Role of HDL in cholesteryl ester metabolism of lipopolysaccharide-activated P388D1 macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Infections share with atherosclerosis similar lipid alterations, with accumulation of cholesteryl esters (CEs) in activated macrophages and concomitant decrease of cholesterol-HDL (C-HDL). Yet the precise role of HDL during microbial infection has not been fully elucidated. Activation of P388D1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered an increase of CEs and neutral lipid contents, along with a remarkable enhancement in 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-HDL uptake. Similar results were found in human monocyte-derived macrophages and monocytes cocultured with phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes. Inhibition of cholesterol esterification with Sandoz-58035 resulted in 80% suppression of CE biosynthesis in P388D1. However, only a 35% decrease of CE content, together with increased scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1) protein expression, was found after 72 h and thereafter up to 16 passages of continuous ACAT suppression. Chronic inhibition blunted the effect of LPS treatment on cholesterol metabolism, increased the ratio of free cholesterol/CE content and enhanced interleukin 6 secretion. These results imply that, besides de novo biosynthesis and acquisition by LDL, HDL contributes probably through SR-B1 to the increased CE content in macrophages, partly explaining the low levels of C-HDL during their activation. Our data suggest that in those conditions where more CEs are required, HDL rather than removing, may supply CEs to the cells.
Project description:Reverse cholesterol transport (transfer of macrophage-cholesterol in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall to the liver) is terminated by selective high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, mediated by scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1). We tested the validity of two models for this process: "gobbling," i.e. one-step transfer of all HDL-CE to the cell and "nibbling," multiple successive cycles of SR-B1-HDL association during which a few CEs transfer to the cell. Concurrently, we compared cellular uptake of apoAI with that of apoAII, which is more lipophilic than apoAI, using HDL-[3H]CE labeled with [125I]apoAI or [125I]apoAII. The studies were conducted in CHO-K1 and CHO-ldlA7 cells (LDLR-/-) with (CHO-SR-B1) and without SR-B1 overexpression and in human Huh7 hepatocytes. Relative to CE, both apoAI and apoAII were excluded from uptake by all cells. However, apoAII was more highly excluded from uptake (2-4×) than apoAI. To distinguish gobbling versus nibbling mechanisms, media from incubations of HDL with CHO-SR-B1 cells were analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, and the distribution of apoAI, apoAII, cholesterol, and phospholipid among HDL species as a function of incubation time. HDL size gradually decreased, i.e. nibbling, with the concurrent release of lipid-free apoAI; apoAII was retained in an HDL remnant. Our data support an SR-B1 nibbling mechanism that is similar to that of streptococcal serum opacity factor, which also selectively removes CE and releases apoAI, leaving an apoAII-rich remnant.
Project description:Aberrant cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis, and cholesterol is thought to play an important role during cell proliferation and cancer progression. In the present study we examined the pathways that could contribute to enhanced proliferation rates of HBL-100 cells in the presence of apolipoprotein E-depleted high-density lipoprotein subclass 3 (HDL(3)). When HBL-100 cells were cultivated in the presence of HDL(3) (up to 200 microg/ml HDL(3) protein), the growth rates and cellular cholesterol content were directly related to the concentrations of HDL(3) in the culture medium. In principle, two pathways can contribute to cholesterol/cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake from HDL(3), (i) holoparticle- and (ii) scavenger-receptor BI (SR-BI)-mediated selective uptake of HDL(3)-associated CEs. Northern- and Western-blot analyses revealed the expression of CLA-1 (CD-36 and LIMPII analogous 1), the human homologue of the rodent HDL receptor SR-BI. In line with CLA-1 expression, selective uptake of HDL(3)-CEs exceeded HDL(3)-holoparticle uptake between 12- and 58-fold. Competition experiments demonstrated that CLA-1 ligands (oxidized HDL, oxidized and acetylated low-density lipoprotein and phosphatidylserine) inhibited selective HDL(3)-CE uptake. In line with the ligand-binding specificity of CLA-1, phosphatidylcholine did not compete for selective HDL(3)-CE uptake. Selective uptake was regulated by the availability of exogenous cholesterol and PMA, but not by adrenocorticotropic hormone. HPLC analysis revealed that a substantial part of HDL(3)-CE, which was taken up selectively, was subjected to intracellular hydrolysis. A potential candidate facilitating extralysosomal hydrolysis of HDL(3)-CE is hormone-sensitive lipase, an enzyme which was identified in HBL-100 cells by Western blots. Our findings demonstrate that HBL-100 cells are able to acquire HDL-CEs via selective uptake. Subsequent partial hydrolysis by hormone-sensitive lipase could provide 'free' cholesterol that is available for the synthesis of cellular membranes during proliferation of cancer cells.
Project description:High density lipoproteins (HDLs) play a crucial role in removing excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues. Although their concentration is lower during conditions of high cell growth rate (cancer and infections), their involvement during cell proliferation is not known. To this aim, we investigated the replicative cycles in synchronised Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in different experimental conditions: i) contact-inhibited fibroblasts re-entering cell cycle after dilution; ii) scratch-wound assay; iii) serum-deprived cells induced to re-enter G1 by FCS, HDL or PDGF. Analyses were performed during each cell cycle up to quiescence. Cholesterol synthesis increased remarkably during the replicative cycles, decreasing only after cells reached confluence. In contrast, cholesteryl ester (CE) synthesis and content were high at 24?h after dilution and then decreased steeply in the successive cycles. Flow cytometry analysis of DiO-HDL, as well as radiolabeled HDL pulse, demonstrated a significant uptake of CE-HDL in 24?h. DiI-HDL uptake, lipid droplets (LDs) and SR-BI immunostaining and expression followed the same trend. Addition of HDL or PDGF partially restore the proliferation rate and significantly increase SR-BI and pAKT expression in serum-deprived cells. In conclusion, cell transition from G0 to G1/S requires CE-HDL uptake, leading to CE-HDL/SR-BI pathway activation and CEs increase into LDs.
