Sequestration by IFIT1 impairs translation of 2'O-unmethylated capped RNA.
ABSTRACT: Viruses that generate capped RNA lacking 2'O methylation on the first ribose are severely affected by the antiviral activity of Type I interferons. We used proteome-wide affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry to identify human and mouse proteins specifically binding to capped RNA with different methylation states. This analysis, complemented with functional validation experiments, revealed that IFIT1 is the sole interferon-induced protein displaying higher affinity for unmethylated than for methylated capped RNA. IFIT1 tethers a species-specific protein complex consisting of other IFITs to RNA. Pulsed stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to mass spectrometry as well as in vitro competition assays indicate that IFIT1 sequesters 2'O-unmethylated capped RNA and thereby impairs binding of eukaryotic translation initiation factors to 2'O-unmethylated RNA template, which results in inhibition of translation. The specificity of IFIT1 for 2'O-unmethylated RNA serves as potent antiviral mechanism against viruses lacking 2'O-methyltransferase activity and at the same time allows unperturbed progression of the antiviral program in infected cells.
Project description:The interferon-inducible protein with tetratricopeptide (IFIT) family proteins inhibit replication of some viruses by recognizing several types of RNAs, including 5'-triphosphate RNA and 5' capped 2'-O unmethylated mRNA. However, it remains unclear how IFITs inhibit replication of some viruses through recognition of RNA. Here, we analyzed the mechanisms by which Ifit1 exerts antiviral responses. Replication of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) 2'-O methyltransferase (MTase) mutant was markedly enhanced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages lacking Ifit1. Ifit1 bound 5'-triphosphate RNA but more preferentially associated with 5' capped 2'-O unmethylated mRNA. Ifit1 inhibited the translation of mRNA and thereby restricted the replication of JEV mutated in 2'-O MTase. Thus, Ifit1 inhibits replication of MTase-defective JEV by inhibiting mRNA translation through direct binding to mRNA 5' structures.
Project description:IFIT1 (IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats-1) is an effector of the host innate immune antiviral response that prevents propagation of virus infection by selectively inhibiting translation of viral mRNA. It relies on its ability to compete with the translation initiation factor eIF4F to specifically recognize foreign capped mRNAs, while remaining inactive against host mRNAs marked by ribose 2'-O methylation at the first cap-proximal nucleotide (N1). We report here several crystal structures of RNA-bound human IFIT1, including a 1.6-Å complex with capped RNA. IFIT1 forms a water-filled, positively charged RNA-binding tunnel with a separate hydrophobic extension that unexpectedly engages the cap in multiple conformations (syn and anti) giving rise to a relatively plastic and nonspecific mode of binding, in stark contrast to eIF4E. Cap-proximal nucleotides encircled by the tunnel provide affinity to compete with eIF4F while allowing IFIT1 to select against N1 methylated mRNA. Gel-shift binding assays confirm that N1 methylation interferes with IFIT1 binding, but in an RNA-dependent manner, whereas translation assays reveal that N1 methylation alone is not sufficient to prevent mRNA recognition at high IFIT1 concentrations. Structural and functional analysis show that 2'-O methylation at N2, another abundant mRNA modification, is also detrimental for RNA binding, thus revealing a potentially synergistic role for it in self- versus nonself-mRNA discernment. Finally, structure-guided mutational analysis confirms the importance of RNA binding for IFIT1 restriction of a human coronavirus mutant lacking viral N1 methylation. Our structural and biochemical analysis sheds new light on the molecular basis for IFIT1 translational inhibition of capped viral RNA.
Project description:IFITs are interferon-induced proteins that can bind 5'-triphosphate or ribose-unmethylated capped ends of mRNA to inhibit translation. Although some viruses avoid IFITs by synthesizing RNAs with eukaryotic-like caps, no viral proteins were known to antagonize IFITs. We show that the N- and C-terminal portions of C9, a protein required for vaccinia virus to resist the human type I interferon-induced state, bind IFITs and ubiquitin regulatory complexes, respectively. Together, the two C9 domains target IFITs for proteasomal degradation, thereby providing interferon resistance similar to that also achieved by knockout of IFITs. Furthermore, ectopic expression of C9 rescues the interferon sensitivity of a vaccinia virus mutant with an inactivated cap 1-specific ribose-methyltransferase that is otherwise unable to express early proteins. In contrast, the C9-deletion mutant expresses early proteins but is blocked by IFITs at the subsequent genome uncoating/replication step. Thus, poxviruses use mRNA cap methylation and proteosomal degradation to defeat multiple antiviral activities of IFITs.
