Seed shattering in a wild sorghum is conferred by a locus unrelated to domestication.
ABSTRACT: Suppression of seed shattering was a key step during crop domestication that we have previously suggested to be convergent among independent cereal lineages. Positional, association, expression, and mutant complementation data all implicate a WRKY transcription factor, SpWRKY, in conferring shattering to a wild sorghum relative, Sorghum propinquum. We hypothesize that SpWRKY functions in a manner analogous to Medicago and Arabidopsis homologs that regulate cell wall biosynthesis genes, with low expression toward the end of floral development derepressing downstream cell wall biosynthesis genes to allow deposition of lignin that initiates the abscission zone in the seed-pedicel junction. The recent discovery of a YABBY locus that confers shattering within Sorghum bicolor and other cereals validated our prior hypothesis that some parallel domestication may have been convergent. Ironically, however, the shattering allele of SpWRKY appears to be recently evolved in S. propinquum and illustrates a case in which the genetic control of a trait in a wild relative fails to extrapolate even to closely related crops. Remarkably, the SpWRKY and YABBY loci lie only 300 kb apart and may have appeared to be a single genetic locus in some sorghum populations.
Project description:A key step during crop domestication is the loss of seed shattering. Here, we show that seed shattering in sorghum is controlled by a single gene, Shattering1 (Sh1), which encodes a YABBY transcription factor. Domesticated sorghums harbor three different mutations at the Sh1 locus. Variants at regulatory sites in the promoter and intronic regions lead to a low level of expression, a 2.2-kb deletion causes a truncated transcript that lacks exons 2 and 3, and a GT-to-GG splice-site variant in the intron 4 results in removal of the exon 4. The distributions of these non-shattering haplotypes among sorghum landraces suggest three independent origins. The function of the rice ortholog (OsSh1) was subsequently validated with a shattering-resistant mutant, and two maize orthologs (ZmSh1-1 and ZmSh1-5.1+ZmSh1-5.2) were verified with a large mapping population. Our results indicate that Sh1 genes for seed shattering were under parallel selection during sorghum, rice and maize domestication.
Project description:Seed shattering in crops is a key domestication trait due to its relevance for seed dispersal, yield, and fundamental questions in evolution (e.g., convergent evolution). Here, we focused on pod shattering in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume crop for human consuption in the world. With this main aim, we developed a methodological pipeline that comprises a thorough characterization under field conditions, including also the chemical composition and histological analysis of the pod valves. The pipeline was developed based on the assumption that the shattering trait itself can be treated in principle as a "syndrome" (i.e., a set of correlated different traits) at the pod level. We characterized a population of 267 introgression lines that were developed ad-hoc to study shattering in common bean. Three main objectives were sought: (1) to dissect the shattering trait into its "components," of level (percentage of shattering pods per plant) and mode (percentage of pods with twisting or non-twisting valves); (2) to test whether shattering is associated to the chemical composition and/or the histological characteristics of the pod valves; and (3) to test the associations between shattering and other plant traits. We can conclude the following: Very high shattering levels can be achieved in different modes; shattering resistance is mainly a qualitative trait; and high shattering levels is correlated with high carbon and lignin contents of the pod valves and with specific histological charaterstics of the ventral sheath and the inner fibrous layer of the pod wall. Our data also suggest that shattering comes with a "cost," as it is associated with low pod size, low seed weight per pod, high pod weight, and low seed to pod-valves ratio; indeed, it can be more exaustively described as a syndrome at the pod level. Our work suggests that the valve chemical composition (i.e., carbon and lignin content) can be used for a high troughput phenotyping procedures for shattering phenotyping. Finally, we believe that the application of our pipeline will greatly facilitate comparative studies among legume crops, and gene tagging.
Project description:Setaria (L.) P. Beauv is a genus of grasses that belongs to the Poaceae (grass) family, subfamily Panicoideae. Two members of the Setaria genus, Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and S. viridis (green foxtail), have been studied extensively over the past few years as model species for C4-photosynthesis and to facilitate genome studies in complex Panicoid bioenergy grasses. We exploited the available genetic and genomic resources for S. italica and its wild progenitor, S. viridis, to study the genetic basis of seed shattering. Reduced shattering is a key trait that underwent positive selection during domestication. Phenotyping of F2:3 and recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations generated from a cross between S. italica accession B100 and S. viridis accession A10 identified the presence of additive main effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes V and IX. As expected, enhanced seed shattering was contributed by the wild S. viridis. Comparative analyses pinpointed Sh1 and qSH1, two shattering genes previously identified in sorghum and rice, as potentially underlying the QTL on Setaria chromosomes IX and V, respectively. The Sh1 allele in S. italica was shown to carry a PIF/Harbinger MITE in exon 2, which gave rise to an alternatively spliced transcript that lacked exon 2. This MITE was universally present in S. italica accessions around the world and absent from the S. viridis germplasm tested, strongly suggesting a single origin of foxtail millet domestication. The qSH1 gene carried two MITEs in the 5'UTR. Presence of one or both MITEs was strongly associated with cultivated germplasm. If the MITE insertion(s) in qSH1 played a role in reducing shattering in S. italica accessions, selection for the variants likely occurred after the domestication of foxtail millet.
