Impact of glycemic control strategies on the progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Cohort.
ABSTRACT: The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial demonstrated similar long-term clinical effectiveness of insulin-sensitizing (IS) versus insulin-providing (IP) treatments for type 2 diabetes on cardiovascular outcomes in a cohort with documented coronary artery disease. We evaluated the effects of randomized glycemic control strategy (IS vs. IP) on the prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).DPN (defined as Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument [MNSI] clinical examination score>2) was assessed at baseline and yearly for 4 years. DPN prevalence and incidence were compared by intention-to-treat modeling by logistic generalized estimating equation models for prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression models for incidence rates.Results are reported for 2,159 BARI 2D participants (70% males) with valid baseline and at least one follow-up MNSI score (mean age 62±9 years, mean HbA1c 7.7±1.6%, diabetes duration 10±9 years). There were no differences in the prevalence of DPN between the IS and the IP groups throughout the 4 years of follow-up. In 1,075 BARI 2D participants with no DPN at baseline, the 4-year cumulative incidence rate of DPN was significantly lower in the IS (66%) than in the IP (72%) strategy group (P=0.02), which remained significant after adjusting for the in-trial HbA1c (P=0.04). In subgroup analyses, IS strategy had a greater benefit in men (hazard ratio 0.75 [99% CI 0.58-0.99], P<0.01).Among patients with type 2 diabetes followed for up to 4 years during BARI 2D, a glycemic control therapy with IS significantly reduced the incidence of DPN compared with IP therapy and may add further benefit for men.
Project description:We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing vs. insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. A total of 2,368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD was evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and diabetes duration. Fifty-one percent of BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15-2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea (SU) or combination of SU/metformin (Met)/thiazolidinediones (TZD) had marginally higher rates of DPN than the Met/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>We assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) was used to assess DPN in 1,734 youth with T1D (mean ± SD age 18 ± 4 years, T1D duration 7.2 ± 1.2 years, and HbA<sub>1c</sub> 9.1 ± 1.9%) and 258 youth with T2D (age 22 ± 3.5 years, T2D duration 7.9 ± 2 years, and HbA<sub>1c</sub> 9.4 ± 2.3%) who were enrolled in the SEARCH study and had ?5 years of diabetes duration. DPN was defined as an MNSI exam score of >2. Glycemic control over time was estimated as area under the curve for HbA<sub>1c</sub>.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of DPN was 7% in youth with T1D and 22% in youth with T2D. Risk factors for DPN in youth with T1D were older age, longer diabetes duration, smoking, increased diastolic blood pressure, obesity, increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol (HDL-c). In youth with T2D, risk factors were older age, male sex, longer diabetes duration, smoking, and lower HDL-c. Glycemic control over time was worse among those with DPN compared with those without for youth with T1D (odds ratio 1.53 [95% CI 1.24; 1.88]) but not for youth with T2D (1.05 [0.7; 1.56]).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The high rates of DPN among youth with diabetes are a cause of concern and suggest a need for early screening and better risk factor management. Interventions in youth that address poor glycemic control and dyslipidemia may prevent or delay debilitating neuropathic complications.
Project description:The aim of this manuscript was to report the risk of incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants with stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes and compare the risk between assigned treatment arms.The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial randomly assigned participants to insulin sensitization (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy for glycemic control. Results showed similar 5-year mortality in the two glycemic treatment arms. In secondary analyses reported here, we examine the effects of treatment assignment on the incidence of PAD. A total of 1,479 BARI 2D participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) (0.91-1.30) were eligible for analysis. The following PAD-related outcomes are evaluated in this article: new low ABI?0.9, a lower-extremity revascularization, lower-extremity amputation, and a composite of the three outcomes.During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants experienced one or more of the outcomes listed above. Incidence of the composite outcome was significantly lower among participants assigned to IS therapy than those assigned to IP therapy (16.9 vs. 24.1%; P<0.001). The difference was significant in time-to-event analysis (hazard ratio 0.66 [95% CI 0.51-0.83], P<0.001) and remained significant after adjustment for in-trial HbA1c (0.76 [0.59-0.96], P=0.02).In participants with type 2 diabetes who are free from PAD, a glycemic control strategy of insulin sensitization may be the preferred therapeutic strategy to reduce the incidence of PAD and subsequent outcomes.
Project description:The aim of this article was to define risk factors for incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overall and within the context of differing glycemic control strategies.The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) randomized controlled trial assigned participants to insulin-sensitizing (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy. A total of 1,479 participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) at study entry were eligible for analysis. PAD outcomes included new ABI ?0.9 with decrease at least 0.1 from baseline, lower extremity revascularization, or lower extremity amputation. Baseline risk factors within the overall cohort and time-varying risk factors within each assigned glycemic control arm were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants (20.5%) experienced an incident case of PAD. Age, sex, race, and baseline smoking status were all significantly associated with incident PAD in the BARI 2D cohort. Additional baseline risk factors included pulse pressure, HbA1c, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each). In stratified analyses of time-varying covariates, changes in BMI, LDL, HDL, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were most predictive among IS patients, while change in HbA1c was most predictive among IP patients.Among patients with T2DM, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were the main predictors of incident PAD cases. Stratified analyses showed different risk factors were predictive for patients treated with IS medications versus those treated with IP medications.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The aim of the present study was to investigate the major determinants of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), considering the traditional and newly discovered risk factors, including hypoglycaemia and glycemic variability.<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan. A total of 2,837 patients with T2D were recruited, medical history and biochemical data were obtained, and patients were screened for DPN using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN was defined as an MNSI exam score > 2. A stepwise selection of variables was used based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz Criterion (SC). Multivariate analysis was performed using the identified variables obtained from the stepwise selection.<h4>Results</h4>Among the recruited patients, 604 (21.3%) were found to have DPN. 275 patients with DPN were selected because of longer follow up period before enrollment and complete data of glycemic parameters, and paired with 351 patients with T2D without DPN and matched for age, gender, and diabetes duration. The results of the stepwise selection showed that the presence of moderately and severely increased albuminuria yielded the lowest values of AIC and SC, which indicate the best predictive performance. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that moderately and severely increased albuminuria and greater long-term glycemic variability significantly increased the risk of DPN, with a corresponding odds ratio of 1.85 and 1.61 (95%confidence intervals of 1.25-2.73and1.02-2.55, respectively), after adjusted for hypoglycaemia and types of diabetes treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Albuminuria is a potent predictor of DPN, and greater long-term glycemic variabilityis clearly associated with DPN in adults with T2D. These findings indicate that, in addition to achieve average blood glucose control, screening for albuminuria and reducing blood glucose fluctuations might be useful for improving diabetic microvascular complications.
Project description:Most studies of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and painful DPN are conducted in persons with longstanding diabetes. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of DPN and painful DPN, important risk factors, and the association with mental health in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. A total of 5514 (82%) patients (median diabetes duration 4.6 years) enrolled in the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes cohort responded to a detailed questionnaire on neuropathy and pain. A score ≥4 on the MNSI questionnaire determined possible DPN, whereas pain presence in both feet together with a score ≥3 on the DN4 questionnaire determined possible painful DPN. The prevalence of possible DPN and possible painful DPN was 18% and 10%, respectively. Female sex, age, diabetes duration, body mass index, and smoking were associated with possible DPN, whereas only smoking showed a clear association with possible painful DPN (odds ratio 1.52 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.93]). Possible DPN and painful DPN were independently and additively associated with lower quality of life, poorer sleep, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Possible DPN itself had greater impact on mental health than neuropathic pain. This large study emphasizes the importance of careful screening for DPN and pain early in the course of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The BARI 2D trial compared insulin provision (IP) versus insulin sensitization (IS) for the primary outcome of total mortality in participants with T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this analysis we examine baseline characteristics that are associated with successful long-term glycemic control.In a 2×2 factorial design, 2368 participants were randomized to either IP or IS therapy, and to either prompt revascularization with medical therapy or medical therapy alone. Successful long-term glycemic control (success) was defined by simultaneously meeting 1) a mean HbA1c level of <7.0% after each participant's third year of follow-up period, and 2) adherence with medications only from the assigned glycemic treatment arm during >80% of the BARI 2D follow-up. The association between baseline variables and success was determined using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models.1917 participants (962 IP and 955 IS participants) had sufficiently long follow-up and data for this analysis. Among these IP and IS participants, 235 and 335 participants met both criteria of success, respectively (p<0.001). Those not on insulin at entry had higher odds of success (OR 2.25; CI 1.79-2.82) when treated with IS versus IP medications, irrespective of baseline HbA1c levels. Younger age, shorter duration of T2DM, and lower HbA1c at baseline were also each independently associated with higher success when treated with IS versus IP medications.Patients similar to those in the BARI 2D trial may have a higher chance of achieving success with IS versus IP medications if they are younger, have shorter duration of T2DM, have lower HbA1c levels, have moderate or strenuous physically activity, and are not on insulin. In contrast, increasing age, longer duration of T2DM, higher HbA1c, and insulin therapy are associated with increased chance of success if treated with IP medications.