Regulation of p53 by jagged1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced impairment of myocardial angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a major contributor to the development of heart failure, however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms still remain elucidative. Inadequate angiogenesis in myocardium leads to transition from cardiac hypertrophy to dysfunction, this study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of AngII on myocardial angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. AngII treatment significantly impaired angiogenetic responses, which were determined by counting the capillaries either in matrigel formed by cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) or in myocardium of mice and by measuring the in vitro and in vivo production of VEGF proteins, and stimulated accumulation and phosphorylation of cytosolic p53 which led to increases in phosphorylated p53 and decreases of hypoxia inducible factor (Hif-1) in nucleus. All of these cellular and molecular events induced by AngII in CEMCs and hearts of mice were largely reduced by a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-? (PFT-?). Interestingly, AngII stimulated the upregulation of Jagged1, a ligand of Notch, but it didn't affect the expression of Delta-like 4 (Dll-4), another ligand of Notch. Inhibition of p53 by PFT-? partly abolished this effect of AngII. Further experiments showed that knockdown ofJagged1 by addition of siRNA to cultured CMVECs dramatically declined AngII-stimulated accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 in cytosol, upregulation of phosphorylated p53 and downregulation of Hif-1 expression in nucleus, decrease of VEGF production and impairment of capillary-like tube formation by the cells. Our data collectively suggest that AngII impairs myocardial angiogenetic responses through p53-dependent downregulation of Hif-1 which is regulated by Jagged1/Notch1 signaling.
Project description:Elevated tumor suppressor p53 expression has been associated with heart diseases, including the diabetic heart. However, its precise role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains unclear. We hypothesized that the development of DCM is attributed to up-regulated p53-mediated both early cardiac cell death and persistent cell senescence, glycolytic and angiogenetic dysfunctions. The present study investigated the effect of p53 inhibition with its specific inhibitor pifithrin-? (PFT-?) on the pathogenesis of DCM and its associated mechanisms. Type 1 diabetes was induced with multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Both hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without PFT-? five times a week for 2 months and then sacrificed at 3 and 6 months post-diabetes. Treatment with PFT-? significantly prevented the progression of diabetes-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction (i.e., DCM). Mechanistically, the inhibition of p53 prevented the cardiac apoptosis during early-stage diabetes (0.5 month), attenuated diabetes-induced cell senescence (3 and 6 months), and improved both glycolytic and angiogenic defects by increasing hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1? protein stability and upregulating HIF-1? transcription of specific target genes at 3 and 6 months after diabetes. Therefore, the targeted inhibition of p53 in diabetic individuals may provide a novel approach for the prevention of DCM.
Project description:Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC) endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.
Project description:Hypoxia is beneficial for the differentiation of stem cells transplanted for myocardial injury, but mechanisms underlying this benefit remain unsolved. Here, we report the impact of hypoxia-induced Jagged1 expression in cardiomyocytes (CMs) for driving the differentiation of cardiac stem cells (CSCs). Forced hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) expression and physical hypoxia (5% O2) treatment could induce Jagged1 expression in neonatal rat CMs. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1? by YC-1 attenuated hypoxia-promoted Jagged1 expression in CMs. An ERK inhibitor (PD98059), but not inhibitors of JNK (SP600125), Notch (DAPT), NF-?B (PTDC), JAK (AG490), or STAT3 (Stattic) suppressed hypoxia-induced Jagged1 protein expression in CMs. c-Kit+ CSCs isolated from neonatal rat hearts using a magnetic-activated cell sorting method expressed GATA4, SM22? or vWF, but not Nkx2.5 and cTnI. Moreover, 87.3% of freshly isolated CSCs displayed Notch1 receptor expression. Direct co-culture of CMs with BrdU-labeled CSCs enhanced CSCs differentiation, as evidenced by an increased number of BrdU+/Nkx2.5+ cells, while intermittent hypoxia for 21 days promoted co-culture-triggered differentiation of CSCs into CM-like cells. Notably, YC-1 and DAPT attenuated hypoxia-induced differentiation. Our results suggest that hypoxia induces Jagged1 expression in CMs primarily through ERK signaling, and facilitates early cardiac lineage differentiation of CSCs in CM/CSC co-cultures via HIF-1?/Jagged1/Notch signaling.
