No untoward effects of smoking cues in anti-smoking public service announcements.
ABSTRACT: Anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) often include smoking-related cues; however, visual drug cues can trigger acute cravings that may impede cognitive processing of the anti-smoking message. This experiment evaluated effects of smoking cues in PSAs on smoking urges, immediate smoking behavior, and persuasion measures in daily smokers.Three-hundred and eighteen non-treatment seeking smokers completed a single laboratory session during which they viewed sets of PSAs differentiated by presence of smoking cues (central to the PSA's argument, peripheral, or no cues) and argument strength (high versus low). After viewing the PSAs, participants completed self-report measures of smoking urges, attitudes toward quitting, self-efficacy, and intentions to quit smoking. Smoking behavior was recorded during a 1-h ad libitum smoking period immediately following PSA viewing and assessment.There was a significant positive effect of argument strength on attitudes toward quitting smoking (p=0.012). There were no main effects of smoking cues or smoking cue by argument strength interactions on any of the outcome measures.Visual smoking cues in PSAs do not increase urges to smoke, nor is there evidence that the inclusion of such cues impedes the recall or persuasive effects of anti-smoking arguments.
Project description:Anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) often use persuasive arguments to attempt to influence attitudes about smoking. The persuasiveness of a PSA has previously been associated with factors that influence the cognitive processing of its message. Genetic factors that influence cognitive processing might thus affect individuals' responses to the persuasive arguments presented in PSAs. In the present study, we examined polymorphisms in the genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF Val66Met) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met), which affect cognitive processing in the prefrontal cortex, to identify genetic factors associated with self-reported outcomes of message processing, perceived effectiveness and quitting intentions among smokers viewing PSAs. A total of 120 smokers viewed sets of four PSAs that varied with respect to features of argument strength (AS) and message sensation value. We observed significant associations of BDNF genotype with central processing, narrative processing, perceived effectiveness of the anti-smoking PSAs and participant quitting intentions; the BDNF Met allele was associated with lower scores on all these measures. Central processing acted as a mediator of the association of genotype with quitting intentions and perceived effectiveness. There was a significant interaction of COMT genotype by AS in the model of narrative processing, such that individuals homozygous for the COMT Val allele reported higher narrative processing in the high-AS condition but not in the low-AS condition. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify genetic factors associated with cognitive processing of anti-smoking PSAs.
Project description:Studies have found that smoking-related cues elicit smoking urges in addicted smokers. This work presents the first cue-reactivity study in the context of antismoking advertisements.Using a two (no cue vs. smoking cue) by two (high vs. low argument strength) mixed design, we tested the hypothesis that smoking cues presented in antismoking advertisements elicit smoking urges. The study tested 96 adult smokers using both self-reported and psychophysiological measures of smoking urge. It also explored gender differences during the urge elicitation.Smoking cues in antismoking advertisements elicited smoking urges in the weak argument condition.Antismoking advertisements with smoking cues and weak antismoking arguments could produce boomerang effects on smokers through urge elicitation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Anti-vaping public service announcements (PSAs) are intended to discourage vaping or use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). However, vaping portrayals in PSAs may have unintended effects if they increase smoking or vaping urges. This study examined benefits and unintended effects of anti-vaping PSAs with vapor portrayals on smoking and vaping-related outcomes. METHODS:Young adult smokers (N?=?171) and dual users (N?=?122) aged 21-30 years were randomly assigned to view: 1) anti-vaping PSAs with vapor; 2) anti-vaping PSAs without vapor; 3) physical activity PSAs; or 4) anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues. Outcomes were changes in vaping and smoking urges before and after viewing PSAs, post-test vaping and smoking intentions in the next hour, and post-test intention to purchase ENDS and traditional cigarettes. RESULTS:Smokers only: Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs with vapor (vs. physical activity) was associated with lower intention to vape and to purchase ENDS (ps?<?0.001) and lower intention to smoke and purchase cigarettes (ps?<?0.05). Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs with vapor (vs. PSAs without vapor and vs. anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues) was associated with lower intention to vape in the next hour (ps?<?0.05). Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs without vapor (vs. physical activity) was associated with lower change in vaping urge (p?<?0.05) and intention to purchase ENDS (p?