Project description:Background: Norovirus, also known as the winter vomiting bug, is the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Disease control is predicated on a robust innate immune response during the early stages of infection. Double-stranded RNA intermediates generated during viral genome replication are recognised by host innate immune sensors in the cytoplasm, activating the strongly antiviral interferon gene programme. Ifit proteins (interferon induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats), which are highly expressed during the interferon response, have been shown to directly inhibit viral protein synthesis as well as regulate innate immune signalling pathways. Ifit1 is well-characterised to inhibit viral translation by sequestration of eukaryotic initiation factors or by directly binding to the 5' terminus of foreign RNA, particularly those with non-self cap structures. However, noroviruses have a viral protein, VPg, covalently linked to the 5' end of the genomic RNA, which acts as a cap substitute to recruit the translation initiation machinery. Methods: Ifit1 knockout RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cells were generated using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. These cells were analysed for their ability to support murine norovirus infection, determined by virus yield, and respond to different immune stimuli, assayed by quantitative PCR. The effect of Ifit proteins on norovirus translation was also tested in vitro. Results: Here, we show that VPg-dependent translation is completely refractory to Ifit1-mediated translation inhibition in vitro and Ifit1 cannot bind the 5' end of VPg-linked RNA. Nevertheless, knockout of Ifit1 promoted viral replication in murine norovirus infected cells. We then demonstrate that Ifit1 promoted interferon-beta expression following transfection of synthetic double-stranded RNA but had little effect on toll-like receptor 3 and 4 signalling. Conclusions: Ifit1 is an antiviral factor during norovirus infection but cannot directly inhibit viral translation. Instead, Ifit1 stimulates the antiviral state following cytoplasmic RNA sensing, contributing to restriction of norovirus replication.
Project description:Our understanding of the antiviral actions of IFIT1, one of the most strongly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), has advanced remarkably within the last few years. This review focuses on the recent cellular, biochemical, and structural discoveries that have provided new insight as to how IFIT1 functions as both a sensor and effector molecule of the cellular innate immune system. IFIT1 can detect viral RNA lacking 2'-O methylation on their cap structures or displaying a 5'-triphosphate moiety and inhibit their translation or sequester them from active replication. Because of these inhibitory actions, many viruses have evolved unique mechanisms to evade IFIT1 to facilitate replication, spread of infection, and disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are highly expressed during the cell-intrinsic immune response to viral infection. IFIT1 inhibits translation by binding directly to the 5' end of foreign RNAs, particularly those with non-self cap structures, precluding the recruitment of the cap-binding eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F and ribosome recruitment. The presence of IFIT1 imposes a requirement on viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm to maintain mechanisms to avoid its restrictive effects. Interaction of different IFIT family members is well described, but little is known of the molecular basis of IFIT association or its impact on function. Here, we reconstituted different complexes of IFIT1, IFIT2 and IFIT3 in vitro, which enabled us to reveal critical aspects of IFIT complex assembly. IFIT1 and IFIT3 interact via a YxxxL motif present in the C-terminus of each protein. IFIT2 and IFIT3 homodimers dissociate to form a more stable heterodimer that also associates with IFIT1. We show for the first time that IFIT3 stabilizes IFIT1 protein expression, promotes IFIT1 binding to a cap0 Zika virus reporter mRNA and enhances IFIT1 translation inhibition. This work reveals molecular aspects of IFIT interaction and provides an important missing link between IFIT assembly and function.
