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VEGF-mediated proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive multipotent stem cell source with therapeutic applicability across diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ADSC for tissue engineering applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ADSC proliferation are not fully understood. Here we show that 47 transcripts are up-regulated while 23 are down-regulated in ADSC compared to terminally differentiated cells based on global mRNA profiling and microRNA profiling. Among the up-regulated genes, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is fine-tuned by miR-199a-5p. Further investigation indicates that VEGF accelerates ADSC proliferation whereas the multipotency of ADSC remains stable in terms of adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic potentials after VEGF treatment, suggesting that VEGF may serve as an excellent supplement for accelerating ADSC proliferation during in vitro expansion.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. METHODS:ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. RESULTS:PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage.
Project description:Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are of interest for regenerative medicine as they are isolated easily and can differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Studies of their in vitro proliferation, survival, and differentiation are common; however, genetic effects on these phenotypes remain unknown. To test if these phenotypes are genetically regulated, ADSCs were isolated from three genetically diverse inbred mouse strains--C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cByJ (BALB), and DBA/2J (D2)--in which genetic regulation of hematopoietic stem function is well known. ADSCs from all three strains differentiated into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. ADSCs from BALB grew least well in vitro, probably due to apoptotic cell death after several days in culture. BALB ADSCs were also the most susceptible to the free radical inducers menadione and H2O2. ADSCs from the three possible F1 hybrids were employed to further define genetic regulation of ADSC phenotypes. D2, but not B6, alleles stimulated ADSC expansion in BALB cells. In contrast, B6, but not D2, alleles rescued BALB H2O2 resistance. We conclude that low oxidative stress resistance does not limit BALB ADSC growth in vitro, as these phenotypes are genetically regulated independently. In addition, ADSCs from these strains are an appropriate model system to investigate genetic regulation of ADSC apoptosis and stress resistance in future studies. Such investigations are essential to optimize cell expansion and differentiation and thus, potential for regenerative medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising technique for repairing cartilage defect. Due to the limitation of cell number and proliferation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been developed as a substitute to chondrocytes as a cartilage cell-source. This study aimed to develop cartilage tissue from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on a Bombyx mori silk fibroin scaffold and supplemented with 10% platelet-rich plasma (PRP). METHODS:Human ADSCs and PRP were characterized. A silk fibroin scaffold with 500??m pore size was fabricated through salt leaching. ADSCs were then cultured on the scaffold (ADSC-SS) and supplemented with 10% PRP for 21?days to examine cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and surface marker expression. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and type 1 collagen was analysed. The presence of type 2 collagen confirming chondrogenesis was validated using immunocytochemistry. The negative and positive controls were ADSC-SS supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and ADSC-SS supplemented with commercial chondrogenesis medium, respectively. RESULTS:Cells isolated from adipose tissue were characterized as ADSCs. Proliferation of the ADSC-SS PRP was significantly increased (p?<?0.05) compared to that of controls. Chondrogenesis was observed in ADSC-SS PRP and was confirmed through the increase in glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) secretion, the absence of mineral deposition, and increased surface marker proteins on chondrogenic progenitors. The mRNA expression of type 2 collagen in ADSC-SS PRP was significantly increased (p?<?0.05) compared to that in the negative control on days 7 and 21; however, aggrecan was significantly increased on day 14 compared to the controls. ADSC-SS PRP showed stable mRNA expression of type 1 collagen up to 14?days and it was significantly decreased on day 21. Confocal analysis showed the presence of type 2 collagen in the ADSC-SS PRP and positive control groups, with high distribution outside the cells forming the extracellular matrix (ECM) on day 21. CONCLUSION:Our study showed that ADSC-SS with supplemented 10% PRP medium can effectively support chondrogenesis of ADSCs in vitro and promising for further development as an alternative for cartilage tissue engineering in vivo.
