The association between patients' beliefs about medicines and adherence to drug treatment after stroke: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Adherence to preventive drug treatment is a clinical problem and we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about medicines and stroke are associated with adherence. The objective was to examine associations between beliefs of patients with stroke about stroke and drug treatment and their adherence to drug treatment. DESIGN:Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING:Patients with stroke from 25 Swedish hospitals were included. MEASUREMENTS:Questionnaires were sent to 989 patients to assess their perceptions about stroke (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Brief IPQ), beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaires, BMQ) and adherence to treatment (Medication Adherence Report Scale, MARS) 3 months after stroke onset. Only patients living at home were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was self-reported adherence as measured on MARS. MARS scores were dichotomised into adherent/non-adherent. Background and clinical data from the Swedish Stroke register were included. RESULTS:811 patients were still living at home and 595 answered the questionnaire. Complete MARS data were available for 578 patients and 72 (12.5%) of these were classified as non-adherent. Non-adherent patients scored lower on positive beliefs as measured on BMQ-necessity (OR?=?0.90, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.98) and BMQ-benefit (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87), and higher on negative beliefs as measured on BMQ-concern (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21), BMQ-overuse (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.45), and BMQ-harm (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24). The Brief IPQ showed that non-adherent patients believed their current treatment to be less useful (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study showed associations between beliefs of Swedish patients with stroke about medicines and adherence. Positive beliefs were less common and negative more common among non-adherent. To improve adherence, patients' beliefs about medicines should be considered.
Project description:Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ?6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the "BMQ-necessity-concerns differential" but negatively with "BMQ-concerns" and "BMQ-side effects". Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription ("intentional non-adherence"), while "unintentional non-adherence" (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R 2 = 0.21) and "intentional non-adherence" (R 2 = 0.24) was explained by the "BMQ-necessity-concern differential" and "BMQ-experienced side effects". The variance of "unintentional non-adherence" (R 2 = 0.12) was explained by the "BMQ-necessity-concern differential" and "B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD". In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate beliefs about medicines and their association with medicine adherence in patients with chronic diseases in China. DESIGN:A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study SETTING: Two large urban hospitals in Hefei and Tianjin, China PARTICIPANTS: Hospital inpatients (313 stroke patients) and outpatients (315 diabetic patients and 339 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients) were recruited between January 2014 and September 2014. OUTCOME MEASURES:The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), assessing patients' beliefs about the specific medicine (Specific-Necessity and Specific-Concerns) prescribed for their conditions (stroke/diabetes/RA) and more general background beliefs about pharmaceuticals as a class of treatment (BMQ-General Benefit, Harm and Overuse); the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines scale (PSM) assessed patients' beliefs about how sensitive they were to the effects of medicines and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. The association between non-adherence and beliefs about medicines was assessed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS:Patients with diabetes mellitus had a stronger perceived need for treatment (mean (SD) Specific-Necessity score, 3.75 (0.40)) than patients with stroke (3.69 (0.53)) and RA (3.66 (0.44)) (p=0.049). Moderate correlations were observed between Specific-Concerns and General-Overuse, General-Harm and PSM (Pearson correlation coefficients, 0.39, 0.49 and 0.49, respectively, p<0.01). Three hundred and eleven patients were non-adherent to their medicine (159 (51.0%) in the stroke group, 60 (26.7%) in the diabetes mellitus group and 62 (19.8%) in the RA group, p<0.01). Across the whole sample, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, non-adherence was associated with patients who had higher concerns about their medicines (OR, 1.35, 95%?CI 1.07 to 1.71) and patients who believed that they were personally sensitive to the effects of medications (OR 1.44, 95%?CI 1.16 to 1.85). CONCLUSION:The BMQ is a useful tool to identify patients at risk of non-adherence. In the future, adherence intervention studies may use the BMQ to screen for patients who are at risk of non-adherence and to map interventional support.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the inadequacies of health service and its impact on clinical outcomes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in China. METHODS:A total of 210 SLE patients were randomly recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Each patient received self-report questionnaires to assess medication adherence [Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR)], beliefs about medicines [Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)] and satisfaction about medicine information [the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS)]. Associations between SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2?K) and observed factors were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS:Based on CQR, only 28.10% patients were adherent. The score of BMQ was 2.85?±?5.42, and merely 32.38% patients were satisfied with the information about their prescribed medicines. Disease activity was associated with SIMS, EuroQol five-dimensions [EQ5D], Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC), depression, use of NSAID (P???0.05). Remission of disease was positively correlated with SIMS (OR?=?0.16, 95% CI: [0.06, 0.40]), and BMQ (OR?=?0.64, 95%CI: [0.43, 0.94]). CONCLUSION:In this study, the scores of BMQ and SIMS were low, implying defects in the patient education of health service system, which led to disease flare in Chinese SLE patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03024307 . Registered January 18, 2017.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Indonesia is one of Asia's countries with the fastest growing rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of HIV infections in the province of Papua is 2.4% which is 24 times higher than the national rate in Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the association between stigma, beliefs about medicines, sociodemographic characteristics including ethnicity and adherence in People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Papua, Indonesia. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires. We included participants from two hospital-outpatient clinics who were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) for more than 6 months, were at least 18?years old, and signed informed consent. Participants completed the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS), Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), an HIV stigma scale and questions on demographic information. Data on antiretroviral medications were collected from medical records. The outcome was self-reported adherence as measured by the MARS using an 80% cut-off score. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the data. RESULTS:Overall, 331 out of 363 eligible participants were included with a mean age of 33.3 (± 9.4) years, 61.6% were female, 67.1% were Papuan. A total of 65.9% of participants were adherent. Being Papuan decreased the likelihood of adherence (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.32-0.89). Feeling more distant, a stigma type, also decreased the likelihood of adherence (OR?=?0.93; 95% CI?=?0.88-0.99). CONCLUSION:The ethnicity of being Papuan and taking a distance to others were associated with non-adherence. Targeted interventions should be developed to improve adherence in this group.