Project description:IFIT1 (also known as ISG56) is a member of the interferon-inducible protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family. IFITs are strongly induced by type I interferon (IFN), double-stranded RNA and virus infection. Here, we investigated IFIT1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in human bronchus epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) induced by the H9N2 virus and inactivated viral particle at different time points. We also investigated the effect of H9N2 virus and viral particle infection on IFN-?/? production, and assessed whether hemagglutinin or neuraminidase protein induced IFIT1 expression. Results showed that both H9N2 virus infection and viral particle inoculation induced the expression of IFIT1 at mRNA and protein levels in the two cell lines. Hemagglutinin or neuraminidase protein binding alone is not sufficient to induce IFIT1 expression. Surprisingly, the expression patterns of IFIT1 in response to H9N2 virus and viral particles in the two cell lines were opposite, and production kinetics of IFN-?/? also differed. An additional finding was that induction of IFIT1 in response to H9N2 virus infection or viral particle inoculation was more sensitive in HUVECs than in BEAS-2Bs. Our data offers new insight into the innate immune response of endothelial cells to H9N2 virus infection.
Project description:Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are innate immune effector molecules that are thought to confer antiviral defence through disruption of protein-protein interactions in the host translation-initiation machinery. However, it was recently discovered that IFITs can directly recognize viral RNA bearing a 5'-triphosphate group (PPP-RNA), which is a molecular signature that distinguishes it from host RNA. Here we report crystal structures of human IFIT5, its complex with PPP-RNAs, and an amino-terminal fragment of IFIT1. The structures reveal a new helical domain that houses a positively charged cavity designed to specifically engage only single-stranded PPP-RNA, thus distinguishing it from the canonical cytosolic sensor of double-stranded viral PPP-RNA, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58). Mutational analysis, proteolysis and gel-shift assays reveal that PPP-RNA is bound in a non-sequence-specific manner and requires a 5'-overhang of approximately three nucleotides. Abrogation of PPP-RNA binding in IFIT1 and IFIT5 was found to cause a defect in the antiviral response by human embryonic kidney cells. These results demonstrate the mechanism by which IFIT proteins selectively recognize viral RNA, and lend insight into their downstream effector function.
Project description:IFIT (interferon-induced with tetratricopeptide repeats) proteins are critical mediators of mammalian innate antiviral immunity. Mouse IFIT1 selectively inhibits viruses that lack 2'O-methylation of their mRNA 5' caps. Surprisingly, human IFIT1 does not share this antiviral specificity. Here, we resolve this discrepancy by demonstrating that human and mouse IFIT1 have evolved distinct functions using a combination of evolutionary, genetic and virological analyses. First, we show that human IFIT1 and mouse IFIT1 (renamed IFIT1B) are not orthologs, but are paralogs that diverged >100 mya. Second, using a yeast genetic assay, we show that IFIT1 and IFIT1B proteins differ in their ability to be suppressed by a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. Finally, we demonstrate that IFIT1 and IFIT1B have divergent antiviral specificities, including the discovery that only IFIT1 proteins inhibit a virus encoding a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. These functional data, combined with widespread turnover of mammalian IFIT genes, reveal dramatic species-specific differences in IFIT-mediated antiviral repertoires.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease. The IFIT family of proteins inhibits replication of some viruses, but their effects on KSHV lytic replication was unknown. Here we show that KSHV lytic replication induces IFIT expression in epithelial cells. Depletion of IFIT1, IFIT2 and IFIT3 (IFITs) increased infectious KSHV virion production 25-32-fold compared to that in control cells. KSHV lytic gene expression was upregulated broadly with preferential activation of several genes involved in lytic viral replication. Intracellular KSHV genome numbers were also increased by IFIT knockdown, consistent with inhibition of KSHV DNA replication by IFITs. RNA seq demonstrated that IFIT depletion also led to downregulation of IFN ? and several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), especially OAS proteins. OAS down-regulation led to decreased RNase L activity and slightly increased total RNA yield. IFIT immunoprecipitation also showed that IFIT1 bound to viral mRNAs and cellular capped mRNAs but not to uncapped RNA or trimethylated RNAs, suggesting that IFIT1 may also inhibit viral mRNA expression through direct binding. In summary, IFIT inhibits KSHV lytic replication through positively regulating the IFN ? and OAS RNase L pathway to degrade RNA in addition to possibly directly targeting viral mRNAs.