Project description:Notch signaling plays a key role in various cell differentiation processes including bone homeostasis. However, the specific involvement of Notch in regulating osteoclastogenesis is still controversial. In the present study, we show that RANKL induces expression of Jagged1 and Notch2 in bone marrow macrophages during osteoclast differentiation. Suppression of Notch signaling by a selective gamma-secretase inhibitor or Notch2 short hairpin RNA suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. In contrast, induction of Notch signaling by Jagged1 or by ectopic expression of intracellular Notch2 enhances NFATc1 promoter activity and expression and promotes osteoclastogenesis. Finally, we found that Notch2 and p65 interact in the nuclei of RANKL-stimulated cells and that both proteins are recruited to the NFATc1 promoter, driving its expression. Taken together, our results show a new molecular cross talk between Notch and NF-kappaB pathways that is relevant in osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:The identification of the molecular mechanisms controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation during the embryonic, fetal, and early neonatal life appears of paramount interest in regard to exploiting this information to promote cardiac regeneration. Here, we show that the proliferative potential of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is powerfully stimulated by the sustained activation of the Notch pathway. We found that Notch1 is expressed in proliferating ventricular immature cardiac myocytes (ICMs) both in vitro and in vivo, and that the number of Notch1-positive cells in the heart declines with age. Notch1 expression in ICMs paralleled the expression of its Jagged1 ligand on non-myocyte supporting cells. The inhibition of Notch signaling in ICMs blocked their proliferation and induced apoptosis; in contrast, its activation by Jagged1 or by the constitutive expression of its activated form using an adeno-associated virus markedly stimulated proliferative signaling and promoted ICM expansion. Maintenance or reactivation of Notch signaling in cardiac myocytes might represent an interesting target for innovative regenerative therapy.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with decreased adhesion and acquisition of metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated, in part, by two transcription repressors, Snail and Slug, that are known to be targets of the Notch signaling pathway, and JAGGED1-induced Notch activation increases EMT. However, the events that lead to increased Notch activity during EMT of breast cancer cells are unknown.The accumulation of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) under hypoxia was detected by western blot analysis, and their effects on Notch signaling were measured by an in vitro Notch reporter assay. The expression of Notch target genes under hypoxia was tested by real-time PCR. The knockdown of HIF-1alpha was mediated by retroviral delivery of shRNA. The expression of Slug and Snail under hypoxia was measured by real-time PCR. Breast cancer cell migration and invasion under hypoxia were tested with cell migration and invasion kits.Hypoxia increased the expression of Notch target genes such as HES1 and HEY1 in breast cancer cells, as was expression of Notch receptors and ligands. The mechanism is likely to involve the accumulation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in these cells by hypoxia, which synergised with the Notch co-activator MAML1 in potentiating Notch activity. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha was found to bind to HES1 promoter under hypoxia. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha with shRNA inhibited both HES1 and HEY1 expression under hypoxia. Hypoxia increased the expression of Slug and Snail, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin, hallmarks of EMT. Notch pathway inhibition abrogated the hypoxia-mediated increase in Slug and Snail expression, as well as decreased breast cancer cell migration and invasion.Hypoxia-mediated Notch signaling may have an important role in the initiation of EMT and subsequent potential for breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:Several signaling pathways, including the Notch pathway, can modulate TLR activation to achieve responses most appropriate for the environment. One mechanism of TLR-Notch cross-talk is TLR-induced expression of Notch ligands Jagged and Delta that feed back to engage Notch receptors on TLR-activated cells. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which TLRs induce Notch ligand expression in primary macrophages. TLRs induced Jagged1 expression rapidly and independently of new protein synthesis. Jagged1 induction was augmented by IFN-?, was partially dependent on canonical TLR-activated NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways, and elevated Jagged1 expression augmented TLR-induced IL-6 production. Strikingly, TLR-induced Jagged1 expression was strongly dependent on the Notch master transcriptional regulator RBP-J and also on upstream components of the Notch pathway ?-secretase and Notch1 and Notch2 receptors. Thus, Jagged1 is an RBP-J target gene that is activated in a binary manner by TLR and Notch pathways. Early and direct cooperation between TLR and Notch pathways leads to Jagged1-RBP-J-mediated autoamplification of Notch signaling that can modulate later phases of the TLR response.