Project description:The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), used to assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is a composite score comprising clinical, biochemical, and patient self-report measures. We hypothesized that psychological factors (cognitions and mood) would be more strongly associated with patient-reported components of the DAS28 than clinical or biochemical components.A cross-sectional, observational study of 322 RA patients with active disease (mean DAS28 6.0) awaiting therapy with a biologic agent was undertaken. Patients' illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, and mood were measured using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. Relationships between psychological factors and 1) total DAS28 and 2) individual components of the DAS28 were analyzed using linear regression.Total DAS28 produced significant but weak associations with 2 of the Brief IPQ items, but no associations with BMQ or HADS scores. There were larger significant associations between the patient-reported visual analog scale (VAS) with 5 items of the Brief IPQ and with HADS depression. Low illness coherence was associated with higher tender joint count. Three Brief IPQ items and HADS anxiety scores were significantly associated with C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No psychological factors were associated with the swollen joint count.One of the subjective components of the DAS28, patient VAS, was highly correlated with cognitive factors and depression in those with severe RA. By reporting individual DAS28 components, clinicians may be better able to assess the impact of therapies on each component, adjusting approaches according to patients' needs.
Project description:Purpose:The prescribing of oral chemotherapy agents has introduced the new challenge of ensuring patients' adherence to therapy. Aspects of a close patient-doctor relationship are reported to be correlated with adherence to oral anticancer drugs, but data on capecitabine are scarce. Patients and methods:Sixty-four outpatients with a diagnosis of cancer and prescribed capecitabine were recruited from a German Comprehensive Cancer Center. We used the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9), the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS), the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), and the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS) to assess patients' perceptions and behavior. Medical data were extracted from the charts. Results:Non-adherence was reported by 20% of the 64 participants. The perceived quality of the patient-doctor relationship was high in general, but it did not emerge as a predictor of adherence in our survey (odds ratio [OR]=0.915, P=0.162, 95% CI=0.808-1.036). However, beliefs about medicine (OR=1.268, P<0.002; 95% CI=1.090-1.475) as well as satisfaction with information about medicine (OR=1.252, P<0.040, 95% CI=1.010-1.551) were predictors of adherence and the quality of the patient-doctor relationship was correlated with both variables (r=0.373, P=0.002 for SIMS sum score; r=0.263, P=0.036 for BMQ necessity/concern difference). Overall, adherence to capecitabine was high with a conviction that the therapy is necessary. However, concerns were expressed regarding the long-term effect of capecitabine use. Patients have unmet information needs regarding interactions of capecitabine with other medicines and the impairment of their intimate life. Conclusions:In order to ensure adherence to capecitabine, our results seem to encourage the default use of modern and perhaps more impersonal means of information brokerage (eg, email, internet). However, the contents of some of patients' informational needs as well as the associations of patients' beliefs and satisfaction about the information received suggest a benefit from a trustful patient-doctor relationship.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Current intervention programme to improve drug adherence are either too complex or expensive for implementation and scale-up in low-middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to assess the process and effects of implementing a low-cost, targeted and tailored pharmacist intervention among patients with type 2 diabetes who are non-adherent to antihypertensive drugs in a real-world primary care Indonesian setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A cluster randomised controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up will be conducted in 10 community health centres (CHCs) in Indonesia. Type 2 diabetes patients aged 18 years and older who reported non-adherence to antihypertensive drugs according to the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) are eligible to participate. Patients in CHCs randomised to the intervention group will receive a tailored intervention based on their personal adherence barriers. Interventions may include reminders, habit-based strategies, family support, counselling to educate and motivate patients, and strategies to address other drug-related problems. Interventions will be provided at baseline and at a 1-month follow-up. Simple question-based flowcharts and an innovative adherence intervention wheel are provided to support the pharmacy staff. Patients in CHCs randomised to the control group will receive usual care based on the Indonesian guideline. The primary outcome is the between-group difference in medication adherence change from baseline to 3-month follow-up assessed by MARS. Secondary outcomes include changes in patients' blood pressure, their medication beliefs assessed by the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)-specific, as well as process characteristics of the intervention programme from a pharmacist and patient perspective. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee of Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia (No. 859/UN6.KEP/EC/2019) and all patients will provide written informed consent prior to participation. The findings of the study will be disseminated through international conferences, one or more peer-reviewed journals and reports to key stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT04023734.
