A genomewide screen for autism-spectrum disorders: evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 3q25-27.
ABSTRACT: To identify genetic loci for autism-spectrum disorders, we have performed a two-stage genomewide scan in 38 Finnish families. The detailed clinical examination of all family members revealed infantile autism, but also Asperger syndrome (AS) and developmental dysphasia, in the same set of families. The most significant evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 3q25-27, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.31 (Z(max )(dom)) for D3S3037, using infantile autism and AS as an affection status. Six markers flanking over a 5-cM region on 3q gave Z(max dom) >3, and a maximum parametric multipoint LOD score (MLS) of 4.81 was obtained in the vicinity of D3S3715 and D3S3037. Association, linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analyses provided some evidence for shared ancestor alleles on this chromosomal region among affected individuals, especially in the regional subisolate. Additional potential susceptibility loci with two-point LOD scores >2 were observed on chromosomes 1q21-22 and 7q. The region on 1q21-22 overlaps with the previously reported candidate region for infantile autism and schizophrenia, whereas the region on chromosome 7q provided evidence for linkage 58 cM distally from the previously described autism susceptibility locus (AUTS1).
Project description:Autism is a neurobehavioral spectrum of phenotypes characterized by deficits in the development of language and social relationships and patterns of repetitive, rigid and compulsive behaviors. Twin and family studies point to a significant genetic etiology, and several groups have performed genomic linkage screens to identify susceptibility loci.We performed a genome-wide linkage screen in 158 combined Tufts, Vanderbilt and AGRE (Autism Genetics Research Exchange) multiplex autism families using parametric and nonparametric methods with a categorical autism diagnosis to identify loci of main effect. Hypothesizing interdependence of genetic risk factors prompted us to perform exploratory studies applying the Ordered-Subset Analysis (OSA) approach using LOD scores as the trait covariate for ranking families. We employed OSA to test for interlocus correlations between loci with LOD scores > or =1.5, and empirically determined significance of linkage in optimal OSA subsets using permutation testing. Exploring phenotypic correlates as the basis for linkage increases involved comparison of mean scores for quantitative trait-based subsets of autism between optimal subsets and the remaining families.A genome-wide screen for autism loci identified the best evidence for linkage to 17q11.2 and 19p13, with maximum multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores of 2.9 and 2.6, respectively. Suggestive linkage (LOD scores > or =1.5) at other loci included 3p, 6q, 7q, 12p, and 16p. OSA revealed positive correlations of linkage between the 19p locus and 17q, between 19p and 6q, and between 7q and 5p. While potential phenotypic correlates for these findings were not identified for the chromosome 7/5 combination, differences indicating more rapid achievement of "developmental milestones" was apparent in the chromosome 19 OSA-defined subsets for 17q and 6q. OSA was used to test the hypothesis that 19p linkage involved more rapid achievement of these milestones and it revealed significantly increased LOD* scores at 19p13.Our results further support 19p13 as harboring an autism susceptibility locus, confirm other linkage findings at 17q11.2, and demonstrate the need to analyze more discreet trait-based subsets of complex phenotypes to improve ability to detect genetic effects.
Project description:Abnormal lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. We conducted genome-wide variance component linkage analyses to search for loci influencing total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL and triglyceride in families residing in American Samoa and Samoa as well as in a combined sample from the two polities. We adjusted the traits for a number of environmental covariates, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and material lifestyle. We found suggestive univariate linkage with log of the odds (LOD) scores > 3 for LDL on 6p21-p12 (LOD 3.13) in Samoa and on 12q21-q23 (LOD 3.07) in American Samoa. Furthermore, in American Samoa on 12q21, we detected genome-wide linkage (LOD(eq) 3.38) to the bivariate trait TC-LDL. Telomeric of this region, on 12q24, we found suggestive bivariate linkage to TC-HDL (LOD(eq) 3.22) in the combined study sample. In addition, we detected suggestive univariate linkage (LOD 1.9-2.93) on chromosomes 4p-q, 6p, 7q, 9q, 11q, 12q 13q, 15q, 16p, 18q, 19p, 19q and Xq23 and suggestive bivariate linkage (LOD(eq) 2.05-2.62) on chromosomes 6p, 7q, 12p, 12q, and 19p-q. In conclusion, chromosome 6p and 12q may host promising susceptibility loci influencing lipid levels; however, the low degree of overlap between the three study samples strongly encourages further studies of the lipid-related traits.
