2-Bromopalmitate reduces protein deacylation by inhibition of acyl-protein thioesterase enzymatic activities.
ABSTRACT: S-acylation, the covalent attachment of palmitate and other fatty acids on cysteine residues, is a reversible post-translational modification that exerts diverse effects on protein functions. S-acylation is catalyzed by protein acyltransferases (PAT), while deacylation requires acyl-protein thioesterases (APT), with numerous inhibitors for these enzymes having already been developed and characterized. Among these inhibitors, the palmitate analog 2-brompalmitate (2-BP) is the most commonly used to inhibit palmitoylation in cells. Nevertheless, previous results from our laboratory have suggested that 2-BP could affect protein deacylation. Here, we further investigated in vivo and in vitro the effect of 2-BP on the acylation/deacylation protein machinery, with it being observed that 2-BP, in addition to inhibiting PAT activity in vivo, also perturbed the acylation cycle of GAP-43 at the level of depalmitoylation and consequently affected its kinetics of membrane association. Furthermore, 2-BP was able to inhibit in vitro the enzymatic activities of human APT1 and APT2, the only two thioesterases shown to mediate protein deacylation, through an uncompetitive mechanism of action. In fact, APT1 and APT2 hydrolyzed both the monomeric form as well as the micellar state of the substrate palmitoyl-CoA. On the basis of the obtained results, as APTs can mediate deacylation on membrane bound and unbound substrates, this suggests that the access of APTs to the membrane interface is not a necessary requisite for deacylation. Moreover, as the enzymatic activity of APTs was inhibited by 2-BP treatment, then the kinetics analysis of protein acylation using 2-BP should be carefully interpreted, as this drug also inhibits protein deacylation.
Project description:S-acylation/deacylation cycles and vesicular transport are critical for an adequate subcellular distribution of S-acylated Ras proteins. H-Ras is dually acylated on cysteines 181 and 184, but it is unknown how these residues individually contribute to H-Ras trafficking. In this study, we characterized the acylation and deacylation rates and membrane trafficking of monoacylated H-Ras mutants to analyze their contributions to H-Ras plasma membrane and endomembrane distribution. We demonstrated that dually acylated H-Ras interacts with acyl-protein thioesterases (APTs) 1 and 2 at the plasma membrane. Moreover, single-acylation mutants of H-Ras differed not only in their subcellular distribution, where both proteins localized to different extents at both the Golgi complex and plasma membrane, but also in their deacylation rates, which we showed to be due to different sensitivities to APT1 and APT2. Fluorescence photobleaching and photoactivation experiments also revealed that 1) although S-acylated, single-acylation mutants are incorporated with different efficiencies into Golgi complex to plasma membrane vesicular carriers, and 2) the different deacylation rates of single-acylated H-Ras influence differentially its overall exchange between different compartments by nonvesicular transport. Taken together, our results show that individual S-acylation sites provide singular information about H-Ras subcellular distribution that is required for GTPase signaling.
Project description:Dynamic changes in protein S-palmitoylation are critical for regulating protein localization and signaling. Only two enzymes - the acyl-protein thioesterases APT1 and APT2 - are known to catalyze palmitate removal from cytosolic cysteine residues. It is unclear if these enzymes act constitutively on all palmitoylated proteins, or if additional depalmitoylases exist. Using a dual pulse-chase strategy comparing palmitate and protein half-lives, we found knockdown or inhibition of APT1 and APT2 blocked depalmitoylation of Huntingtin, but did not affect palmitate turnover on postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) or N-Ras. We used activity profiling to identify novel serine hydrolase targets of the APT1/2 inhibitor Palmostatin B, and discovered that a family of uncharacterized ABHD17 proteins can accelerate palmitate turnover on PSD95 and N-Ras. ABHD17 catalytic activity is required for N-Ras depalmitoylation and re-localization to internal cellular membranes. Our findings indicate that the family of depalmitoylation enzymes may be substantially broader than previously believed.