Project description:Angiogenesis, a marker of cancer development, affects response to radiotherapy sensibility. This preclinical study aims to understand the receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis in head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The receptor tyrosine kinase activity in a transgenic mouse model of HNSCC was assessed. The anti-tumorigenetic and anti-angiogenetic effects of cetuximab-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition were investigated in xenograft and transgenic mouse models of HNSCC. The signaling transduction of Notch1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) was also analyzed. EGFR was overexpressed and activated in the Tgfbr1/Pten deletion (2cKO) mouse model of HNSCC. Cetuximab significantly delayed tumor onset by reducing tumor angiogenesis. This drug exerted similar effects on heterotopic xenograft tumors. In the human HNSCC tissue array, increased EGFR expression correlated with increased HIF-1? and micro vessel density. Cetuximab inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by significantly downregulating HIF-1? and Notch1. EGFR is involved in the tumor angiogenesis of HNSCC via the HIF-1? and Notch1 pathways. Therefore, targeting EGFR by suppressing hypoxia- and Notch-induced angiogenesis may benefit HNSCC therapy.
Project description:As previously reported, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells show constitutive Notch1/2 activation and express the Notchligand Jagged1. Despite increasing knowledge of the impact of Notch alterations on CLL biology and pathogenesis, the role of Jagged1 expressed in CLL cells remains undefined. In other cell types, it has been shown that after Notch engagement, Jagged1 not only activates Notch in signal-receiving cell, but also undergoes proteolytic activation in signal-sending cell, triggering a signaling with biological effects. We investigated whether Jagged1 expressed in CLL cells undergoes proteolytic processing and/or is able to induce Notch activation through autocrine/paracrine loops, focusing on the effect that CLL prosurvival factor IL-4 could exert on the Notch-Jagged1 system in these cells. We found that Jagged1 was constitutively processed in CLL cells and generated an intracellular fragment that translocated into the nucleus, and an extracellular fragment released into the culture supernatant. IL-4 enhanced expression of Jagged1 and its intracellular fragments, as well as Notch1/2 activation. The IL-4-induced increase in Notch1/2 activation was independent of the concomitant upregulated Jagged1 levels. Indeed, blocking Notch-Jagged1 interactions among CLL cells with Jagged1 neutralizing antibodies did not affect the expression of the Notch target Hes1. Notably, anti-Jagged1 antibodies partially prevented the IL-4-induced increase in Jagged1 processing and cell viability, suggesting that Jagged1 processing is one of the events contributing to IL-4-induced CLL cell survival. Consistent with this, Jagged1 silencing by small interfering RNA partially counteracted the capacity of IL-4 to promote CLL cell survival. Investigating the pathways whereby IL-4 promoted Notch1/2 activation in CLL cells independent of Jagged1, we found that PI3Kδ/AKT and PKCδ were involved in upregulating Notch1 and Notch2 proteins, respectively. Overall, this study provides new insights into the Notch-ligand system in CLL cells and suggests that targeting this system may be exploited as a novel/additional therapy approach for CLL.
Project description:Recent studies have described that the Notch signaling pathway is activated in a wide range of renal diseases. Angiotensin II (AngII) plays a key role in the progression of kidney diseases. AngII contributes to renal fibrosis by upregulation of profibrotic factors, induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. In cultured human tubular epithelial cells the Notch activation by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has been involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition. AngII mimics many profibrotic actions of TGF-?1. For these reasons, our aim was to investigate whether AngII could regulate the Notch/Jagged system in the kidney, and its potential role in AngII-induced responses. In cultured human tubular epithelial cells, TGF-?1, but not AngII, increased the Notch pathway-related gene expression, Jagged-1 synthesis, and caused nuclear translocation of the activated Notch. In podocytes and renal fibroblasts, AngII did not modulate the Notch pathway. In tubular epithelial cells, pharmacological Notch inhibition did not modify AngII-induced changes in epithelial mesenchymal markers, profibrotic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Systemic infusion of AngII into rats for 2 weeks caused tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but did not upregulate renal expression of activated Notch-1 or Jagged-1, as observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Moreover, the Notch/Jagged system was not modulated by AngII type I receptor blockade in the model of unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. These data clearly indicate that AngII does not regulate the Notch/Jagged signaling system in the kidney, in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showing that the Notch pathway is not involved in AngII-induced fibrosis could provide important information to understand the complex role of Notch system in the regulation of renal regeneration vs damage progression.