Project description:Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are being explored for the repair of craniofacial defects due to their multi-differentiation potential and ease of isolation and expansion. Crucial to using ADSCs for craniofacial repair is the availability of materials with appropriate biomechanical properties that can support their differentiation into bone and cartilage. We tested the hypothesis that different modifications of chemical groups on the surface of a nanocomposite polymer could increase human ADSC adhesion and selectively enhance their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We show that the COOH modification significantly promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation over 14days compared to NH2 surfaces. Expression of focal adhesion kinase and vinculin was enhanced after plasma surface polymerisation at 24h. The COOH modification significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by up-regulation of aggrecan and collagen II transcripts. In contrast, NH2 group functionalised scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation with significantly enhanced expression of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin both at the gene and protein level. Finally, chorioallantoic membrane grafting demonstrated that both NH2 and COOH functionalised scaffolds seeded with ADSCs were biocompatible and supported vessel ingrowth apparently to a greater degree than unmodified scaffolds. In summary, our study shows the ability to direct ADSC chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation by deposition of different chemical groups through plasma surface polymerisation. Hence this approach could be used to selectively enhance bone or cartilage formation before implantation in vivo to repair skeletal defects.Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for regenerative medicine due to their plentiful supply and ease of isolation. However, the optimal environmental cues to direct stem cells towards certain lineages change have to has not been identified. We have shown that by modifying the surface of the scaffold with specific chemical groups using plasma surface polymerisation techniques we can control ADSCs differentiation. This study shows that ADSCs can be differentiated towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages on amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) modified scaffolds respectively. Plasma polymerisation can be easily applied to other biomaterial surfaces to direct stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage.
Project description:Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether secreted Klotho (SKL) affects the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that short-form Klotho was expressed in mouse ADSCs. The Klotho gene mutation KL(-/-) significantly decreased proliferation of ADSCs and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Nanog, Sox-2, and Oct-4) in mice. The adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs was also decreased in KL(-/-) mice. Incubation with Klotho-deficient medium decreased ADSC proliferation, pluripotent transcription factor levels, and adipogenic differentiation, which is similar to what was found in KL(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Klotho deficiency suppresses ADSC proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant SKL protein rescued the Klotho deficiency-induced impairment in ADSC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. SKL also regulated ADSCs' differentiation to other cell lineages (osteoblasts, myofibroblasts), indicating that SKL maintains stemness of ADSCs. It is intriguing that overexpression of SKL significantly increased PPAR-? expression and lipid formation in ADSCs following adipogenic induction, indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of SKL inhibited expression of TGF?1 and its downstream signaling mediator Smad2/3. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SKL is essential to the maintenance of normal proliferation and differentiation in ADSCs. Klotho regulates adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs, likely via inhibition of TGF?1 and activation of PPAR-?. Stem Cells 2016;34:1615-1625.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been shown to be beneficial in some pulmonary diseases, and the paracrine effect is the major mechanism underlying ADSC-based therapy. Autophagy plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cell homeostasis and survival. However, the role of autophagy in mediating ADSC paracrine effects has not been thoroughly elucidated. We examined whether ADSCs participate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) barrier damage in a paracrine manner and illuminated the role of autophagy in regulating ADSC paracrine effects. PMVECs and ADSCs with or without autophagy inhibition were cocultured without intercellular contact, and the microvascular barrier function was assessed after LPS treatment. ADSC paracrine function was evaluated by detecting essential growth factors for endothelial cells. For in vivo experiments, ADSCs with or without autophagy inhibition were transplanted into LPS-induced lung-injury mice, and lung injury was assessed. ADSCs significantly alleviated LPS-induced microvascular barrier injury. In addition, ADSC paracrine levels of VEGF, FGF, and EGF were induced by LPS treatment, especially in the coculture condition. Inhibiting autophagy weakened the paracrine function and the protective effects of ADSCs on microvascular barrier injury. Moreover, ADSC transplantation alleviated LPS-induced lung injury, and inhibiting autophagy markedly weakened the therapeutic effect of ADSCs on lung injury. Together, these findings show that ADSC paracrine effects play a vital protective role in LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular barrier injury. Autophagy is a positive mediating factor in the paracrine process. These results are helpful for illuminating the role and mechanism of ADSC paracrine effects and developing effective therapies in acute lung injury.