Project description:Autism is characterized by impairments in reciprocal communication and social interaction and by repetitive and stereotyped patterns of activities and interests. Evidence for a strong underlying genetic predisposition comes from twin and family studies, although susceptibility genes have not yet been identified. A whole-genome screen for linkage, using 83 sib pairs with autism, has been completed, and 119 markers have been genotyped in 13 candidate regions in a further 69 sib pairs. The addition of new families and markers provides further support for previous reports of linkages on chromosomes 7q and 16p. Two new regions of linkage have also been identified on chromosomes 2q and 17q. The most significant finding was a multipoint maximum LOD score (MLS) of 3.74 at marker D2S2188 on chromosome 2; this MLS increased to 4.80 when only sib pairs fulfilling strict diagnostic criteria were included. The susceptibility region on chromosome 7 was the next most significant, generating a multipoint MLS of 3.20 at marker D7S477. Chromosome 16 generated a multipoint MLS of 2.93 at D16S3102, whereas chromosome 17 generated a multipoint MLS of 2.34 at HTTINT2. With the addition of new families, there was no increased allele sharing at a number of other loci originally showing some evidence of linkage. These results support the continuing collection of multiplex sib-pair families to identify autism-susceptibility genes.
Project description:Chordoma is a rare tumor originating from notochordal remnants that is usually diagnosed during midlife. We performed a genomewide analysis for linkage in a family with 10 individuals affected by chordoma. The maximum two-point LOD score based on only the affected individuals was 2.21, at recombination fraction 0, at marker D7S2195 on chromosome 7q. Combined analysis of additional members of this family (11 affected individuals) and of two unrelated families (one with 2 affected individuals and the other with 3 affected individuals), with 20 markers on 7q, showed a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.05 at marker D7S500. Multipoint analysis based on only the affected individuals gave a maximum LOD score of 4.78, with an approximate 2-LOD support interval from marker D7S512 to marker D7S684. Haplotype analysis of the three families showed a minimal disease-gene region from D7S512 to D7S684, a distance of 11.1 cM and approximately 7.1 Mb. No loss of heterozygosity was found at markers D7S1804, D7S1824, and D7S2195 in four tumor samples from affected family members. These results map a locus for familial chordoma to 7q33. Further analysis of this region, to identify this gene, is ongoing.
Project description:Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC), the most frequently described type of paroxysmal dyskinesia, is characterized by recurrent, brief attacks of involuntary movements induced by sudden voluntary movements. Some patients with PKC have a history of infantile afebrile convulsions with a favorable outcome. To localize the PKC locus, we performed genomewide linkage analysis on eight Japanese families with autosomal dominant PKC. Two-point linkage analysis provided a maximum LOD score of 10.27 (recombination fraction [theta] =.00; penetrance [p] =.7) at marker D16S3081, and a maximum multipoint LOD score for a subset of markers was calculated to be 11.51 (p = 0.8) at D16S3080. Haplotype analysis defined the disease locus within a region of approximately 12.4 cM between D16S3093 and D16S416. P1-derived artificial chromosome clones containing loci D16S3093 and D16S416 were mapped, by use of FISH, to 16p11.2 and 16q12.1, respectively. Thus, in the eight families studied, the chromosomal localization of the PKC critical region (PKCR) is 16p11.2-q12.1. The PKCR overlaps with a region responsible for "infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis" (MIM 602066), a recently recognized clinical entity with benign infantile convulsions and nonkinesigenic paroxysmal dyskinesias.
Project description:The results of genetic linkage studies for autism have suggested that a susceptibility locus for the disease is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q). An autistic individual carrying a translocation, t(7;13)(q31.3;q21), with the chromosome 7 breakpoint located in the region of 7q implicated by genetic studies was identified. A novel gene known as "RAY1" (or "FAM4A1") was found to be directly interrupted by the translocation breakpoint. The gene, which was found to be encoded by 16 exons with evidence of alternative splicing, spanned > or =220 kb of DNA at 7q31.3. Mutation screening of the entire coding region in a set of 27 unrelated autistic individuals failed to identify phenotype-specific variants, suggesting that coding region mutations are unlikely to be involved in the etiology of autism. Apparent homologues of RAY1 have also been identified in mouse, rat, pig, chicken, fruit fly, and nematode. The human and mouse genes share similar splicing patterns, and their predicted protein products are 98% identical.
