Association of race consciousness with the patient-physician relationship, medication adherence, and blood pressure in urban primary care patients.
ABSTRACT: Race consciousness (the frequency with which one thinks about his or her own race) is a measure that may be useful in assessing whether racial discrimination negatively impacts blood pressure (BP). However, the relation between race consciousness and BP has yet to be empirically tested, especially within the context of the patient-physician relationship and medication adherence.Race-stratified generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of race consciousness on BP, measures of the patient-physician relationship, and self-reported medication adherence, controlling for patients being nested within physicians and for patient age and sex.The mean age of the patients was 61.3 years, 62% were black, and 65% were women. Black patients were more likely to ever think about race than were white patients (49% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). Race-conscious blacks had significantly higher diastolic BP (79.4 vs. 74.5 mm Hg; P = 0.004) and somewhat higher systolic BP (138.8 vs. 134.7 mm Hg; P = 0.13) than blacks who were not race conscious. Race-conscious whites were more likely to perceive respect from their physician (57.1% vs. 25.8%; P = 0.01) but had lower medication adherence (62.4% vs. 82.9%; P = 0.05) than whites who were not race-conscious.Among blacks, race consciousness was associated with higher diastolic BP. In contrast, among whites, there was no association between race consciousness and BP, but race consciousness was associated with poor ratings of adherence, despite more favorable ratings of the patient-physician relationship. Future work should explore disparities in race consciousness and its impact on health and health-care disparities.
Project description:Racial disparities in hypertension control contribute to higher rates of cardiovascular mortality among blacks. Patient-physician communication quality is associated with better health outcomes, including blood pressure (BP) control. Both race/ethnicity and BP control may adversely affect communication.To determine whether being black and having poor BP control interact to adversely affect patient-physician communication more than either condition alone, a situation referred to as "double jeopardy."Cross-sectional study of enrollment data from a randomized controlled trial of interventions to enhance patient adherence to therapy for hypertension. Participants included 226 hypertensive patients and 39 physicians from 15 primary care practices in Baltimore, MD.Communication behaviors and visit length from coding of audiotapes.After controlling for patient and physician characteristics, blacks with uncontrolled BP have shorter visits (B = -3.9 min, p < 0.01) with less biomedical (B = -24.0, p = 0.05), psychosocial (B = -19.4, p < 0.01), and rapport-building (B = -19.5, p = 0.01) statements than whites with controlled BP. Of all communication outcomes, blacks with uncontrolled BP are only in "double jeopardy" for a patient positive affect-coders give them lower ratings than all other patients. Blacks with controlled BP also experience shorter visits and less communication with physicians than whites with controlled BP. There are no significant communication differences between the visits of whites with uncontrolled versus controlled BP.This study reveals that patient race is associated with the quality of patient-physician communication to a greater extent than BP control. Interventions that improve patient-physician communication should be tested as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in hypertension care and outcomes.
Project description:STUDY DESIGN:Secondary analysis of the Back Pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort study. OBJECTIVE:To characterize associations of self-reported race/ethnicity with back pain (BP) patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health care utilization among older adults with a new episode of care for BP. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:No prior longitudinal studies have characterized associations between multiple race/ethnicity groups, and BP-related PROs and health care utilization in the United States. METHODS:This study included 5117 participants ?65 years from three US health care systems. The primary BP-related PROs were BP intensity and back-related functional limitations over 24 months. Health care utilization measures included common diagnostic tests and treatments related to BP (spine imaging, spine-related relative value units [RVUs], and total RVUs) over 24 months. Analyses were adjusted for multiple potential confounders including sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and study site. RESULTS:Baseline BP ratings were significantly higher for blacks vs. whites (5.8 vs. 5.0; P?<?0.001). Participants in all race/ethnicity groups showed statistically significant, but modest improvements in BP over 24 months. Blacks and Hispanics did not have statistically significant improvement in BP-related functional limitations over time, unlike whites, Asians, and non-Hispanics; however, the magnitude of differences in improvement between groups was small. Blacks had less spine-related health care utilization over 24 months than whites (spine-related RVU ratio of means 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.86). Hispanics had less spine-related health care utilization than non-Hispanics (spine-related RVU ratio of means 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.90). CONCLUSION:Blacks and Hispanics had slightly less improvement in BP-related functional limitations over time, and less spine-related health care utilization, as compared to whites and non-Hispanics, respectively. Residual confounding may explain some of the association between race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further studies are needed to understand the factors underlying these differences and which differences reflect disparities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:3.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but the causes of hypertension remain largely unknown. Genetic variation is thought to contribute to the etiology of hypertension. We tested a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (Lys67Arg, rs197922) in the Golgi SNAP Receptor Complex Member 2 (GOSR2) gene for association with hypertension and blood pressure (BP). We chose this SNP because it was nominally associated with CHD in earlier studies. Further, GOSR2 is located in a linkage region for hypertension and BP in human and animal studies. METHODS:We used logistic and linear regression to test associations of the GOSR2 SNP with hypertension and BP among 3,528 blacks and 9,861 whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Race-specific regression models of hypertension were adjusted for age and gender. Regression models of BP were further adjusted for antihypertensive medication use. RESULTS:The GOSR2 Lys67 allele was associated with hypertension in whites (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, P = 0.01) but not blacks (OR = 0.96, P = 0.47). The Lys67 allele was associated with increased systolic BP (SBP) in both races (0.87 mm Hg, P < 0.001 among whites and 1.05 mm Hg, P = 0.05 among blacks). A similar association in whites was observed for the GOSR2 SNP and SBP in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (OR = 1.03, P = 0.04). The OR remained unchanged after adjustment for antihypertensive medication use (OR = 1.03, P = 0.11), though it was no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:We found evidence that a SNP in GOSR2 is modestly associated with hypertension in whites from the ARIC study and the WGHS.
