Human CIA2A-FAM96A and CIA2B-FAM96B integrate iron homeostasis and maturation of different subsets of cytosolic-nuclear iron-sulfur proteins.
ABSTRACT: Numerous cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in metabolism, DNA maintenance, protein translation, or iron homeostasis depend on iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cofactors, yet their assembly is poorly defined. Here, we identify and characterize human CIA2A (FAM96A), CIA2B (FAM96B), and CIA1 (CIAO1) as components of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. CIA1 associates with either CIA2A or CIA2B and the CIA-targeting factor MMS19. The CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 complex binds to and facilitates assembly of most cytosolic-nuclear Fe/S proteins. In contrast, CIA2A specifically matures iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), which is critical for cellular iron homeostasis. Surprisingly, a second layer of iron regulation involves the stabilization of IRP2 by CIA2A binding or upon depletion of CIA2B or MMS19, even though IRP2 lacks an Fe/S cluster. In summary, CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 and CIA2A-CIA1 assist different branches of Fe/S protein assembly and intimately link this process to cellular iron regulation via IRP1 Fe/S cluster maturation and IRP2 stabilization.
Project description:Viperin (RSAD2) is an interferon-stimulated antiviral protein that belongs to the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme family. Viperin's iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster is critical for its antiviral activity against many different viruses. CIA1 (CIAO1), an essential component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery, is crucial for Fe/S cluster insertion into viperin and hence for viperin's antiviral activity. In the CIA pathway, CIA1 cooperates with CIA2A, CIA2B, and MMS19 targeting factors to form various complexes that mediate the dedicated maturation of specific Fe/S recipient proteins. To date, however, the mechanisms of how viperin acquires its radical SAM Fe/S cluster to gain antiviral activity are poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation and 55Fe-radiolabeling experiments, we therefore studied the roles of CIA2A, CIA2B, and MMS19 for Fe/S cluster insertion. CIA2B and MMS19 physically interacted with the C terminus of viperin and used CIA1 as the primary viperin-interacting protein. In contrast, CIA2A bound to viperin's N terminus in a CIA1-, CIA2B-, and MMS19-independent fashion. Of note, the observed interaction of both CIA2 isoforms with a single Fe/S target protein is unprecedented in the CIA pathway. 55Fe-radiolabeling experiments with human cells depleted of CIA1, CIA2A, CIA2B, or MMS19 revealed that CIA1, but none of the other CIA factors, is predominantly required for 55Fe/S cluster incorporation into viperin. Collectively, viperin maturation represents a novel CIA pathway with a minimal requirement of the CIA-targeting factors and represents a new paradigm for the insertion of the Fe/S cofactor into a radical SAM protein.
Project description:The cytosolic iron/sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machinery is responsible for the assembly of cytosolic and nuclear iron/sulfur clusters, cofactors that are vital for all living cells. This machinery is uniquely found in eukaryotes and consists of at least eight proteins in opisthokont lineages, such as animals and fungi. We sought to identify and characterize homologues of the CIA system proteins in the anaerobic stramenopile parasite Blastocystis sp. strain NandII. We identified transcripts encoding six of the components-Cia1, Cia2, MMS19, Nbp35, Nar1, and a putative Tah18-and showed using immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and subcellular fractionation that the last three of them localized to the cytoplasm of the cell. We then used comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to investigate the evolutionary history of these proteins. While most Blastocystis homologues branch with their eukaryotic counterparts, the putative Blastocystis Tah18 seems to have a separate evolutionary origin and therefore possibly a different function. Furthermore, our phylogenomic analyses revealed that all eight CIA components described in opisthokonts originated before the diversification of extant eukaryotic lineages and were likely already present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The Nbp35, Nar1 Cia1, and Cia2 proteins have been conserved during the subsequent evolutionary diversification of eukaryotes and are present in virtually all extant lineages, whereas the other CIA proteins have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Cia2 appears to be homologous to SufT, a component of the prokaryotic sulfur utilization factors (SUF) system, making this the first reported evolutionary link between the CIA and any other Fe/S biogenesis pathway. All of our results suggest that the CIA machinery is an ubiquitous biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes, but its apparent plasticity in composition raises questions regarding how it functions in nonmodel organisms and how it interfaces with various iron/sulfur cluster systems (i.e., the iron/sulfur cluster, nitrogen fixation, and/or SUF system) found in eukaryotic cells.
