A tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites.
ABSTRACT: In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti₄₆Zr₂₀V₁₂Cu₅Be₁₇ exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs.
Project description:With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.
Project description:ZrCu-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) are well known for their plastic deformability, superior to traditional metallic glasses (MGs), which is attributed to a unique dual-phases structure, namely, the glassy matrix and unstable B2 phase. In the present study, in-situ tensile testing is used to trace the deformation process of a ZrCu-based BMGC. Three deformation stages of the BMGC, i.e., the elastic-elastic stage, the elastic-plastic stage, and the plastic-plastic stage are identified. In the elastic-elastic and elastic-plastic stages, the yield strength and elastic limit are major influenced by the volume fraction of the B2 crystals. In the plastic-plastic stage, the B2 phase stimulates the formation of multiple shear bands and deflects the direction of shear bands by disturbing the stress field in front of the crack tip. The deformation-induced martensitic transformation of the metastable B2 phase contributes to the plasticity and work hardening of the composite. This study highlights the formation and propagation of multiple shear bands and reveals the interactions of shear bands with structural heterogeneities in situ. Especially, the blocking of shear bands by crystals and the martensitic transformation of the B2 phase are critical for the mechanistic deformation process and illustrate the function of the B2 phase in the present BMGCs.
Project description:A novel porous metal fiber/powder sintered composite sheet (PMFPSCS) is developed by sintering a mixture of a porous metal fiber sintered sheet (PMFSS) and copper powders with particles of a spherical shape. The characteristics of the PMFPSCS including its microstructure, sintering density and porosity are investigated. A uniaxial tensile test is carried out to study the tensile behaviors of the PMFPSCS. The deformation and failure mechanisms of the PMFSCS are discussed. Experimental results show that the PMFPSCS successively experiences an elastic stage, hardening stage, and fracture stage under tension. The tensile strength of the PMFPSCS is determined by a reticulated skeleton of fibers and reinforcement of copper powders. With the porosity of the PMFSS increasing, the tensile strength of the PMFPSCS decreases, whereas the reinforcement of copper powders increases. At the elastic stage, the structural elastic deformation is dominant, and at the hardening stage, the plastic deformation is composed of the structural deformation and the copper fibers' plastic deformation. The fracture of the PMFPSCS is mainly caused by the breaking of sintering joints.
Project description:The filling behavior of polymers in narrow gaps or small pores is important for the dynamics of polymeric micro/nanostructure fabrication. Here, the filling behavior, the mechanical properties, and the stress versus strain relationship of 996 kD poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at a scale from micron to molecular confinement are measured. It has been found that the solid polymer exhibits elastic-plastic dominant deformation behavior at micron scale. As the scale reduces to submicron, the resistance to deformation of the polymeric solid has a pronounced reduction. A softening effect and the visco-dominant behavior which is always exhibited by melt flow is observed. In confinement conditions, an anomalous hardening effect is found. The modulus and the hardness of 996 kD PMMA have been found to increase dramatically. The stress-strain curve also exhibits an obvious hardening phenomenon which is contrary to the conventional shear thinning and deformation acceleration results. The results of this paper show that the PMMA can exhibit a change of "solid-fluid-solid" in mechanical character at micron to molecular confinement scale.
Project description:We present in situ transmission electron microscope tensile tests on focused ion beam fabricated single and multiple slip oriented Cu tensile samples with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm. Both crystal orientations fail by localized shear. While failure occurs after a few percent plastic strain and limited hardening in the single slip case, the multiple slip samples exhibit extended homogenous deformation and necking due to the activation of multiple dislocation sources in conjunction with significant hardening. The hardening behavior at 1% plastic strain is even more pronounced compared to compression samples of the same orientation due to the absence of sample taper and the interface to the compression platen. Moreover, we show for the first time that the strain rate sensitivity of such FIB prepared samples is an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk Cu.
Project description:Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress-strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress-strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young's modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally.
Project description:It is known that the room-temperature plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses is compromised by strain softening and shear localization, resulting in near-zero tensile ductility. The incorporation of metallic glasses into engineering materials, therefore, is often accompanied by complete brittleness or an apparent loss of useful tensile ductility. Here we report the observation of an exceptional tensile ductility in crystalline copper/copper-zirconium glass nanolaminates. These nanocrystalline-amorphous nanolaminates exhibit a high flow stress of 1.09 +/- 0.02 GPa, a nearly elastic-perfectly plastic behavior without necking, and a tensile elongation to failure of 13.8 +/- 1.7%, which is six to eight times higher than that typically observed in conventional crystalline-crystalline nanolaminates (<2%) and most other nanocrystalline materials. Transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations demonstrate that shear banding instability no longer afflicts the 5- to 10-nm-thick nanolaminate glassy layers during tensile deformation, which also act as high-capacity sinks for dislocations, enabling absorption of free volume and free energy transported by the dislocations; the amorphous-crystal interfaces exhibit unique inelastic shear (slip) transfer characteristics, fundamentally different from those of grain boundaries. Nanoscale metallic glass layers therefore may offer great benefits in engineering the plasticity of crystalline materials and opening new avenues for improving their strength and ductility.
Project description:The ideal elastic limit is the upper bound to the stress and elastic strain a material can withstand. This intrinsic property has been widely studied for crystalline metals, both theoretically and experimentally. For metallic glasses, however, the ideal elastic limit remains poorly characterized and understood. Here we show that the elastic strain limit and the corresponding strength of submicron-sized metallic glass specimens are about twice as high as the already impressive elastic limit observed in bulk metallic glass samples, in line with model predictions of the ideal elastic limit of metallic glasses. We achieve this by employing an in situ transmission electron microscope tensile deformation technique. Furthermore, we propose an alternative mechanism for the apparent 'work hardening' behaviour observed in the tensile stress-strain curves.
Project description:Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19' phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties.
Project description:The determination of the mechanical properties of serpentinites is essential toward the understanding of the mechanics of faulting and subduction. Here we present the first in situ tensile tests on antigorite in a transmission electron microscope. A push-to-pull deformation device is used to perform quantitative tensile tests, during which force and displacement are measured, while the evolving microstructure is imaged with the microscope. The experiments have been performed at room temperature on 2 × 1 × 0.2 ?m3 beams prepared by focused ion beam. The specimens are not single crystals despite their small sizes. Orientation mapping indicated that several grains were well oriented for plastic slip. However, no dislocation activity has been observed even though the engineering tensile stress went up to 700 MPa. We show also that antigorite does not exhibit a purely elastic-brittle behavior since, despite the presence of defects, the specimens accumulate permanent deformation and did not fail within the elastic regime. Instead, we observe that strain localizes at grain boundaries. All observations concur to show that under these experimental conditions, grain boundary sliding is the dominant deformation mechanism. This study sheds a new light on the mechanical properties of antigorite and calls for further studies on the structure and properties of grain boundaries in antigorite and more generally in phyllosilicates.