Project description:PURPOSE:Little is known about how perceived social standing versus traditional socioeconomic characteristics influence medication adherence and blood pressure (BP) among African American and white patients with hypertension in the rural southeastern United States. METHODS:Perceived social standing, socioeconomic characteristics, self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence, and BP were measured at baseline in a cohort of rural African American and white patients (n = 495) with uncontrolled hypertension attending primary care practices. Multivariate models examined the relationship of perceived social standing and socioeconomic indicators with medication adherence and systolic BP. FINDINGS:Medication nonadherence was reported by 40% of patients. Younger age [? = 0.20; P = .001], African American race [? = -0.30; P = .03], and lower perceived social standing [? = 0.08; P = .002] but not sex or traditional socioeconomic characteristics including education and household income, were significantly associated with lower medication adherence. Race-specific analyses revealed that this pattern was limited to African Americans and not observed in whites. In stepwise modeling, older age [? = 0.57, P = .001], African American race [? = 4.4; P = .03], and lower medication adherence [? = -1.7, P = .01] but not gender, education, or household income, were significantly associated with higher systolic BP. CONCLUSIONS:Lower perceived social standing and age, but not traditional socioeconomic characteristics, were significantly associated with lower medication adherence in African Americans. Lower medication adherence was associated with higher systolic BP. These findings suggest the need for tailored, culturally relevant medication adherence interventions in rural communities.
Project description:BACKGROUND: African Americans have higher rates of hypertension and worse blood pressure (BP) control than Whites, and poorer medication adherence may contribute to this phenomenon. We explored associations among patients' race, self-reported experiences with clinicians, attitudes and beliefs about hypertension, and ultimately, medication adherence, among a sample with no racial disparities in BP control, to determine what lessons we could learn from patients and providers in this setting. METHODS: We recruited 793 White and African-American (58%) patients previously diagnosed with hypertension from 3 VA medical centers to participate in survey assessments of each of the above dimensions, subsequent to a primary care clinic visit. RESULTS: African-American patients' providers were significantly more active in advising and counseling about hypertension care and medication adherence. African-American patients indicated greater knowledge or heightened awareness of the importance of controlling their BP, but there were no race differences on a summary adherence measure. In multivariate models modeling medication adherence, race was not significant, but having been told to split one's pills, believing one's BP continues to be high, and having one's provider discuss things to do to make it easier to take BP medications were each significantly associated with worse adherence, whereas having more confidence in one's ability to take BP medications as prescribed was associated with better adherence (all p's < or = .02). CONCLUSION: When both physicians and patients take BP management seriously, disparities in BP adherence and control may be reduced.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several approaches to initiation of antihypertensive therapy have been suggested. These include thiazide diuretics (TDs) as the first drug in all patients, initial drug selection based on age and race criteria, or therapy selection based on measures of plasma renin activity (PRA). It is uncertain which of these strategies achieves the highest control rate with monotherapy in Stage-I hypertension. We sought to compare control rates among these strategies.<h4>Methods</h4>We used data from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses study (PEAR) to estimate control rates for each strategy: (i) TD for all, (ii) age- and race-based strategy: Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) for all blacks and for whites ?50 years and a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (atenolol) for whites <50 years) or (iii) a PRA based strategy: HCTZ for suppressed PRA (<0.6ng/ml/h) and atenolol for non-suppressed PRA (?0.6ng/ml/h) despite age or race. Hypertension was confirmed prior to treatment with HCTZ (148 blacks and 218 whites) or with atenolol (146 blacks and 221 whites).<h4>Results</h4>In the overall sample, using clinic blood pressure (BP) response, the renin-based strategy was associated with the greatest control rate (48.9% vs. 40.8% with the age and race-based strategy (P = 0.0004) and 31.7% with the TD for all strategy (P < 0.0001)). The findings were similar using home or by 24-hour ambulatory BP responses and within each racial subgroup.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A strategy for selection of initial antihypertensive drug therapy based on PRA was associated with greater BP control rates compared to a thiazide-for-all or an age and race-based strategy.