Project description:Development of primary follicles in vitro benefits from a three-dimensional matrix that is enriched with paracrine factors secreted from feeder cells and mimics the in vivo environment. In this study, we investigated the role of paracrine signaling from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in supporting primary follicle development in a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based matrix. Follicles co-cultured with ADSCs and follicles cultured in conditioned medium from ADSCs encapsulated in gels (3D CM) exhibited significantly (p < 0.01 and p = 0.09, respectively) improved survival compared to follicles cultured in conditioned medium collected from ADSCs cultured in flasks (2D CM) and follicles cultured without paracrine support. The gene expression of ADSCs suggested that the stem cells maintained their multipotency in the 3D PEG environment over the culture period, regardless of the presence of the follicles, while under 2D conditions the multipotency markers were downregulated. The differences in cytokine signatures of follicles exposed to 3D and 2D ADSC paracrine factors suggest that early cytokine interactions are key for follicle survival. Taken together, the biomimetic PEG scaffold provides a three-dimensional, in vivo-like environment to induce ADSCs to secrete factors which promote early stage ovarian follicle development and survival.
Project description:The potential mechanism of miRNA released from adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-derived micro vesicle (MV) onthe modulation of proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells were explored. In this study, miR-210 level was detected by qT-PCR. Alix, VEGF and RUNX3 expressions were detected by Western blot. The proliferation, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were observed by MTT assay and Transwell assay. Luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to validate the targeting activity of MVs-released miR-210 on RUNX3. We found hypoxia significantly increased the expression of MVs-released miR-210. MVs released from ADSCsin hypoxic group significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs. Overexpression of miR-210 significantly upregulated VEGF expression, and promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs. Besides, RUNX3 was identified as the direct of miR-210 in HUVECs. Overexpression of miR-210 decreased RUNX3 expression and promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs, while overexpression of RUNX3 inhibited these promotion effects. In vivo experiment showed that MVs derived from ADSCs under hypoxia increased miR-210 level and capillary density, and inhibition of miR-210 decreased capillary density. We also found MVs downregulated RUNX3 expression, and inhibition of miR-210 upregulated RUNX3 expression. Therefore, miR-210 released from ADSCs-derived MVs promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs by targeting RUNX3, which revealed one of the mechanisms of ADSCs-derived MVs on the promotion of proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs. ABBREVIATIONS:ADSC, adipose-derived stem cell; MV, micro vesicle; HUVECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; RUNX3, Runtrelatedtranscription factor-3.
Project description:As shown in our previous studies, growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer can be regulated by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been revealed. In this study, a proteomics analysis was performed to compare protein expression treated with and without ADSCs in ovarian cancer cells. Protein levels were altered in ovarian cancer cells due to the treatment of ADSCs. Thymosin beta 4 X-linked (TMSB4X) levels changed dramatically, and this protein was identified as one of the most important candidate molecules contributing to the tumour-promoting effects of ADSCs. Compared with the cells that are cultured in the normal growth medium, the TMSB4X levels cultured in ADSC-conditioned medium increased significantly in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the growth and invasion of cancer cells were decreased, even in the ADSC-conditioned medium treatment group (P < 0.05), by the inhibition of TMSB4X. As shown in the bioluminescence images captured in vivo, increased ovarian cancer's growth and metastasis, along with elevated TMSB4X expression, were observed in the group of ADSC-conditioned medium, and the tumour-promoting effect of ADSCs was attenuated by the inhibition of TMSB4X. Based on our findings, increased TMSB4X expression may play a role in accelerating the ADSC-mediated proliferation, invasion, and migration of ovarian cancers.
Project description:Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro.ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay.Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05).Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs.