Recoding RNA editing of AZIN1 predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: A better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor-initiating events. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine-to-inosine (A?I) RNA editing of AZIN1 (encoding antizyme inhibitor 1) is increased in HCC specimens. A?I editing of AZIN1 transcripts, specifically regulated by ADAR1 (encoding adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1), results in a serine-to-glycine substitution at residue 367 of AZIN1, located in ?-strand 15 (?15) and predicted to cause a conformational change, induced a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and conferred gain-of-function phenotypes that were manifested by augmented tumor-initiating potential and more aggressive behavior. Compared with wild-type AZIN1 protein, the edited form has a stronger affinity to antizyme, and the resultant higher AZIN1 protein stability promotes cell proliferation through the neutralization of antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). Collectively, A?I RNA editing of AZIN1 may be a potential driver in the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly HCC.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, a process mediated by adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) gene family, is a recently discovered epigenetic modification dysregulated in human cancers. However, the clinical significance and the functional role of RNA editing in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. We have systematically and comprehensively investigated the significance of the expression status of ADAR1 and of the RNA editing levels of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1), one of the most frequently edited genes in cancers, in 392 colorectal tissues from multiple independent CRC patient cohorts. Both ADAR1 expression and AZIN1 RNA editing levels were significantly elevated in CRC tissues when compared with corresponding normal mucosa. High levels of AZIN1 RNA editing emerged as a prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival and were an independent risk factor for lymph node and distant metastasis. Furthermore, elevated AZIN1 editing identified high-risk stage II CRC patients. Mechanistically, edited AZIN1 enhances stemness and appears to drive the metastatic processes. We have demonstrated that edited AZIN1 functions as an oncogene and a potential therapeutic target in CRC. Moreover, AZIN1 RNA editing status could be used as a clinically relevant prognostic indicator in CRC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. Recent evidence suggests that RNA editing of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) RNA is emerging as a key epigenetic alteration underlying cancer pathogenesis. METHODS:We evaluated AZIN1 RNA editing levels, and the expression of its regulator, ADAR1, in 280 gastric tissues from 140 patients, using a RNA editing site-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. We also analyzed the clinical significance of these results as disease biomarkers in gastric cancer (GC) patients. RESULTS:Both AZIN1 RNA editing levels and ADAR1 expression were significantly elevated in GC tissues compared with matched normal mucosa (P?<?0.0001, 0.0008, respectively); and AZIN1 RNA editing was positively correlated with ADAR1 expression. Elevated expression of ADAR1 significantly correlated with poor overall survival (P?=?0.034), while hyper-edited AZIN1 emerged as an independent prognostic factor for OS and disease-free survival in GC patients [odds ratio (OR):1.98, 95% CI 1.17-3.35, P?=?0.011, OR: 4.55, 95% CI 2.12-9.78, P?=?0.0001, respectively]. Increased AZIN1 RNA editing and ADAR1 over-expression were significantly correlated with key clinicopathological factors, such as advanced T stage, presence of lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and higher TNM stages in GC patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed that hyper-editing status of AZIN1 RNA was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in GC patients [hazard ratio (HR):3.03, 95% CI 1.19-7.71, P?=?0.02]. CONCLUSIONS:AZIN1 RNA editing levels may be an important prognostic biomarker in GC patients, and may serve as a key clinical decision-making tool for determining preoperative treatment strategies in GC patients.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a recently described epigenetic modification, which is believed to constitute a key oncogenic mechanism in human cancers. However, its functional role in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its clinical significance remains unclear. Herein, we systematically analyzed a large cohort of 627 colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens, and investigated the expression pattern of ADAR1 and its biological significance on the antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) RNA editing levels. Both ADAR1 expression and AZIN1 RNA editing levels were significantly elevated in CRC tissues vs. normal mucosa, and these findings correlated with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, Vimentin (??=?0.44) and Fibroblast activation protein (??=?0.38). Intriguingly, ADAR1 expression was specifically upregulated in both cancer cells and fibroblasts from cancerous lesions. Conditioned medium from cancer cells led to induction of ADAR1 expression and activation of AZIN1 RNA editing in fibroblasts (p?<?0.05). Additionally, edited AZIN1 enhanced the invasive potential of fibroblasts. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence that hyper-editing of AZIN1 enhances the invasive potential of CAFs within the TME in colon and is an important predictor of tumor invasiveness in CRC.