Project description:Post-translational S-palmitoylation directs the trafficking and membrane localization of hundreds of cellular proteins, often involving a coordinated palmitoylation cycle that requires both protein acyl transferases (PATs) and acyl protein thioesterases (APTs) to actively redistribute S-palmitoylated proteins toward different cellular membrane compartments. This process is necessary for the trafficking and oncogenic signaling of S-palmitoylated Ras isoforms, and potentially many peripheral membrane proteins. The depalmitoylating enzymes APT1 and APT2 are separately conserved in all vertebrates, suggesting unique functional roles for each enzyme. The recent discovery of the APT isoform-selective inhibitors ML348 and ML349 has opened new possibilities to probe the function of each enzyme, yet it remains unclear how each inhibitor achieves orthogonal inhibition. Herein, we report the high-resolution structure of human APT2 in complex with ML349 (1.64 Å), as well as the complementary structure of human APT1 bound to ML348 (1.55 Å). Although the overall peptide backbone structures are nearly identical, each inhibitor adopts a distinct conformation within each active site. In APT1, the trifluoromethyl group of ML348 is positioned above the catalytic triad, but in APT2, the sulfonyl group of ML349 forms hydrogen bonds with active site resident waters to indirectly engage the catalytic triad and oxyanion hole. Reciprocal mutagenesis and activity profiling revealed several differing residues surrounding the active site that serve as critical gatekeepers for isoform accessibility and dynamics. Structural and biochemical analysis suggests the inhibitors occupy a putative acyl-binding region, establishing the mechanism for isoform-specific inhibition, hydrolysis of acyl substrates, and structural orthogonality important for future probe development.
Project description:In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of ?-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the ?-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein.
Project description:The reversible modification of cysteine residues by thioester formation with palmitate (S-palmitoylation) is an abundant lipid post-translational modification (PTM) in mammalian systems. S-palmitoylation has been observed on mitochondrial proteins, providing an intriguing potential connection between metabolic lipids and mitochondrial regulation. However, it is unknown whether and/or how mitochondrial S-palmitoylation is regulated. Here we report the development of mitoDPPs, targeted fluorescent probes that measure the activity levels of "erasers" of S-palmitoylation, acyl-protein thioesterases (APTs), within mitochondria of live cells. Using mitoDPPs, we discover active S-depalmitoylation in mitochondria, in part mediated by APT1, an S-depalmitoylase previously thought to reside in the cytosol and on the Golgi apparatus. We also find that perturbation of long-chain acyl-CoA cytoplasm and mitochondrial regulatory proteins, respectively, results in selective responses from cytosolic and mitochondrial S-depalmitoylases. Altogether, this work reveals that mitochondrial S-palmitoylation is actively regulated by "eraser" enzymes that respond to alterations in mitochondrial lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Protein palmitoylation is a dynamic post-translational modification (PTM) important for cellular functions such as protein stability, trafficking, localization, and protein-protein interactions. S-palmitoylation occurs via the addition of palmitate to cysteine residues via a thioester linkage, catalyzed by palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs), with removal of the palmitate catalyzed by acyl protein thioesterases (APTs) and palmitoyl-protein thioesterases (PPTs). Tools that target the regulators of palmitoylation-PATs, APTs and PPTs-will improve understanding of this essential PTM. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of a cell-permeable activity-based probe (ABP) that targets APTs in intact mammalian cells and the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using a focused library of substituted chloroisocoumarins, we identified a probe scaffold with nanomolar affinity for human APTs (HsAPT1 and HsAPT2) and synthesized a fluorescent ABP, JCP174-BODIPY TMR (JCP174-BT). We use JCP174-BT to profile HsAPT activity in situ in mammalian cells, to detect an APT in T. gondii (TgPPT1). We show discordance between HsAPT activity levels and total protein concentration in some cell lines, indicating that total protein levels may not be representative of APT activity in complex systems, highlighting the utility of this probe.
Project description:Protein palmitoylation is rapidly emerging as an important determinant in the regulation of ion channels, including large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels. However, the enzymes that control channel palmitoylation are largely unknown. Indeed, although palmitoylation is the only reversible lipid modification of proteins, acyl thioesterases that control ion channel depalmitoylation have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that palmitoylation of the intracellular S0-S1 loop of BK channels is controlled by two of the 23 mammalian palmitoyl-transferases, zDHHC22 and zDHHC23. Palmitoylation by these acyl transferases is essential for efficient cell surface expression of BK channels. In contrast, depalmitoylation is controlled by the cytosolic thioesterase APT1 (LYPLA1), but not APT2 (LYPLA2). In addition, we identify a splice variant of LYPLAL1, a homolog with ∼30% identity to APT1, that also controls BK channel depalmitoylation. Thus, both palmitoyl acyltransferases and acyl thioesterases display discrete substrate specificity for BK channels. Because depalmitoylated BK channels are retarded in the trans-Golgi network, reversible protein palmitoylation provides a critical checkpoint to regulate exit from the trans-Golgi network and thus control BK channel cell surface expression.
Project description:While lipids were first appreciated as a critical hydrophobic barrier, our understanding of their roles at the cellular and organismal levels continues to grow. Not only are they important independent operators, providing a platform for both static and dynamic organization and communication within the cell, they also exert significant effects via the chemical modification of proteins. Addition of a lipid post-translational modification (PTM) alters protein hydrophobicity and behavior, with distinct consequences for subcellular trafficking, localization, intra- and intermolecular interactions, and stability. One of the most abundant and widespread protein lipidation events is S-acylation, installation of a long-chain lipid to the thiol of a cysteine side chain through a thioester linkage. S-Acylation is often referred to as S-palmitoylation, due to the prevalence of palmitate as the lipid modification. Unlike many lipid PTMs, S-acylation is enzymatically reversible, enabling the cell to tune proteome-wide properties through dynamic alterations in protein lipidation status. While much has been uncovered about the molecular effects of S-acylation and its implications for physiology, current biochemical and chemical methods only assess substrate lipidation levels or steady-state levels of enzyme activity. Yet, the writer protein acyl transferases (PATs) and eraser acyl protein thioesterases (APTs) are dynamically active, responsible for sometimes-rapid changes in S-palmitoylation status of target proteins. Thus, to understand the full scope, significance, and subtlety of S-deacylation and its regulation in the cell, it is necessary to observe the timing and cellular geography of regulatory enzyme activities. In this Account, we review the chemical tools developed by our group to selectively visualize and perturb the activity of APTs in live cells, highlighting the biological insights gained from their application. To visualize APT activity, we masked fluorogenic molecules with thioacylated, peptide-based APT substrate mimetics; APT activity and thus thiol deprotection releases a fluorescent product in the turn-on depalmitoylation probes (DPPs), while in ratiometric depalmitoylation probes (RDPs) the emission of the parent fluorophore is altered. Application of these probes in live cells reveals that APT activity is sensitive to cell signaling events and metabolic disturbances. Additionally, as indicated above, the location of regulatory enzymes is critical in lipid signaling, and one organelle of particular interest, due to its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and its legion of lipidated proteins, is the mitochondria. Therefore, we developed a class of spatially constrained mitoDPPs to visualize mitochondrial APT activity as well as a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial deacylation activity, mitoFP. With these tools, we identify two mitochondrial S-depalmitoylases and connect mitochondrial S-depalmitoylation to redox buffering capacity. Moreover, some of the changes in activity observed are specific to the mitochondria, confirming spatial as well as temporal regulation of eraser protein activity. Overall, this chemical toolkit for S-depalmitoylase activity, imaging reagents and a targeted inhibitor, will continue to illuminate the regulatory mechanisms and roles of S-depalmitoylation within the complex homeostatic networks of the cell.
Project description:The localization and signaling of S-palmitoylated peripheral membrane proteins is sustained by an acylation cycle in which acyl protein thioesterases (APTs) depalmitoylate mislocalized palmitoylated proteins on endomembranes. However, the APTs are themselves reversibly S-palmitoylated, which localizes thioesterase activity to the site of the antagonistc palmitoylation activity on the Golgi. Here, we resolve this conundrum by showing that palmitoylation of APTs is labile due to autodepalmitoylation, creating two interconverting thioesterase pools: palmitoylated APT on the Golgi and depalmitoylated APT in the cytoplasm, with distinct functionality. By imaging APT-substrate catalytic intermediates, we show that it is the depalmitoylated soluble APT pool that depalmitoylates substrates on all membranes in the cell, thereby establishing its function as release factor of mislocalized palmitoylated proteins in the acylation cycle. The autodepalmitoylating activity on the Golgi constitutes a homeostatic regulation mechanism of APT levels at the Golgi that ensures robust partitioning of APT substrates between the plasma membrane and the Golgi.
Project description:The reversible modification of cysteine residues through thioester formation with palmitate (protein S-palmitoylation) is a prevalent chemical modification that regulates the function, localization, and stability of many proteins. Current methods for monitoring the "erasers" of S-palmitoylation, acyl-protein thioesterases (APTs), rely on destructive proteomic methods or "turn-on" probes, precluding deployment in heterogeneous samples such as primary tissues. To address these challenges, we present the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of Ratiometric Depalmitoylation Probes (RDPs). RDPs respond to APTs with a robust ratiometric change in fluorescent signal both in vitro and in live cells. Moreover, RDPs can monitor endogenous APT activities in heterogeneous primary human tissues such as colon organoids, presaging the utility of these molecules in uncovering novel roles for APTs in metabolic regulation.