Plasmonic photothermal heating of intraperitoneal tumors through the use of an implanted near-infrared source.
ABSTRACT: Plasmonic nanomaterials including gold nanorods are effective agents for inducing heating in tumors. Because near-infrared (NIR) light has traditionally been delivered using extracorporeal sources, most applications of plasmonic photothermal therapy have focused on isolated subcutaneous tumors. For more complex models of disease such as advanced ovarian cancer, one of the primary barriers to gold nanorod-based strategies is the adequate delivery of NIR light to tumors located at varying depths within the body. To address this limitation, a series of implanted NIR illumination sources are described for the specific heating of gold nanorod-containing tissues. Through computational modeling and ex vivo studies, a candidate device is identified and validated in a model of orthotopic ovarian cancer. As the therapeutic, imaging, and diagnostic applications of plasmonic nanomaterials progress, effective methods for NIR light delivery to challenging anatomical regions will complement ongoing efforts to advance plasmonic photothermal therapy toward clinical use.
Project description:Plasmonic-mediated photothermal heating under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation is an emerging key technology in the field of photothermal therapy and chemical reactions. However, there are few reports of photothermal film (dry-type patch), and thus, in this work, we developed the plasmonic-induced photothermal cellulose-patch operating in the NIR region. Hollow and spikelike gold nanostructures, gold-spikes, as plasmonic nanoparticles were prepared and decorated on silica microrods, which were prepared based on a unicellular organism, Escherichia coli, as a framework. In addition, freestanding cellulose-patch was prepared by mixing filter-paper pulp and armored golden E. coli (AGE) microrods. The major absorbing peak of AGE solution was revealed to be 873 nm, and the surface temperature of patch was increased to 264 °C within a very short time (1 min). When NIR laser was irradiated on the patch dipped in the water, the formation of water vapor and air bubbles was observed. The heating efficiency of indirect heat transfer via conduction from patch-to-water was 35.0%, while that of direct heat transfer via radiation from patch in water was 86.1%. Therefore, the cellulose-patch containing AGE microrods has possible applicability to desalination and sterilization because of its fast heating rate and high light-to-heat conversion under the irradiation of low-powered IR laser.
Project description:Directed assembly of gold nanorods through the use of dithiolated molecular linkers is one of the most efficient methodologies for the morphologically controlled tip-to-tip assembly of this type of anisotropic nanocrystals. However, in a direct analogy to molecular polymerization synthesis, this process is characterized by difficulties in chain-growth control over nanoparticle oligomers. In particular, it is nearly impossible to favor the formation of one type of oligomer, making the methodology hard to use for actual applications in nanoplasmonics. We propose here a light-controlled synthetic procedure that allows obtaining selected plasmonic oligomers in high yield and with reaction times in the scale of minutes by irradiation with low fluence near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulses. Selective inhibition of the formation of gold nanorod n-mers (trimers) with a longitudinal localized surface plasmon in resonance with a 800 nm Ti:sapphire laser, allowed efficient trapping of the (n - 1)-mers (dimers) by hot spot mediated photothermal decomposition of the interparticle molecular linkers. Laser irradiation at higher energies produced near-field enhancement at the interparticle gaps, which is large enough to melt gold nanorod tips, offering a new pathway toward tip-to-tip welding of gold nanorod oligomers with a plasmonic response at the NIR. Thorough optical and electron microscopy characterization indicates that plasmonic oligomers can be selectively trapped and welded, which has been analyzed in terms of a model that predicts with reasonable accuracy the relative concentrations of the main plasmonic species.
Project description:Methylene blue-loaded gold nanorod@SiO2 (MB-GNR@SiO2) core@shell nanoparticles are synthesized for use in cancer imaging and photothermal/photodynamic dual therapy. For the preparation of GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles, we found that the silica coating rate of hexadecylcetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped GNRs is much slower than that of PEGylated GNRs due to the densely coated CTAB bilayer. Encapsulated MB molecules have both monomer and dimer forms that result in an increase in the photosensitizing effect through different photochemical pathways. As a consequence of the excellent plasmonic properties of GNRs at near-infrared (NIR) light, the embedded MB molecules showed NIR light-induced SERS performance with a Raman enhancement factor of 3.0 × 10(10), which is enough for the detection of a single cancer cell. Moreover, the MB-GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit a synergistic effect of photodynamic and photothermal therapies of cancer under single-wavelength NIR laser irradiation.
Project description:We report a hybrid reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-loaded ultrasmall plasmonic gold nanorod vesicle (rGO-AuNRVe) (?65 nm in size) with remarkably amplified photoacoustic (PA) performance and photothermal effects. The hybrid vesicle also exhibits a high loading capacity of doxorubicin (DOX), as both the cavity of the vesicle and the large surface area of the encapsulated rGO can be used for loading DOX, making it an excellent drug carrier. The loaded DOX is released sequentially: near-infrared photothermal heating induces DOX release from the vesicular cavity, and an intracellular acidic environment induces DOX release from the rGO surface. Positron emission tomography imaging showed high passive U87MG tumor accumulation of (64)Cu-labeled rGO-AuNRVes (?9.7% ID/g at 24 h postinjection) and strong PA signal in the tumor region. Single intravenous injection of rGO-AuNRVe-DOX followed by low-power-density 808 nm laser irradiation (0.25 W/cm(2)) revealed effective inhibition of tumor growth due to the combination of chemo- and photothermal therapies. The rGO-AuNRVe-DOX capable of sequential DOX release by laser light and acid environment may have the potential for clinical translation to treat cancer patients with tumors accessible by light.
Project description:Plasmonic nanomaterials have the opportunity to considerably improve the specificity of cancer ablation by i.v. homing to tumors and acting as antennas for accepting externally applied energy. Here, we describe an integrated approach to improved plasmonic therapy composed of multimodal nanomaterial optimization and computational irradiation protocol development. We synthesized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-protected gold nanorods (NR) that exhibit superior spectral bandwidth, photothermal heat generation per gram of gold, and circulation half-life in vivo (t(1/2), approximately 17 hours) compared with the prototypical tunable plasmonic particles, gold nanoshells, as well as approximately 2-fold higher X-ray absorption than a clinical iodine contrast agent. After intratumoral or i.v. administration, we fuse PEG-NR biodistribution data derived via noninvasive X-ray computed tomography or ex vivo spectrometry, respectively, with four-dimensional computational heat transport modeling to predict photothermal heating during irradiation. In computationally driven pilot therapeutic studies, we show that a single i.v. injection of PEG-NRs enabled destruction of all irradiated human xenograft tumors in mice. These studies highlight the potential of integrating computational therapy design with nanotherapeutic development for ultraselective tumor ablation.
Project description:Photothermal desorption of molecules from plasmonic nanoparticles is an example of a light-triggered molecular release due to heating of the system. However, this phenomenon ought to work only if the molecule-nanoparticle interaction is exothermic in nature. In this study, we compare protein adsorption behavior onto gold nanoparticles for both endothermic and exothermic complexation reactions, and demonstrate that Le Chatelier's principle can be applied to predict protein adsorption or desorption on nanomaterial surfaces. Polyelectrolyte-wrapped gold nanorods were used as adsorption platforms for two different proteins, which we were able to adsorb/desorb from the nanorod surface depending on the thermodynamics of their interactions. Furthermore, we show that the behaviors hold up under more complex biological environments such as fetal bovine serum.
Project description:We explore a sandwich-type gold nanoparticle coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO-AuNP) as an effective nanotheranostic platform for the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) in ovarian cancer. The PEG was loaded onto the AuNPs surface to increase the stability of nanostructure. The forming rGO-AuNPs- PEG revealed very strong SERS signal, NIR-II PA signal and high photothermal efficiency against tumor upon 1,061 nm laser irradiation. The prominent performance was attributed to the plasmonic coupling of AuNPs, and the enhanced response of rGO and the plasmonic AuNP. Thus, our study demonstrates that the rGO-AuNP nanocomposite could promise to be a potential photothermal agent and pave the way for the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian cancer in the future.
Project description:The photothermal effect of plasmonic nanostructures has numerous applications, such as cancer therapy, photonic gene circuit, large cargo delivery, and nanostructure-enhanced laser tweezers. The photothermal operation can also induce unwanted physical and biochemical effects, which potentially alter the cell behaviors. However, there is a lack of techniques for characterizing the dynamic cell responses near the site of photothermal operation with high spatiotemporal resolution. In this work, we show that the incorporation of locked nucleic acid probes with gold nanorods allows photothermal manipulation and real-time monitoring of gene expression near the area of irradiation in living cells and animal tissues. The multimodal gold nanorod serves as an endocytic delivery reagent to transport the probes into the cells, a fluorescence quencher and a binding competitor to detect intracellular mRNA, and a plasmonic photothermal transducer to induce cell ablation. We demonstrate the ability of the gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid complex for detecting the spatiotemporal gene expression in viable cells and tissues and inducing photothermal ablation of single cells. Using the gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid complex, we systematically characterize the dynamic cellular heat shock responses near the site of photothermal operation. The gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid complex enables mapping of intracellular gene expressions and analyzes the photothermal effects of nanostructures toward various biomedical applications.
Project description:Photothermal therapy is an emerging cancer treatment paradigm which involves highly localized heating and killing of tumor cells, due to the presence of nanomaterials that can strongly absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. In addition to having deep penetration depths in tissue, NIR light is innocuous to normal cells. Little is known currently about the fate of nanomaterials post photothermal ablation and the implications thereof. The purpose of this investigation was to define the intratumoral fate of nanoparticles (NPs) after photothermal therapy in vivo and characterize the use of novel multidye theranostic NPs (MDT-NPs) for fractionated photothermal antitumor therapy.The photothermal and fluorescent properties of MDT-NPs were first characterized. To investigate the fate of nanomaterials following photothermal ablation in vivo, novel MDT-NPs and a murine mammary tumor model were used. Intratumoral injection of MDT-NPs and real-time fluorescence imaging before and after fractionated photothermal therapy was performed to study the intratumoral fate of MDT-NPs. Gross tumor and histological changes were made comparing MDT-NP treated and control tumor-bearing mice.The dual dye-loaded mesoporous NPs (ie, MDT-NPs; circa 100 nm) retained both their NIR absorbing and NIR fluorescent capabilities after photoactivation. In vivo MDT-NPs remained localized in the intratumoral position after photothermal ablation. With fractionated photothermal therapy, there was significant treatment effect observed macroscopically (P = 0.026) in experimental tumor-bearing mice compared to control treated tumor-bearing mice.Fractionated photothermal therapy for cancer represents a new therapeutic paradigm enabled by the application of novel functional nanomaterials. MDT-NPs may advance clinical treatment of cancer by enabling fractionated real-time image guided photothermal therapy.
Project description:A facile strategy to fabricate gold nanorod@polyacrylic acid/calcium phosphate (AuNR@PAA/CaP) yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) composed with a PAA/CaP shell and an AuNR yolk is reported. The as-obtained AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs possess ultrahigh doxorubicin (DOX) loading capability (1 mg DOX/mg NPs), superior photothermal conversion property (26%) and pH/near-infrared (NIR) dual-responsive drug delivery performance. The released DOX continuously increased due to the damage of the CaP shell at low pH values. When the DOX-loaded AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs were exposed to NIR irradiation, a burst-like drug release occurs owing to the heat produced by the AuNRs. Furthermore, AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs are successfully employed for synergic dual-mode X-ray computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging and chemo-photothermal cancer therapy. Therefore, this work brings new insights for the synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials and extends theranostic applications.