Project description:Among several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that correlate with fibrosis progression in chronic HCV, an SNP in the antizyme inhibitor (AzI) gene is most strongly associated with slow fibrosis progression. Our aim was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying this observation by exploring the impact of the AzI SNP on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activity. Seven novel AZIN1 splice variants ("SV2-8") were cloned by polymerase chain reaction from the LX2 human HSC line. Expression of a minigene in LX2 containing the AZIN1 slow-fibrosis SNP yielded a 1.67-fold increase in AZIN1 splice variant 2 (AZIN1 SV2) messenger RNA (mRNA) (P = 0.05). In healthy human leukocytes, the SNP variant also correlated with significantly increased SV2 mRNA. Cells (293T) transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) complementary to the exonic splicing chaperone SRp40 expressed 30% less SRp40 (P = 0.044) and 43% more AzI SV2 (P = 0.021) than control shRNA-expressing cells, mimicking the effect of the sequence variant. LX2 cells transfected with AZIN1 full-length complementary DNA expressed 35% less collagen I mRNA (P = 0.09) and 18% less ?-smooth muscle actin mRNA (P = 0.09). Transient transfection of AZIN1 SV2 complementary DNA into LX2 cells reduced collagen I gene expression by 64% (P = 0.001) and ?-smooth muscle actin by 43% (P = 0.005) compared to vector-transfected controls, paralleling changes in protein expression. Both AZIN1 and AZIN-SV2 mRNAs are detectable in normal human liver and reduced in HCV cirrhotic livers. The AZIN1-SV2 acts via a polyamine-independent pathway, as it neither interacts with antizyme nor affects the ability of AZIN1 lacking this variant to neutralize antizyme.An SNP variant in the AZIN1 gene leads to enhanced generation of a novel alternative splice form that modifies the fibrogenic potential of HSCs.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of dsRNA by ADAR proteins is a pervasive epitranscriptome feature. Tens of thousands of A-to-I editing events are defined in the mouse, yet the functional impact of most is unknown. Editing causing protein recoding is the essential function of ADAR2, but an essential role for recoding by ADAR1 has not been demonstrated. ADAR1 has been proposed to have editing-dependent and editing-independent functions. The relative contribution of these in vivo has not been clearly defined. A critical function of ADAR1 is editing of endogenous RNA to prevent activation of the dsRNA sensor MDA5 (Ifih1). Outside of this, how ADAR1 editing contributes to normal development and homeostasis is uncertain.We describe the consequences of ADAR1 editing deficiency on murine homeostasis. Adar1 E861A/E861A Ifih1 -/- mice are strikingly normal, including their lifespan. There is a mild, non-pathogenic innate immune activation signature in the Adar1 E861A/E861A Ifih1 -/- mice. Assessing A-to-I editing across adult tissues demonstrates that outside of the brain, ADAR1 performs the majority of editing and that ADAR2 cannot compensate in its absence. Direct comparison of the Adar1 -/- and Adar1 E861A/E861A alleles demonstrates a high degree of concordance on both Ifih1 +/+ and Ifih1 -/- backgrounds, suggesting no substantial contribution from ADAR1 editing-independent functions.These analyses demonstrate that the lifetime absence of ADAR1-editing is well tolerated in the absence of MDA5. We conclude that protein recoding arising from ADAR1-mediated editing is not essential for organismal homeostasis. Additionally, the phenotypes associated with loss of ADAR1 are the result of RNA editing and MDA5-dependent functions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous tumour displaying a complex variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. In human cancers, aberrant post-transcriptional modifications, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, may lead to tumour specific transcriptome diversity. DESIGN: By utilising large scale transcriptome sequencing of three paired HCC clinical specimens and their adjacent non-tumour (NT) tissue counterparts at depth, we discovered an average of 20 007 inferred A to I (adenosine to inosine) RNA editing events in transcripts. The roles of the double stranded RNA specific ADAR (Adenosine DeAminase that act on RNA) family members (ADARs) and the altered gene specific editing patterns were investigated in clinical specimens, cell models and mice. RESULTS: HCC displays a severely disrupted A to I RNA editing balance. ADAR1 and ADAR2 manipulate the A to I imbalance of HCC via their differential expression in HCC compared with NT liver tissues. Patients with ADAR1 overexpression and ADAR2 downregulation in tumours demonstrated an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and postoperative recurrence and had poor prognoses. Due to the differentially expressed ADAR1 and ADAR2 in tumours, the altered gene specific editing activities, which was reflected by the hyper-editing of FLNB (filamin B, β) and the hypo-editing of COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit α), are closely associated with HCC pathogenesis. In vitro and in vivo functional assays prove that ADAR1 functions as an oncogene while ADAR2 has tumour suppressive ability in HCC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the fact that the differentially expressed ADARs in tumours, which are responsible for an A to I editing imbalance, has great prognostic value and diagnostic potential for HCC.
