benefit of radiotherapy, the minimum required extent of lymphadenectomy and optimal chemotherapy regimen still exist. Protocols from the upcoming ARTIST II, CRITICS, TOPGEAR, Neo-AEGIS and MAGIC-B studies are outlined, and results from these studies will provide critical information regarding optimal timing and treatment regimen. Additionally, the future directions of gastric cancer research predicated on molecular profiling and tailored therapies based on targetable genetic alterations in individual patient's tumors are addressed.
Project description:Two pivotal randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the Intergroup (INT-0116) and Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) trials, demonstrated a survival benefit of multimodality therapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine utilization rates of these treatment regimens in the United States and to identify factors associated with receipt of evidence-based care.We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with Stage IB-IV (M0) gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1991 to 2009 using the linked SEER-Medicare database.Only 19.1% of patients received post-operative chemoradiation therapy (CRT), and 1.9% received peri-operative chemotherapy; most patients underwent surgery alone (60.9%). Patients with more advanced stage, younger age, and fewer comorbidities were more likely to receive evidence-based care. We found no association between National Cancer Institute (NCI) designation and delivery of multimodality therapy. However, patients who underwent medical oncology consultation were much more likely to receive evidence-based treatment (OR 3.10, 95% CI 2.35-4.09).Rates of peri-operative chemotherapy and post-operative CRT in patients with resected gastric cancer remain remarkably low, despite high-quality RCT evidence demonstrating their benefit. Furthermore, NCI designation does not appear to be associated with administration of evidence-based treatment.
Project description:The multidisciplinary management of locoregional esophagogastric cancers (GCs) has evolved significantly over the past two decades. While perioperative chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, and postoperative chemotherapy with chemoradiation (CRT) have demonstrated improved survival when compared to surgery alone, there is no universal standard for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. Current global management patterns vary by geographic region, partly related to phase III data originating from each global region. Herein we detail the landmark phase III trials that support the various multimodality treatment paradigms in resectable GC, with particular focus on findings from more recent phase III gastroesophageal cancer trials including FLOT4, MAGIC-B, OE05, and CRITICS. We highlight important ongoing and future approaches including the potential of molecular subtyping, predictive biomarkers, and immunotherapy as avenues to further improve outcomes in resectable gastroesophageal cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing number of patients affected, the high mortality rates, the worldwide geographic variation in practice, and the large body of good quality research warrants a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the impact of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy on resectable thoracic esophageal cancer to inform evidence-based practice was produced.MEDLINE, CANCERLIT, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology were searched for trial reports. Included were randomized trials or meta-analyses of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments compared with surgery alone or other treatments in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer. Outcomes of interest were survival, adverse effects, and quality of life. Either one- or three-year mortality data were pooled and reported as relative risk ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-four randomized controlled trials and six meta-analyses were obtained and grouped into 13 basic treatment approaches. Single randomized controlled trials detected no differences in mortality between treatments for the following comparisons:- Preoperative radiotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy.- Preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy. Preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy was associated with a significantly higher mortality rate.- Postoperative chemotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy.- Postoperative radiotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy plus protein-bound polysaccharide versus chemoradiation versus chemoradiation plus protein-bound polysaccharide. Pooling one-year mortality detected no statistically significant differences in mortality between treatments for the following comparisons:- Preoperative radiotherapy compared with surgery alone (five randomized trials).- Postoperative radiotherapy compared with surgery alone (five randomized trials).- Preoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone (six randomized trials).- Preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone (two randomized trials).- Preoperative chemoradiation therapy versus surgery alone (six randomized trials). Single randomized controlled trials detected differences in mortality between treatments for the following comparison:- Preoperative hyperthermia and chemoradiotherapy versus preoperative chemoradiotherapy in favour of hyperthermia. Pooling three-year mortality detected no statistically significant difference in mortality between treatments for the following comparison:- Postoperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone (two randomized trials). Pooling three-year mortality detected statistically significant differences between treatments for the following comparisons:- Preoperative chemoradiation therapy versus surgery alone (six randomized trials) in favour of preoperative chemoradiation with surgery.- Preoperative chemotherapy compared with preoperative radiotherapy (one randomized trial) in favour of preoperative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: For adult patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer for whom surgery is considered appropriate, surgery alone (i.e., without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy) is recommended as the standard practice.