Project description:Seed shattering is an important agronomic trait in rice domestication. In this study, using a near-isogenic line (NIL-hs1) from Oryza barthii, we found a hybrid seed shattering phenomenon between the NIL-hs1 and its recurrent parent, a japonica variety Yundao 1. The heterozygotes at hybrid shattering 1 (HS1) exhibited the shattering phenotype, whereas the homozygotes from both parents conferred the non-shattering. The causal HS1 gene for hybrid shattering was located in the region between SSR marker RM17604 and RM8220 on chromosome 4. Sequence verification indicated that HS1 was identical to SH4, and HS1 controlled the hybrid shattering due to harboring the ancestral haplotype, the G allele at G237T site and C allele at C760T site from each parent. Comparative analysis at SH4 showed that all the accessions containing ancestral haplotype, including 78 wild relatives of rice and 8 African cultivated rice, had the shattering phenotype, whereas all the accessions with either of the homozygous domestic haplotypes at one of the two sites, including 17 wild relatives of rice, 111 African cultivated rice and 65 Asian cultivated rice, showed the non-shattering phenotype. Dominant complementation of the G allele at G237T site and the C allele at C760T site in HS1 led to a hybrid shattering phenotype. These results help to shed light on the nature of seed shattering in rice during domestication and improve the moderate shattering varieties adapted to mechanized harvest.
Project description:The predominant view regarding Asian rice domestication is that the initial origin of nonshattering involved a single gene of large effect, specifically, the sh4 locus via the evolutionary replacement of a dominant allele for shattering with a recessive allele for reduced shattering. Data have accumulated to challenge this hypothesis. Specifically, a few studies have reported occasional seed-shattering plants from populations of the wild progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza rufipogon complex) being homozygous for the putative "nonshattering" sh4 alleles. We tested the sh4 hypothesis for the domestication of cultivated rice by obtaining genotypes and phenotypes for a diverse set of samples of wild, weedy, and cultivated rice accessions. The cultivars were fixed for the putative "nonshattering" allele and nonshattering phenotype, but wild rice accessions are highly polymorphic for the putative "nonshattering" allele (frequency ?26%) with shattering phenotype. All weedy rice accessions are the "nonshattering" genotype at the sh4 locus but with shattering phenotype. These data challenge the widely accepted hypothesis that a single nucleotide mutation ("G"/"T") of the sh4 locus is the major driving force for rice domestication. Instead, we hypothesize that unidentified shattering loci are responsible for the initial domestication of cultivated rice through reduced seed shattering.
Project description:Loss of seed shattering has been regarded as a key step during crop domestication. Mutagenesis contributes to the development of novel crop cultivars with a desired seed-shattering habit in a relatively short period of time, but also to uncovering the genetic architecture of seed shattering. 'Minamiyutaka', a non-shattering indica rice cultivar, was developed from the easy-shattering cultivar 'Moretsu' by mutation breeding via gamma-ray irradiation. In present study, we observed significant differences in shattering habit, breaking tensile strength, and abscission zone structure between 'Moretsu' and 'Minamiyutaka'. Whole-genome mutation analysis of 'Minamiyutaka' newly identified a 13-bp deletion causing defective splicing in exon 3 of the OsSh1 gene which has previously been referred to as a candidate for controlling seed shattering. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, we demonstrated that loss-of-function mutation in OsSh1 causes non-shattering in rice. Furthermore, gene expression analysis suggests that OsSh1 may function downstream of qSH1, a known key gene involved in abscission zone differentiation. Nucleotide diversity analysis of OsSh1 in wild rice accessions and cultivars revealed that OsSh1 has been under strong selection during rice domestication, and a missense mutation might have contributed to the reduction of seed shattering from the wild progenitors to cultivated rice.