Project description:Deregulation of RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on dsRNA (ADARs) has been implicated in the progression of diverse human cancers including hematopoietic malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Inflammation-associated activation of ADAR1 occurs in leukemia stem cells specifically in the advanced, often drug-resistant stage of CML known as blast crisis. However, detection of cancer stem cell-associated RNA editing by RNA sequencing in these rare cell populations can be technically challenging, costly and requires PCR validation. The objectives of this study were to validate RNA editing of a subset of cancer stem cell-associated transcripts, and to develop a quantitative RNA editing fingerprint assay for rapid detection of aberrant RNA editing in human malignancies.To facilitate quantification of cancer stem cell-associated RNA editing in exons and intronic or 3'UTR primate-specific Alu sequences using a sensitive, cost-effective method, we established an in vitro RNA editing model and developed a sensitive RNA editing fingerprint assay that employs a site-specific quantitative PCR (RESSq-PCR) strategy. This assay was validated in a stably-transduced human leukemia cell line, lentiviral-ADAR1 transduced primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and in primary human chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells.In lentiviral ADAR1-expressing cells, increased RNA editing of MDM2, APOBEC3D, GLI1 and AZIN1 transcripts was detected by RESSq-PCR with improved sensitivity over sequencing chromatogram analysis. This method accurately detected cancer stem cell-associated RNA editing in primary chronic myeloid leukemia samples, establishing a cancer stem cell-specific RNA editing fingerprint of leukemic transformation that will support clinical development of novel diagnostic tools to predict and prevent cancer progression.RNA editing quantification enables rapid detection of malignant progenitors signifying cancer progression and therapeutic resistance, and will aid future RNA editing inhibitor development efforts.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNA. In vivo, ADAR1 is essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Whether other hematopoietic cell types also require ADAR1 has not been assessed. Using erythroid- and myeloid-restricted deletion of Adar1, we demonstrate that ADAR1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis but is essential for normal erythropoiesis. Adar1-deficient erythroid cells display a profound activation of innate immune signaling and high levels of cell death. No changes in microRNA levels were found in ADAR1-deficient erythroid cells. Using an editing-deficient allele, we demonstrate that RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 during erythropoiesis. Mapping of adenosine-to-inosine editing in purified erythroid cells identified clusters of hyperedited adenosines located in long 3'-untranslated regions of erythroid-specific transcripts and these are ADAR1-specific editing events. ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is essential for normal erythropoiesis.
Project description:Patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. However, intolerance and resistance to these agents remains a challenge, and TKIs are unable to eradicate rare leukemia-initiating cells. Leukemia treatment would benefit from a better understanding of molecular signals that are necessary for the survival of leukemia-initiating cells but dispensable for normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia-initiating cells in CML can arise from myeloid progenitor cells, a population that we have reported in normal hematopoiesis to depend on the RNA-editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1). We now report that Bcr-Abl transformed leukemic cells were ADAR1-dependent in a conditional ADAR1 knockout mouse model. ADAR1 deletion reversed leukocytosis and splenomegaly, and preferentially depleted primitive Lin-Sca+Kit+ (LSK) leukemic cells but not LSK cells lacking the leukemic oncoprotein. ADAR1 deletion ultimately normalized the peripheral white blood count, eliminating leukemic cells as assessed by PCR. These results uncover a novel requirement for ADAR1 in myeloid leukemic cells and indicate that ADAR1 may comprise a new molecular target for CML-directed therapeutics.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a highly prevalent posttranscriptional modification of RNA, mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes. In addition to RNA editing, additional functions have been proposed for ADAR1. To determine the specific role of RNA editing by ADAR1, we generated mice with an editing-deficient knock-in mutation (Adar1(E861A), where E861A denotes Glu(861)?Ala(861)). Adar1(E861A/E861A) embryos died at ~E13.5 (embryonic day 13.5), with activated interferon and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-sensing pathways. Genome-wide analysis of the in vivo substrates of ADAR1 identified clustered hyperediting within long dsRNA stem loops within 3' untranslated regions of endogenous transcripts. Finally, embryonic death and phenotypes of Adar1(E861A/E861A) were rescued by concurrent deletion of the cytosolic sensor of dsRNA, MDA5. A-to-I editing of endogenous dsRNA is the essential function of ADAR1, preventing the activation of the cytosolic dsRNA response by endogenous transcripts.