Project description:Autism is a syndrome characterized by deficits in language and social skills and by repetitive behaviors. We hypothesized that potential quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to component autism endophenotypes might underlie putative or significant regions of autism linkage. We performed nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses, in 152 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, focusing on three traits derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview: "age at first word," "age at first phrase," and a composite measure of "repetitive and stereotyped behavior." Families were genotyped for 335 markers, and multipoint sib pair linkage analyses were conducted. Using nonparametric multipoint linkage analysis, we found the strongest QTL evidence for age at first word on chromosome 7q (nonparametric test statistic [Z] 2.98; P=.001), and subsequent linkage analyses of additional markers and association analyses in the same region supported the initial result (Z=2.85, P=.002; chi(2)=18.84, df 8, P=.016). Moreover, the peak fine-mapping result for repetitive behavior (Z=2.48; P=.007) localized to a region overlapping this language QTL. The putative autism-susceptibility locus on chromosome 7 may be the result of separate QTLs for the language and repetitive or stereotyped behavior deficits that are associated with the disorder.
Project description:The FOXP2 gene, located on human 7q31 (at the SPCH1 locus), encodes a transcription factor containing a polyglutamine tract and a forkhead domain. FOXP2 is mutated in a severe monogenic form of speech and language impairment, segregating within a single large pedigree, and is also disrupted by a translocation in an isolated case. Several studies of autistic disorder have demonstrated linkage to a similar region of 7q (the AUTS1 locus), leading to the proposal that a single genetic factor on 7q31 contributes to both autism and language disorders. In the present study, we directly evaluate the impact of the FOXP2 gene with regard to both complex language impairments and autism, through use of association and mutation screening analyses. We conclude that coding-region variants in FOXP2 do not underlie the AUTS1 linkage and that the gene is unlikely to play a role in autism or more common forms of language impairment.
Project description:Autism is a common heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with complex etiology. Several genome-wide linkage and association scans have been carried out to identify regions harboring genes related to autism or autism spectrum disorders, with mixed results. Given the overlap in autism features with genetic abnormalities known to be associated with imprinting, one possible reason for lack of consistency would be the influence of parent-of-origin effects that may mask the ability to detect linkage and association.We have performed a genome-wide linkage scan that accounts for potential parent-of-origin effects using 16,311 SNPs among families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) autism repository. We report parametric (GH, Genehunter) and allele-sharing linkage (Aspex) results using a broad spectrum disorder case definition. Paternal-origin genome-wide statistically significant linkage was observed on chromosomes 4 (LOD(GH) = 3.79, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex) = 2.96, p = 0.008), 15 (LOD(GH) = 3.09, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex) = 3.62, empirical p = 0.003) and 20 (LOD(GH) = 3.36, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex) = 3.38, empirical p = 0.006).These regions may harbor imprinted sites associated with the development of autism and offer fruitful domains for molecular investigation into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in autism.
Project description:The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been rising alarmingly worldwide, including in the United States, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of MS is very limited. Therefore, we planned to identify the genetic determinants of MS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII) criteria. We performed linkage screen for MS using data from 692 Mexican Americans, who participated in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS). We found strong evidence for linkage of MS on chromosome 7q (LOD = 3.6, empirical P = 6.0 × 10(-5)), between markers D7S2212 and D7S821. In addition, six chromosomal regions exhibited potential evidence for linkage (LOD ?1.2) with MS. Furthermore, we examined 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36, 18 SNPs) gene and guanine nucleotide binding protein, ? transducing 3 (GNAT3, 11 SNPs) gene, located within the 1-LOD support interval region for their association with MS and its related traits. Several SNPs were associated with MS and its related traits. Remarkably, rs11760281 in GNAT3 and rs1194197 near CD36 exhibited the strongest associations with MS (P = 0.0003, relative risk (RR) = 1.6 and P = 0.004, RR = 1.7, respectively) and several other related traits. These two variants explained ~18% of the MS linkage evidence on chromosome 7q21, and together conferred approximately threefold increase in MS risk (RR = 2.7). In conclusion, our linkage and subsequent association studies implicate a region on chromosome 7q21 to influence MS in Mexican Americans.