Project description:A high level of adherence to antiretroviral treatment is essential for optimal clinical outcomes in HIV infection, but measuring adherence is difficult. We investigated whether responses to a questionnaire eliciting caregiver beliefs in medicines were associated with adherence of their child (median age 2.8 years), and whether this in turn was associated with viral suppression. We used the validated beliefs in medicine questionnaire (BMQ) to measure caregiver beliefs, and medication event monitoring system caps to measure adherence. We found significant associations between BMQ scores and adherence, and between adherence and viral suppression. Among children initiating Antiretroviral therapy (ART), we also found significant associations between BMQ 'necessity' scores, and BMQ 'necessity-concerns' scores, and later viral suppression. This suggests that the BMQ may be a valuable tool when used alongside other adherence measures, and that it remains important to keep caregivers well informed about the long-term necessity of their child's ART.
Project description:Thanks to the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected patients can have almost a normal life expectancy. This has resulted in an aging HIV-infected population with other chronic comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression. Our hypothesis is that patients' perceptions of and attitudes towards their cART, which is perceived as crucial to their survival, differ from their beliefs about their co-treatments, and this may have an impact on their medication adherence.We used the French version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ-f) to measure the perceptions of patients about their co-treatments and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (BMQ-HAART) to measure their beliefs about their cART in a representative sample (n = 150) of patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and followed at the Infectious Disease Service at the University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland. The survey was administered to all eligible patients by the order of their scheduled appointments at the end of their medical visit. The BMQ comprises two subscores: Specific-Necessity (5 identical items in BMQ-f and BMQ-HAART) and Specific-Concerns (also 5 identical items in BMQ-f and BMQ-HAART). The subscores were standardized by dividing the score scale by the number of questions in the scale, resulting in a range of responses between 1 (low) and 5 (high). Self-reported medication adherence was measured using the SHCS Adherence Questionnaire (SHCS-AQ). Adherence was defined as not missing any dose or missing one dose of the treatment in the past 4 weeks. Sociodemographic variables were retrieved by reviewing the SHCS database.A response rate of 73% (109 of 150) was achieved. A total of 105 patients were included in the analysis: their median age was 56 [interquartile range (IQR) 51, 63] years and 74 were male (70%). Eighty-seven patients (83%) were adherent to cART and 75 (71%) were adherent to their co-treatments (P = 0.0001). The standardized mean responses for the BMQ Specific-Necessity subscores were 4.46 [standard deviation (SD): 0.58] and 2.86 (SD: 1.02) for cART and co-treatments, respectively (P < 0.0001). For Specific-Concerns, the standardized mean responses were 2.9 (SD: 1.02) for cART and 4.09 (SD: 1.02) (P < 0.0001) for co-treatments. cART and co-treatment concerns increased as the number of co-treatments increased (P = 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively).Patients had higher Necessity and lower Concerns scores for their cART in comparison with their co-treatments. A higher percentage of patients reported being adherent to cART compared with the co-treatments that they reported they were most likely to miss. Further research using a bigger sample size and more objective measures of adherence is needed to explore the association between adherence and patients' perceptions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) is the leading tool intended to assess the cognitive representation of medication, however, the validated Polish version of the questionnaire is lacking. AIMS:To adapt the original BMQ tool to the Polish language (BMQ-PL) and to validate it. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The BMQ was adapted to Polish according to widely accepted guidelines. A total of 311 cardiovascular in- and outpatients as well as medical students taking chronic medication were surveyed to assess data-to-model fit and internal consistency of the measure. The criterion-related validity was determined with the use of Polish version of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used, as well as general linear modeling. RESULTS:The BMQ-PL exhibited the same factorial structure as the original questionnaire and all the items loaded on their expected factors. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was satisfactory in the group of cardiovascular patients (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.64 to 0.82 and McDonald's omega from 0.90 to 0.91). There were significant correlations in the predicted directions between all BMQ-PL subscales and the measure of drug adherence in cardiovascular outpatients, but not in inpatients. Medical students may conceptualize the beliefs about medicines in a different way; as a result, a modified version of the BMQ-PL-General, suitable for medically-educated people, was proposed. CONCLUSION:The BMQ-PL exhibits satisfactory proof of validity to be used among cardiovascular patients.