<?0.001). Dual users: Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs without vapor (vs. anti-smoking PSAs) was associated with lower intention to purchase ENDS (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSION:Viewing anti-vaping PSAs with vapor was not associated with unintended effects and may have benefits on reducing smoking and vaping-related outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In the U.S., approximately 73% of homeless adults smoke cigarettes and they experience difficulty quitting. Homeless smokers report low self-efficacy to quit and that smoking urges are a barrier to quitting. Self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges are dynamic and change throughout smoking cessation treatment. This study examines changes in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges throughout a smoking cessation intervention among the homeless and identifies predictors of change in these characteristics. METHODS:Homeless smokers (n=430) participating in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial in the U.S. completed surveys at baseline, and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 26 on demographic and smoking characteristics (i.e., confidence to quit, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, and smoking urges). A growth curve analysis was conducted by modeling change in the smoking characteristics over time and examining the variability in the change in smoking characteristics by demographic characteristics and treatment group. RESULTS:Among the full sample, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking increased linearly over time, confidence to quit increased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently decreased, and smoking urges decreased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently increased. There were race differences in these trajectories. Racial minorities experienced significantly greater increases in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking than Whites and Blacks had higher confidence to quit than Whites. CONCLUSIONS:White participants experienced less increase in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking and lower confidence to quit and therefore may be a good target for efforts to increase self-efficacy to quit as part of homeless-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Sustaining high confidence to quit and low smoking urges throughout treatment could be key to promoting higher cessation rates among the homeless.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Individuals who report more depressive symptoms consistently demonstrate higher rates of nicotine dependence and less successful smoking cessation than do individuals who report fewer depressive symptoms. Nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges are two potential factors that may account for the differences observed between these two groups. This study assessed whether elevated depression symptoms among nicotine dependent smokers are associated with changes in withdrawal and urges to smoke when undergoing smoking cessation treatment. METHOD:Data on 81 nicotine dependent smokers were collected as part of a smoking cessation randomized trial that compared standard and contingency management treatment across one baseline week and four treatment weeks. Linear mixed model analyses were conducted with high and low depression scores predicting changes in withdrawal and urge ratings from a baseline week and four treatment weeks. RESULTS:Participants with elevated depression symptoms reported more intense nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges throughout treatment. Further, participants with greater depressive symptoms exhibited an increase in smoking urges at the start of treatment, compared with a gradual decline in urges among participants with fewer depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:Smokers with elevated depressive symptoms experience significantly elevated discomfort during smoking cessation efforts in the form of increased withdrawal and craving. This discomfort has the potential to make quitting smoking more difficult. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT00865254.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The 10-item version of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-brief) has demonstrated excellent reliability. However, the QSU-brief may be too long to use in clinical settings. We developed a new craving index called the Tobacco Craving Index (TCI) and investigated how closely the TCI grade is associated with success of quitting smoking in Japanese smoking cessation therapy (SCT) patients. METHODS:The TCI questionnaire consists of two items: the first question asks about the strength of tobacco craving on a 4-point scale, and the second question asks about the frequency of tobacco craving per day on a 4-point scale. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 85 participants who underwent the Japanese SCT at a Japanese smoking cessation clinic. We administered the QSU-brief and TCI at each of the 5 sessions during the 12-week SCT. RESULTS:Significant correlations were observed between the TCI grade and QSU-brief score (r=0.27, 0.55, 0.72, 0.58 and 0.68, at the five sessions). The change in mean TCI grade showed a similar trend as the change in mean QSU-brief score among the 43 patients who succeeded in quitting smoking and also among the 7 patients who failed to quit smoking by the last session. Both TCI and QSU-brief assessed after the second session were significantly associated with the smoking status at the last session. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the success of quitting smoking in TCI grade was 0.615-0.881 at the 5 sessions, whereas it was 0.536-0.849 in QSU-brief score. CONCLUSIONS:The TCI can be used as a predictive tool for success of quitting smoking in the Japanese SCT. As the TCI consists of two questionnaire items, it can be easily administered in smoking cessation interventions.
