MicroRNA-200c modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human colorectal cancer metastasis.
ABSTRACT: Distant metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family is a crucial inhibitor of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human cancer, the role of miR-200 members in the pathogenesis of metastatic CRC has not been investigated.Fifty-four pairs of primary CRC and corresponding matched liver metastasis tissue specimens were analysed for expression and methylation status of the miR-200 family members. Functional analysis of miR-200c overexpression was investigated in CRC cell lines, and cells were analysed for proliferation, invasion and migration. Expression of several miR-200c target genes (ZEB1, ETS1 and FLT1) and EMT markers (E-cadherin and vimentin) in CRC cell lines and tissue specimens was validated.Liver metastasis tissues showed higher expression of miR-200c (primary CRC = 1.31 vs. liver metastasis = 1.59; p = 0.0014) and miR-141 (primary CRC = 0.14 vs. liver metastasis = 0.17; p = 0.0234) than did primary CRCs, which was significantly associated with hypomethylation of the promoter region of these miRNAs (primary CRC = 61.2% vs. liver metastasis = 46.7%; p < 0.0001). The invasive front in primary CRC tissues revealed low miR-200c expression by in situ hybridization analysis. Transfection of miR-200c precursors resulted in enhanced cell proliferation but reduced invasion and migration behaviours in CRC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-200c in CRC cell lines caused reduced expression of putative gene targets, and resulted in increased E-cadherin and reduced vimentin expression. The associations between miR-200c, target genes and EMT markers were validated in primary CRCs and matching liver metastasis tissues.miR-200c plays an important role in mediating EMT and metastatic behaviour in the colon. Its expression is epigenetically regulated, and miR-200c may serve as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with CRC.
Project description:To evaluate the ability of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related microRNAs (miRNAs) as serum biomarkers for prognosis and prediction of metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related miRNAs drive CRC progression and metastasis. However, their potential as serum biomarkers in CRC has not been studied.This was a 3-phase study using 446 colorectal specimens. In the first phase, we selected candidate miRNAs associated with metastasis by analyzing the expression of 4 miR-200 family members (miR-200b, -200c, -141, and -429) in serum samples from 12 patients with stage I and IV CRC. The second phase involved independent validation of candidate miRNAs in serum from 182 patients with CRC and 24 controls. Finally, we analyzed expression in matched 156 tumor tissues from 182 patients with CRC and an independent set of 20 matched primary CRC and corresponding liver metastases to identify the source of circulating miRNAs.After initial screening, miR-200c was selected as the candidate serum miRNA best associated with metastasis. Validation analysis revealed that serum miR-200c levels were significantly higher in stage IV than in stage I-III CRCs. High serum miR-200c demonstrated a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and prognosis (P = 0.0026, P = 0.0023, and P = 0.0064, respectively). More importantly, serum miR-200c was an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis (odds ratio: 4.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.98-11.7, P = 0.0005) and tumor recurrence (hazard ratio: 4.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.56-13.01, P = 0.005) and emerged as an independent prognostic marker for CRC (hazard ratio: 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-5.67, P = 0.01).Serum miR-200c has strong potential to serve as a noninvasive biomarker for CRC prognosis and predicting metastasis.
Project description:Liver metastasis is common in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and is correlated with poor outcome. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in cancer development and progression, but their role in CRC liver metastasis has not been extensively investigated.Thirteen miRNAs were deregulated in pCRCs compared to their matched liver metastases. Seventeen miRNAs were chosen for validation, which confirmed significantly reduced expression of miR-99b-5p, miR-377 and miR-200c and increased expression of miR-196b-5p in the tissue of liver metastasis. Furthermore, miR-200c and miR-196b-5p were positively correlated with shorter overall survival in pCRC patients with liver metastasis.Firstly, affymetrix microarrays involving 1036 miRNAs were performed in two pairs of primary CRCs (pCRCs) and their matched liver metastases. Secondly, validation of the results was carried out on an independent cohort of 48 pairs of pCRCs and matched liver metastases using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.We discovered a pCRC liver metastasis-specific miRNA panel including miR-377, miR-99b-5p, miR-200c and miR-196b-5p through intensive validation. These miRNAs may function as prognostic factors in patients with metastatic CRC.