Project description:Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa L. was domesticated from its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon. During domestication, the cultivated rice lost its seed-shattering behaviour. Previous studies have shown that two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs; qSH1 and sh4) are responsible for the seed-shattering degree. Here, we produced introgression lines carrying non-functional alleles from O. sativa 'Nipponbare' at the two major QTLs in the genetic background of wild rice O. rufipogon W630, and examined the effects of the two QTLs on seed shattering and abscission layer formation. The introgression lines, with Nipponbare alleles at either or both loci, showed complete or partial abscission layer formation, respectively, indicating that other unknown loci might be involved in enhancing seed shattering in wild rice. We detected a single QTL named qSH3 regulating seed-shattering degree using an F2 population between Nipponbare and the introgression line carrying Nipponbare alleles at the two QTLs. Although we generated an introgression line for qSH3 alone, no effects on seed shattering were observed. However, a significant effect on seed-shattering degree was observed for the introgression line carrying Nipponbare alleles at qSH3 and the two QTLs, suggesting an important role of qSH3 on seed shattering in coordination with the two QTLs.
Project description:Loss of pod shattering is one of the most important domestication-related traits in legume crops. The non-shattering phenotypes have been achieved either by disturbed formation of abscission layer between the valves, or by loss of helical tension in sclerenchyma of endocarp, that split open the pods to disperse the seeds. During domestication, azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata cv-gr. Sesquipedalis) have reduced or lost the sclerenchyma and thus the shattering behavior of seed pods. Here we performed fine-mapping with backcrossed populations and narrowed the candidate genomic region down to 4 kbp in azuki bean and 13 kbp in yard-long bean. Among the genes located in these regions, we found MYB26 genes encoded truncated proteins in azuki bean, yard-long bean, and even cowpea. As such, our findings indicate that independent domestication on the two legumes has selected the same locus for the same traits. We also argue that MYB26 could be a target gene for improving shattering phenotype in other legumes, such as soybean.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Seed shattering, or shedding, is an important fitness trait for wild and weedy grasses. U.S. weedy rice (Oryza sativa) is a highly shattering weed, thought to have evolved from non-shattering cultivated ancestors. All U.S. weedy rice individuals examined to date contain a mutation in the sh4 locus associated with loss of shattering during rice domestication. Weedy individuals also share the shattering trait with wild rice, but not the ancestral shattering mutation at sh4; thus, how weedy rice reacquired the shattering phenotype is unknown. To establish the morphological basis of the parallel evolution of seed shattering in weedy rice and wild, we examined the abscission layer at the flower-pedicel junction in weedy individuals in comparison with wild and cultivated relatives. RESULTS: Consistent with previous work, shattering wild rice individuals possess clear, defined abscission layers at flowering, whereas non-shattering cultivated rice individuals do not. Shattering weedy rice from two separately evolved populations in the U.S. (SH and BHA) show patterns of abscission layer formation and degradation distinct from wild rice. Prior to flowering, the abscission layer has formed in all weedy individuals and by flowering it is already degrading. In contrast, wild O. rufipogon abscission layers have been shown not to degrade until after flowering has occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Seed shattering in weedy rice involves the formation and degradation of an abscission layer in the flower-pedicel junction, as in wild Oryza, but is a developmentally different process from shattering in wild rice. Weedy rice abscission layers appear to break down earlier than wild abscission layers. The timing of weedy abscission layer degradation suggests that unidentified regulatory genes may play a critical role in the reacquisition of shattering in weedy rice, and sheds light on the morphological basis of parallel evolution for shattering in weedy and wild rice.
Project description:Elymus sibiricus is an important forage grass in semi-arid regions, but it is difficult to grow for commercial seed production due to high seed shattering. To better understand the underlying mechanism and explore the putative genes related to seed shattering, we conducted a combination of morphological, histological, physiochemical and transcriptome analysis on two E. sibiricus genotypes (XH09 and ZhN03) that have contrasting seed shattering.The results show that seed shattering is generally caused by a degradation of the abscission layer. Early degradation of abscission layers was associated with the increased seed shattering in high seed shattering genotype XH09. Two cell wall degrading enzymes, cellulase (CE) and polygalacturonase (PG), had different activity in the abscission zone, indicating their roles in differentiation of abscission layer. cDNA libraries from abscission zone tissue of XH09 and ZhN03 at 7 days, 21 days and 28 days after heading were constructed and sequenced. A total of 86,634 unigenes were annotated and 7110 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were predicted from "XH09-7 vs ZhN03-7", "XH09-21 vs ZhN03-21" and "XH09-28 vs ZhN03-28", corresponding to 2058 up-regulated and 5052 down-regulated unigenes. The expression profiles of 10 candidate transcripts involved in cell wall-degrading enzymes, lignin biosynthesis and phytohormone activity were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), 8 of which were up-regulated in low seed shattering genotype ZhN03, suggesting these genes may be associated with reduction of seed shattering.The expression data generated in this study provides an important resource for future molecular biological research in E. sibiricus.