Project description:Antitobacco media campaigns using public service announcements (PSAs) have shown promise in reducing smoking initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Research on what makes an effective PSA has had mixed outcomes. The present study tested the effects of specific message features in antitobacco PSAs, using theory-based physiological and self-report outcomes.PSAs were categorized as high or low in message sensation value (MSV) and strength of argument and presented to 200 current smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Physiological responses-specifically, heart rate, skin conductance, zygomaticus major, and corrugator supercilii-were assessed while participants viewed the PSAs. Beliefs, attitudes, efficacy, norms, and intentions to quit were assessed immediately following viewing.Corrugator activity was significantly greater in the high MSV condition. Among those low in sensation seeking, low MSV PSAs elicited higher self-efficacy, whereas the reverse was true for high sensation seekers. High MSV PSAs elicited higher negative beliefs in low sensation seekers. Adding physiological measures to a model predicting intention to quit did not improve the explained variance.The present study represents the first comprehensive theory-based experimental investigation of the effects of different features of antitobacco PSAs and provides a framework for future research in identifying effective features of such PSAs. Results illustrate the importance of considering individual differences, characterizing both PSA content and format, and outcome and response measures when evaluating antitobacco PSAs.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:It has been proposed that many smokers switch to vaping because their nicotine addiction makes this their only viable route out of smoking. We compared indicators of prior and current cigarette smoking dependence and of relapse in former smokers who were daily users of nicotine vaping products ('vapers') or who were not vaping at the time of survey ('non-vapers'). DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey-based comparison between vaping and non-vaping former smokers, including a weighted logistic regression of vaping status onto predictor variables, adjusting for covariates specified below. SETTING:United States, Canada, Australia and England. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1070 people aged 18+ years from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey who reported having ever been daily smokers but who stopped less than 2 years ago and who were currently vapers or non-vapers. MEASUREMENTS:Dependent variable was current vaping status. Predictor variables were self-reported: (1) smoking within 5 minutes of waking and usual daily cigarette consumption, both assessed retrospectively; (2) current perceived addiction to smoking, urges to smoke and confidence in staying quit. Covariates: country, sample sources, sex, age group, ethnicity, income, education, current nicotine replacement therapy use and time since quitting. FINDINGS:Vapers were more likely than non-vapers to report: (1) having smoked within 5 minutes of waking [34.3 versus 15.9%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99, 7.03), ?2 = 16.92, P < 0.001]; having smoked > 10 cigarettes/day (74.4 versus 47.2%, aOR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.22, 8.68), ?2 = 18.18, P < 0.001); (2) perceiving themselves to be still very addicted to smoking (41.3 versus 26.2%, aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.58, 5.30, ?2 = 11.87, P < 0.001) and feeling extremely confident about staying quit (62.1 versus 36.6%, aOR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86, 5.59, ?2 = 17.36, P < 0.001). Vapers were not more likely to report any urges to smoke than non-vapers (27.7 versus 38.8%, aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.65, ?2 = 0.21, P = 0.643). CONCLUSIONS:While former smokers who currently vape nicotine daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence pre- and post-cessation compared with former smokers who are current non-vapers, they report greater confidence in staying quit and similar strength of urges to smoke.
Project description:This study examined whether the appeal of actors (i.e., their likeability and attractiveness) used in antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) interacts with adolescents' risk of future smoking to predict adolescents' smoking resistance self-efficacy and whether the antismoking messages in the PSAs further moderate this relationship.We used a 2 (future smoking risk: low, high) x 2 (actor appeal: low, high) x 3 (PSA antismoking message: tobacco industry manipulation, short-term smoking effects, long-term smoking effects) study design. A diverse sample of 110 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), with varying levels of experience with smoking, rated their smoking resistance self-efficacy after viewing each of the PSAs in each design cell.Overall, PSAs that used long-term smoking effects messages were associated with the strongest smoking resistance self-efficacy, followed in turn by PSAs that used short-term smoking effects messages and by tobacco industry manipulation messages. We found a significant interaction of actor appeal and PSA antismoking message. The use of more appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy only in long-term smoking effects PSAs. The use of less appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy for tobacco industry manipulation PSAs and short-term smoking effects PSAs. Future smoking risk did not moderate any of these findings.Antismoking PSAs that emphasize long-term smoking effects are most strongly associated with increased smoking resistance self-efficacy. The effect of these PSAs can be strengthened by using actors whom adolescents perceive to be appealing.
Project description:The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Smoking Initiative has developed six item banks for assessing smoking behaviors and biopsychosocial correlates of smoking among daily and nondaily adult cigarette smokers. This paper presents new validity evidence for the item banks including correlations of the item banks to the existing legacy measures of smoking (Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM)).Using data from a follow-up sample (N=491) and a community sample (N=369) of adult daily and nondaily smokers, we replicated the findings from Edelen et al. (2014a) and examined the correlations of legacy smoking measures with the new item bank scores.Preliminary validity findings were largely replicated with the new data. Correlations among the banks are moderate and bank score associations with measures of smoking behavior, quitting history, and other PROMIS measures follow expected patterns (e.g., nicotine dependence is most strongly associated with smoking quantity and time to first cigarette of the day; health and psychosocial expectancies are most related to quitting recency and interest). Correlations of bank scores with legacy measures are moderate to strong. The PROMIS nicotine dependence scores were most strongly associated with the legacy instruments.These analyses provide strong evidence for the validity of the PROMIS Smoking item banks in two independent samples.