Project description:In eukaryotes, mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC), export and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machineries carry out biogenesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which are critical for multiple essential cellular pathways. However, little is known about their export out of mitochondria. Here we show that Fe-S assembly of mitoNEET, the first identified Fe-S protein anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, strictly depends on ISC machineries and not on the CIA or CIAPIN1. We identify a dedicated ISC/export pathway in which augmenter of liver regeneration, a mitochondrial Mia40-dependent protein, is specific to mitoNEET maturation. When inserted, the Fe-S cluster confers mitoNEET folding and stability in vitro and in vivo. The holo-form of mitoNEET is resistant to NO and H2O2 and is capable of repairing oxidatively damaged Fe-S of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a master regulator of cellular iron that has recently been involved in the mitochondrial iron supply. Therefore, our findings point to IRP1 as the missing link to explain the function of mitoNEET in the control of mitochondrial iron homeostasis.
Project description:The iron-sensing protein FBXL5 is the substrate adaptor for a SKP1-CUL1-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates the degradation of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs). Here, we describe a mechanism of FBXL5 regulation involving its interaction with the cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) targeting complex composed of MMS19, FAM96B, and CIAO1. We demonstrate that the CIA-targeting complex promotes the ability of FBXL5 to degrade IRPs. In addition, the FBXL5-CIA-targeting complex interaction is regulated by oxygen (O2) tension displaying a robust association in 21% O2 that is severely diminished in 1% O2 and contributes to O2-dependent regulation of IRP degradation. Together, these data identify a novel oxygen-dependent signaling axis that links IRP-dependent iron homeostasis with the Fe-S cluster assembly machinery.
Project description:Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are cofactors in hundreds of proteins involved in multiple cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, the maintenance of genome stability, ribosome biogenesis and translation. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is performed by multiple enzymes that are highly conserved throughout evolution, and mutations in numerous biogenesis factors are now recognized to cause a wide range of previously uncategorized rare human diseases. Recently, a complex formed of components of the cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) machinery, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, was found to deliver Fe-S clusters to a subset of proteins involved in DNA metabolism, but it was unclear how this complex acquired its fully synthesized Fe-S clusters, because Fe-S clusters have been alleged to be assembled de novo solely in the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we investigated the potential role of the human cochaperone HSC20 in cytosolic Fe-S assembly and found that HSC20 assists Fe-S cluster delivery to cytosolic and nuclear Fe-S proteins. Cytosolic HSC20 (C-HSC20) mediated complex formation between components of the cytosolic Fe-S biogenesis pathway (ISC), including the primary scaffold, ISCU1, and the cysteine desulfurase, NFS1, and the CIA targeting complex, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, to facilitate Fe-S cluster insertion into cytoplasmic and nuclear Fe-S recipients. Thus, C-HSC20 integrates initial Fe-S biosynthesis with the transfer activities of the CIA targeting system. Our studies demonstrate that a novel cytosolic pathway functions in parallel to the mitochondrial ISC to perform de novo Fe-S biogenesis, and to escort Fe-S clusters to cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins.
Project description:In mammals, two homologous cytosolic regulatory proteins, iron regulatory protein 1 (also known as IRP1 and Aco1) and iron regulatory protein 2 (also known as IRP2 and Ireb2), sense cytosolic iron levels and posttranscriptionally regulate iron metabolism genes, including transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin H and L subunits, by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) within target transcripts. Mice that lack IRP2 develop microcytic anemia and neurodegeneration associated with functional cellular iron depletion caused by low TfR1 and high ferritin expression. IRP1 knockout (IRP1(-/-)) animals do not significantly misregulate iron metabolism, partly because IRP1 is an iron-sulfur protein that functions mainly as a cytosolic aconitase in mammalian tissues and IRP2 activity increases to compensate for loss of the IRE binding form of IRP1. The neurodegenerative disease of IRP2(-/-) animals progresses slowly as the animals age. In this study, we fed IRP2(-/-) mice a diet supplemented with a stable nitroxide, Tempol, and showed that the progression of neuromuscular impairment was markedly attenuated. In cell lines derived from IRP2(-/-) animals, and in the cerebellum, brainstem, and forebrain of animals maintained on the Tempol diet, IRP1 was converted from a cytosolic aconitase to an IRE binding protein that stabilized the TfR1 transcript and repressed ferritin synthesis. We suggest that Tempol protected IRP2(-/-) mice by disassembling the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster of IRP1 and activating IRE binding activity, which stabilized the TfR1 transcript, repressed ferritin synthesis, and partially restored normal cellular iron homeostasis in the brain.