Project description:Increasing evidence demonstrates the existence of two inter-convertible states of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) with distinct behaviors in proliferation and mobility, and the BCSC heterogeneity is accurately regulated by sophisticated mechanisms including microRNAs. The microRNA-200 family including miR-200c/141 cluster was reported to affect cancer cell invasion and metastasis by regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the effect of miR-200 family on BCSC heterogeneity is uncertain. Thus, we investigated whether the miR-200c/141 cluster had different effects on breast tumor growth and metastasis by switching the two states of BCSC. Methods: The spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model with miR-200c/141 conditional knockout was utilized for analyzing the role of miR-200c/141 cluster in vivo. The effect of miR-200c/141 cluster on BCSCs was performed by CD24/CD29 staining and ALDEFLUOR assay. miR-200c/141 target expression and EMT-related marker expression were verified in tumor sections, primary cells and breast cancer cell lines by qRT-PCR or western blotting. Statistical analysis was determined using two-way ANOVA and Student's t-test. All values were presented as the mean ± s.e.m. Results: The deletion of miR-200c/141 cluster regulated BCSC heterogeneity and promoted the EMT-like BCSC generation, which resulted in increased tumor metastasis and inhibited tumor growth by directly upregulating the target gene homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 (HIPK1) and sequential ?-catenin activation. Conclusions: Our results indicated that miR-200c/141 played biphasic roles in breast tumor progression via affecting the BCSC heterogeneity, suggesting targeting BCSC heterogeneity to simultaneously restrict breast cancer initiation and metastasis could be a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The miR-34a gene is a direct target of p53 and is commonly silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we identified the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF1R as a direct miR-34a target and characterized CSF1R as an effector of p53/miR-34a-mediated CRC suppression. METHODS:Analyses of TCGA-COAD and three other CRC cohorts for association of mRNA expression and signatures with patient survival and molecular subtypes. Bioinformatics identification and experimental validation of miRNA and transcription factor targets. Functional analysis of factors/pathways in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, migration, acquired chemo-resistance and metastasis. Analyses of protein expression and CpG methylation within primary human colon cancer samples. RESULTS:In primary CRCs increased CSF1R, CSF1 and IL34 expression was associated with poor patient survival and a mesenchymal-like subtype. CSF1R displayed an inverse correlation with miR-34a expression. This was explained by direct inhibition of CSF1R by miR-34a. Furthermore, p53 repressed CSF1R via inducing miR-34a, whereas SNAIL induced CSF1R both directly and indirectly via repressing miR-34a in a coherent feed-forward loop. Activation of CSF1R induced EMT, migration, invasion and metastasis of CRC cells via STAT3-mediated down-regulation of miR-34a. 5-FU resistance of CRC cells was mediated by CpG-methylation of miR-34a and the resulting elevated expression of CSF1R. In primary CRCs elevated expression of CSF1R was detected at the tumor invasion front and was associated with CpG methylation of the miR-34a promoter as well as distant metastasis. CONCLUSIONS:The reciprocal inhibition between miR-34a and CSF1R and its loss in tumor cells may be relevant for therapeutic and prognostic approaches towards CRC management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumour stroma has important roles in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. We aimed to clarify the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes in CRC stroma in the development of liver metastasis. METHODS:Tumour stroma was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of primary CRCs with or without liver metastasis by laser capture microdissection, and miRNA expression was analysed using TaqMan miRNA arrays. RESULTS:Hierarchical clustering classified 16 CRCs into two groups according to the existence of synchronous liver metastasis. Combinatory target prediction identified tenascin C as a predicted target of miR-198, one of the top 10 miRNAs downregulated in tumour stroma of CRCs with synchronous liver metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of tenascin C in 139 primary CRCs revealed that a high staining intensity was correlated with synchronous liver metastasis (P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the tenascin C staining intensity was an independent prognostic factor to predict postoperative overall survival (P=0.005; n=139) and liver metastasis-free survival (P=0.001; n=128). CONCLUSIONS:Alterations of miRNAs in CRC stroma appear to form a metastasis-permissive environment that can elevate tenascin C to promote liver metastasis. Tenascin C in primary CRC stroma has the potential to be a novel biomarker to predict postoperative prognosis.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma. We have previously demonstrated an in vivo model of liver cancer in which mesenchymal cells post-EMT demonstrate a high rate of invasive growth and metastasis. Here, we investigate the role of microRNA 200 (miR-200) family members and epigenetic modifications on the maintenance of mesenchymal/metastatic phenotype after EMT. Mesenchymal cells post-EMT demonstrates high levels of E-box repressors Zeb1 and Zeb2 and downregulation of four miR-200 family members (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c and miR-429). In addition, DNA sequencing after bisulfite modification demonstrates that several CpG sites within the E-cadherin promoter are methylated in mesenchymal cells. In mesenchymal cells, forced expression of miR-200b results in a significant increase in E-cadherin and a reduction in cell migration/invasion. Despite these mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) changes in vitro, there is no significant change in metastatic potential after miR-200b upregulation in vivo. After the mesenchymal cells were treated with combination of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor and upregulation of miR-200b, invasive phenotype was significantly reduced and metastatic potential was eliminated. Direct targeting of E-cadherin with short hairpin RNA does not restore metastatic potential after DNMT inhibition and miR-200b re-expression. In addition, restoration of E-cadherin alone was unable to block metastatic potential in primary mesenchymal cells. In conclusion, targeting mesenchymal liver cancer cells with miR-200b and DNMT inhibitor reduces metastatic potential irrespective of E-cadherin expression. Thus, the broader differentiation and MET effects of DNMT inhibition and miR-200b must be considered in terms of rescuing metastatic potential.