Project description:Neural control of blood pressure (BP) has been reported to differ between young blacks and whites. We hypothesized that elderly blacks have enhanced sympathetic neural responses during orthostasis compared with elderly whites. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity, arm-cuff BP, and heart rate were recorded continuously, and cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured intermittently during supine and 5-minute 60° upright tilt in 10 blacks (65 [SD, 4] years; 4 women) and 20 whites (68  years; 8 women). We found that muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst frequency was similar between blacks and whites in the supine position (44  versus 42  bursts per minute) and during upright tilt (59  versus 60  bursts per minute; P=0.846 for race, P<0.001 for posture, and P=0.622 for interaction). However, upright total muscle sympathetic nerve activity was smaller in blacks than in whites (162  versus 243 %; P=0.003). Systolic BP, heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume were not different between groups. Diastolic BP was similar in the supine position, increased in all of the subjects during tilting; upright diastolic BP was greater in blacks than in whites (80  versus 71  mmHg; P=0.008). Total peripheral resistance did not differ between blacks and whites in the supine position or during upright tilt (P=0.354 for race, P<0.001 for posture, P=0.825 for interaction). Thus, elderly blacks have a blunted sympathetic neural responsiveness but enhanced pressor response to orthostasis compared with elderly whites, which may be attributable to an augmented sympathetic vascular transduction and/or nonadrenergic vasoconstrictor mechanisms (ie, angiotensin II or the venoarteriolar response).
Project description:BACKGROUND:A systematic literature review was conducted to determine whether US blacks and whites have differential blood pressure (BP) response to calcium channel blocker (CCB) monotherapy. METHODS:Six published studies made up the final cohort of eligible articles. Multiple treatment groups within some studies led to a total of eight sets of estimates for BP reduction with a total of 6,851 white or nonblack participants and 3,371 black participants. RESULTS:The pooled difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) change between blacks and whites was -2.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.0, -1.3) with blacks having greater response. The difference in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between blacks and whites was -0.4 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.0, 0.3) with blacks having greater response. Using a dichotomous outcome measure, whites were found to be just as likely as blacks to attain the DBP goal of <90 mm Hg or a 10 mm Hg or greater change (relative risk: 1.00 95% CI: 0.91, 1.11). In addition, examination of the continuous distribution of BP responses of whites and blacks showed over 90% overlap in treatment response. CONCLUSION:Assessment of differential response to CCB monotherapy by race in published data depends on choice of outcome metric. Nonetheless, the results of this systematic review indicate that BP response is qualitatively similar in US blacks and whites, suggesting that patient race is not likely to offer any clinical utility for decisions about the likely effect of this antihypertensive therapy.
Project description:We assessed whether Medicare Part D reduced disparities in access to medication.Secondary data analysis of a 20% sample of Medicare beneficiaries, using Parts A and B medical claims from 2002 to 2008 and Part D drug claims from 2006 to 2008.We analyzed the medication use of Hispanic, black, and white beneficiaries with diabetes before and after reaching the Part D coverage gap, and compared their use with that of race-specific reference groups not exposed to the loss in coverage. Unadjusted difference-in-difference results were validated with multivariate regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and zip code-level household income used as a proxy for socioeconomic status.The rate at which Hispanics reduced use of diabetes-related medications in the coverage gap was twice as high as whites, while blacks decreased their use of diabetes-related medications by 33% more than whites. The reduction in medication use was correlated with drug price. Hispanics and blacks were more likely than whites to discontinue a therapy after reaching the coverage gap but more likely to resume once coverage restarted. Hispanics without subsidies and living in low-income areas reduced medication use more than similar blacks and whites in the coverage gap.We found that the Part D coverage gap is particularly disruptive to minorities and those living in low-income areas. The implications of this work suggest that protecting the health of vulnerable groups requires more than premium subsidies. Patient education may be a first step, but more substantive improvements in adherence may require changes in healthcare delivery.
Project description:Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (<7h of sleep/night), and whether anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ?1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey. Weighted multivariable logistic regressions and mediation analyses with bootstrapping and case resampling were conducted. Anxiety sensitivity and Black vs. White race were associated with 4%-84% increased odds, respectively, of short sleep duration. Anxiety sensitivity mediated Black-White differences in sleep duration. Each anxiety sensitivity subscale was also a significant mediator. Implications for future intervention science to address sleep disparities are discussed.