Project description:The cytoplasmic iron-sulfur assembly (CIA) targeting complex is required for the transfer of an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster to cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, but how it engages with client proteins is unknown. Here, we show that the complex members MIP18 and CIAO1 associate with the C terminus of MMS19. By doing so, they form a docking site for Fe-S proteins that is disrupted in the absence of either MMS19 or MIP18. The Fe-S helicase XPD seems to be the only exception, since it can interact with MMS19 independently of MIP18 and CIAO1. We further show that the direct interaction between MMS19 and MIP18 is required to protect MIP18 from proteasomal degradation. Taken together, these data suggest a remarkably regulated interaction between the CIA targeting complex and client proteins and raise the possibility that Fe-S cluster transfer is controlled, at least in part, by the stability of the CIA targeting complex itself.
Project description:In mammals, iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 posttranscriptionally regulate expression of genes involved in iron metabolism, including transferrin receptor 1, the ferritin (Ft) H and L subunits, and ferroportin by binding mRNA motifs called iron responsive elements (IREs). IRP1 is a bifunctional protein that mostly exists in a non-IRE-binding, [4Fe-4S] cluster aconitase form, whereas IRP2, which does not assemble an Fe-S cluster, spontaneously binds IREs. Although both IRPs fulfill a trans-regulatory function, only mice lacking IRP2 misregulate iron metabolism. NO stimulates the IRE-binding activity of IRP1 by targeting its Fe-S cluster. IRP2 has also been reported to sense NO, but the intrinsic function of IRP1 and IRP2 in NO-mediated regulation of cellular iron metabolism is controversial. In this study, we exposed bone marrow macrophages from Irp1(-/-) and Irp2(-/-) mice to NO and showed that the generated apo-IRP1 was entirely responsible for the posttranscriptional regulation of transferrin receptor 1, H-Ft, L-Ft, and ferroportin. The powerful action of NO on IRP1 also remedies the defects of iron storage found in IRP2-null bone marrow macrophages by efficiently reducing Ft overexpression. We also found that NO-dependent IRP1 activation, resulting in increased iron uptake and reduced iron sequestration and export, maintains enough intracellular iron to fuel the Fe-S cluster biosynthetic pathway for efficient restoration of the citric acid cycle aconitase in mitochondria. Thus, IRP1 is the dominant sensor and transducer of NO for posttranscriptional regulation of iron metabolism and participates in Fe-S cluster repair after exposure to NO.
Project description:Defects in the yeast cysteine desulfurase Nfs1 cause a severe impairment in the 2-thio modification of uridine of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) and cytosolic tRNAs (cy-tRNAs). Nfs1 can also provide the sulfur atoms of the iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters generated by the mitochondrial and cytosolic Fe/S cluster assembly machineries, termed ISC and CIA, respectively. Therefore, a key question remains as to whether the biosynthesis of Fe/S clusters is a prerequisite for the 2-thio modification of the tRNAs in both of the subcellular compartments of yeast cells. To elucidate this question, we asked whether mitochondrial ISC and/or cytosolic CIA components besides Nfs1 were involved in the 2-thio modification of these tRNAs. We demonstrate here that the three CIA components, Cfd1, Nbp35, and Cia1, are required for the 2-thio modification of cy-tRNAs but not of mt-tRNAs. Interestingly, the mitochondrial scaffold proteins Isu1 and Isu2 are required for the 2-thio modification of the cy-tRNAs but not of the mt-tRNAs, while mitochondrial Nfs1 is required for both 2-thio modifications. These results clearly indicate that the 2-thio modification of cy-tRNAs is Fe/S protein dependent and thus requires both CIA and ISC machineries but that of mt-tRNAs is Fe/S cluster independent and does not require key mitochondrial ISC components except for Nfs1.
Project description:The generally accepted role of iron-regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) in orchestrating the fate of iron-regulated mRNAs depends on the interconversion of its cytosolic aconitase and RNA-binding forms through assembly/disassembly of its Fe-S cluster, without altering protein abundance. Here, we show that IRP1 protein abundance can be iron-regulated. Modulation of IRP1 abundance by iron did not require assembly of the Fe-S cluster, since a mutant with all cluster-ligating cysteines mutated to serine underwent iron-induced protein degradation. Phosphorylation of IRP1 at S138 favored the RNA-binding form and promoted iron-dependent degradation. However, phosphorylation at S138 was not required for degradation. Further, degradation of an S138 phosphomimetic mutant was not blocked by mutation of cluster-ligating cysteines. These findings were confirmed in mouse models with genetic defects in cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly/disassembly. IRP1 RNA-binding activity was primarily regulated by IRP1 degradation in these animals. Our results reveal a mechanism for regulating IRP1 action relevant to the control of iron homeostasis during cell proliferation, inflammation, and in response to diseases altering cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly or disassembly.