Project description:The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism for cancer progression and metastasis. Numerous in vitro and tumor-profiling studies point to the miR-200-Zeb1 axis as crucial in regulating this process, yet in vivo studies involving its regulation within a physiological context are lacking. Here, we show that miR-200 ablation in the Rip-Tag2 insulinoma mouse model induces beta-cell dedifferentiation, initiates an EMT expression program, and promotes tumor invasion. Strikingly, disrupting the miR-200 sites of the endogenous Zeb1 locus causes a similar phenotype. Reexpressing members of the miR-200 superfamily in vitro reveals that the miR-200c family and not the co-expressed and closely related miR-141 family is responsible for regulation of Zeb1 and EMT. Our results thus show that disrupting the in vivo regulation of Zeb1 by miR-200c is sufficient to drive EMT, thus highlighting the importance of this axis in tumor progression and invasion and its potential as a therapeutic target.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In our preliminary screening, expression of miR-338-5p was found to be higher in primary colorectal cancer (CRC) with metastasis. The autophagy related gene- phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3 (PIK3C3) appeared to be targeted by miR-338-5p. Here, we provide solid evidence in support of PIK3C3 involved in miR-338-5p related metastasis of CRC in vitro and in vivo. METHODS:The potential clinical relevance of miR-338-5p and its target gene was analysed on benign colorectal polyps and primary CRCs by QPCR. Mouse spleen xenograft experiment was performed to examine the importance of miR-338-5p for metastasis. FINDINGS:PIK3C3 was one of target genes of miR-338-5p. In primary CRCs, expression of miR-338-5p is positively related to tumour staging, distant metastasis and poor patient survival. Patients with higher ratios of miR-338-5p/PIK3C3 also had significantly poor overall survival, supporting their significance in the progression of CRC. Over-expression of miR-338-5p promotes CRC metastasis to the liver and lung in vivo, in which PIK3C3 was down-regulated in the metastatic tumours. In contrast, overexpression of PIK3C3 in miR-338-5p stable cells inhibited the growth of metastatic tumours. Both migration and invasion of CRC in vitro induced by miR-338-5p are mediated by suppression of PIK3C3. Using forward and reverse approaches, autophagy was proved to involve in CRC migration and invasion induced by miR-338-5p. INTERPRETATION:MiR-338-5p induces migration, invasion and metastasis of CRC in part through PIK3C3-related autophagy pathway. The miR-338-5p/PIK3C3 ratio may become a prognostic biomarker for CRC patients. FUND: NCKU Hospital, Taiwan, Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Project description:The loss of miR-200 family, through DNA methylation, results in cancer cells undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and metastasis. In this study, we established that the transcriptional repressor Kaiso directly binds methylated regions of the miR-200 family, and this is reversed with 5-aza treatment. sh-Kaiso PC-3?cells display increased miR-200-a/b/c, miR-141, and miR-429 expression, with miR-200c demonstrating the most significant increase. Interestingly, overexpression of EGFR or treatment with EGF decreases miR-200c expression and this is reversed after treatment with EGFR specific kinase inhibitor PD153035. However, EGF did not have a significant effect on miR-200c in sh-Kaiso DU-145 or PC-3?cell lines, suggesting Kaiso silences miR-200c through the activation of EGFR signaling. Overexpression of Kaiso in LNCaP cells results in decreased expression of miR-200-a/b/c, miR-141, and miR-429, along with increased expression of ZEB1, p-EGFR and total EGFR levels. Overexpression of miR200c in PC-3?cells results in decreased expression of EGFR, ZEB1, ERK1/2 and Kaiso. Additionally, sh-Kaiso PC-3 demonstrates reduced in vivo tumor formation and metastasis. Thus, our data suggests that EGFR signaling regulates the silencing of miR-200 family through Kaiso binding to methylated regions in the promoter.
Project description:Most colorectal cancer (CRC)-related deaths are due to liver metastases. PKC? is a tumor suppressor in CRC with reduced expression in metastasis. Given the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating cellular plasticity, we performed an unbiased screening and identified the miR-200 family as the most relevant miRNAs downregulated by PKC? deficiency. The regulation of the intracellular levels of miR-200 by PKC? is post-transcriptional and involves their secretion in extracellular vesicles. Here, we identified ADAR2 as a direct substrate of PKC? in CRC cells. Phosphorylation of ADAR2 regulates its editing activity, which is required to maintain miR-200 steady-state levels, suggesting that the PKC?/ADAR2 axis regulates miR-200 secretion through RNA editing. Loss of this axis results in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased liver metastases, which can be inhibited in vivo by blocking miR-200 release. Therefore, the PKC?/ADAR2 axis is a critical regulator of CRC metastases through modulation of miR-200 levels.