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) with or without neuropathic pain is a frequent complication of diabetes. This work aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy, to describe its epidemiological aspects, and to analyze the therapeutic itinerary of patients with DPN. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study performed synchronously over six months at two major follow-up sites for patients with diabetes in Mali. DPN was diagnosed based on the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). The neuropathic nature of the pain and the quality of life of patients were evaluated by the DN4 and the ED-5D scale, respectively. We used three (3) different questionnaires to collect data from patients (one at inclusion and another during the follow-up consultation) and from the caregivers of patients with DPN. RESULTS:We included 252 patients with diabetes, and DPN was found to have a healthcare facility-based prevalence of 69.8% (176/252). The sex ratio was approximately three females for every male patient. The patients were mostly 31 to 60 years of age, 83% had type 2 diabetes, and 86.9% had neuropathic pain Approximately half of the patients (48.3%) had autonomic neuropathy and they reported moderate to intense pain, which was mainly described as a burning sensation. The patients exhibited impaired exteroceptive and proprioceptive sensations in 51.7% of cases. The patients smoked tobacco in 3.4% of cases, while 36.6% of the patients were obese and had dyslipidemia. The caregivers clearly indicated that appropriate medications were not readily accessible or available for their patients with DPN. CONCLUSION:The healthcare facility-based prevalence of DPN with or without neuropathic pain was high in our cohort. These inexpensive and easy-to-use tools (MNSI, DN4) can be used to adequately diagnose DPN in the African context. In Mali, screening and early treatment of patients at risk of DPN should allow for a reduction of the burden of the disease, while caregivers need to be adequately trained to manage DPN.
Project description:Genetic factors have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), but their identity remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic search for genetic variants influencing DPN risk using two well-characterized cohorts. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) testing 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms was conducted among participants of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) clinical trial. Included were 4,384 white case patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prevalent or incident DPN (defined as a Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument clinical examination score >2.0) and 784 white control subjects with T2D and no evidence of DPN at baseline or during follow-up. Replication of significant loci was sought among white subjects with T2D (791 DPN-positive case subjects and 158 DPN-negative control subjects) from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Association between significant variants and gene expression in peripheral nerves was evaluated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database. A cluster of 28 SNPs on chromosome 2q24 reached GWAS significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in ACCORD. The minor allele of the lead SNP (rs13417783, minor allele frequency = 0.14) decreased DPN odds by 36% (odds ratio [OR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.55-0.74, P = 1.9 × 10-9). This effect was not influenced by ACCORD treatment assignments (P for interaction = 0.6) or mediated by an association with known DPN risk factors. This locus was successfully validated in BARI 2D (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.80, P = 9 × 10-4; summary P = 7.9 × 10-12). In GTEx, the minor, protective allele at this locus was associated with higher tibial nerve expression of an adjacent gene (SCN2A) coding for human voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.2 (P = 9 × 10-4). To conclude, we have identified and successfully validated a previously unknown locus with a powerful protective effect on the development of DPN in T2D. These results may provide novel insights into DPN pathogenesis and point to a potential target for novel interventions.
Project description:Rosiglitazone improves glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but there remains controversy regarding an observed association with cardiovascular hazard. The cardiovascular effects of rosiglitazone for patients with coronary artery disease remain unknown.To examine any association between rosiglitazone use and cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, we analyzed events among 2368 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Total mortality, composite death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and the individual incidence of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, and fractures, were compared during 4.5 years of follow-up among patients treated with rosiglitazone versus patients not receiving a thiazolidinedione by use of Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier analyses that included propensity matching. After multivariable adjustment, among patients treated with rosiglitazone, mortality was similar (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-1.18), whereas there was a lower incidence of composite death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and stroke (HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.86) and a higher incidence of fractures (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05-2.51); the incidence of myocardial infarction (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.54-1.10) and congestive heart failure (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.84-1.82) did not differ significantly. Among propensity-matched patients, rates of major ischemic cardiovascular events and congestive heart failure were not significantly different.Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease in the BARI 2D trial, neither on-treatment nor propensity-matched analysis supported an association of rosiglitazone treatment with an increase in major ischemic cardiovascular events.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00006305.