Project description:Although human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) concentrations negatively correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thus, there is continued interest in HDL structure and functionality. Numerous plasma factors disrupt HDL structure while inducing the release of lipid free apolipoprotein (apo) AI. Given that HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap, we tested whether HDL could be stabilized by acylation with acetyl and hexanoyl anhydrides, giving AcHDL and HexHDL respectively. Lysine analysis with fluorescamine showed that AcHDL and HexHDL respectively contained 11 acetyl and 19 hexanoyl groups. Tests with biological and physicochemical perturbants showed that HexHDL was more stable than HDL to perturbant-induced lipid free apo AI formation. Like the reaction of streptococcal serum opacity factor against HDL, the interaction of HDL with its receptor, scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1), removes CE from HDL. Thus, we tested and validated the hypothesis that selective uptake of HexHDL-[3H]CE by Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing SR-B1 is less than that of HDL-[3H]CE; thus, selective SR-B1 uptake of HDL-CE depends on HDL instability. However, in mice, plasma clearance, hepatic uptake and sterol secretion into bile were faster from HexHDL-[3H]CE than from HDL-[3H]CE. Collectively, our data show that acylation increases HDL stability and that the reaction of plasma factors with HDL and SR-B1-mediated uptake are reduced by increased HDL stability. In vivo data suggest that HexHDL promotes charge-dependent reverse cholesterol transport, by a mechanism that increases hepatic sterol uptake via non SR-B1 receptors, thereby increasing bile acid output.
Project description:High-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL-CE) are selectively taken up by liver parenchymal cells without parallel apolipoprotein uptake, and this selective uptake route forms an important step in reverse cholesterol transport. Recent data from Acton, Rigotti, Landschulz, Xu, Hobbs and Krieger [(1996) Science 271, 518-520] provide evidence that scavenger receptor B (SR-B1) can mediate selective uptake of HDL-CE. In order to identify if selective uptake of HDL-CE by rat liver parenchymal cells can be mediated by a protein with scavenger receptor properties we performed competition experiments in vivo with substrates for scavenger receptors. Addition of either low-density lipoprotein (LDL), acetylated LDL (AcLDL) or oxidized LDL (OxLDL) only marginally (<10%) decreased the association of HDL particles to parenchymal cells as measured by 125I-labelled HDL. HDL-CE association was inhibited by AcLDL by 35%, while addition of OxLDL did inhibit HDL-CE association by 80%, thereby completely blocking the selective uptake of HDL-CE. Studies with HDL labelled with a fluorescent cholesteryl-ester analogue confirmed that OxLDL mediated complete inhibition of HDL-CE selective uptake by rat liver parenchymal cells. The inhibition of HDL-CE selective uptake by OxLDL was insensitive to the additional presence of polyinosinic acid (poly I), indicating that the inhibitory effect did not involve a poly I-sensitive site. Anionic phospholipid liposomes inhibited HDL-CE association by 40%, while neutral liposomes were ineffective. The inhibition of the selective uptake of HDL-CE in liver parenchymal cells by modified LDL, in particular OxLDL and anionic phospholipids suggests that, in liver, the SR-B1 is responsible for the efficient uptake of HDL-CE.
Project description:The scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) binds high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and mediates selective delivery of cholesteryl esters (CEs) to the liver and steroidogenic cells of the adrenal glands and gonads. Although it is clear that the large extracellular domain (ECD) of SR-BI binds HDL, the role of ECD in the selective HDL-CE transport remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a combination of mutational and chemical approaches to systematically evaluate the contribution of cysteine residues, especially six cysteine residues of ECD, in SR-BI-mediated selective HDL-CE uptake, intracellular trafficking, and SR-BI dimerization. Pretreatment of SR-BI-overexpressing COS-7 cells with a disulfide (S-S) bond reducing agent, ?-mercaptoethanol (100 mM) or dithiothreitol (DTT) (10 mM), modestly but significantly impaired SR-BI-mediated selective HDL-CE uptake. Treatment of SR-BI-overexpressing COS-7 cells with the optimal doses of membrane permeant alkyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents, positively charged MTSEA or neutral MMTS, that specifically react with the free sulfhydryl group of cysteine reduced the rate of SR-BI-mediated selective HDL-CE uptake, indicating that certain intracellular free cysteine residues may also be critically involved in the selective cholesterol transport process. In contrast, use of membrane impermeant MTS reagent, positively charged MTSET and negatively charged MTSES, showed no such effect. Next, the importance of eight cysteine residues in SR-BI expression, cell surface expression, dimer formation, and selective HDL-derived CE transport was evaluated. These cysteine residues were replaced either singly or in pairs with serine, and the mutant SR-BIs were expressed in either COS-7 or CHO cells. Four mutations, C280S, C321S, C323S, and C334S, of the ECD, either singly or in various pair combinations, resulted in significant decreases in SR-BI (HDL) binding activity, selective CE uptake, and trafficking to the cell surface. Surprisingly, we found that mutation of the two remaining cysteine residues, C251 and C384 of the ECD, had no effect on either SR-BI expression or function. Other cysteine mutations and substitutions were also without effect. Western blot data indicated that single and double mutations at C280, C321, C323, and C334 residues strongly favor dimer formation. However, they are rendered nonfunctional presumably because of mutation-induced formation of aberrant disulfide linkages resulting in inhibition of optimal HDL binding and, thus, selective HDL-CE uptake. These results provide novel insights into the functional role of four cysteine residues, C280, C321, C323, and C334, of the SR-BI ECD in SR-BI expression and trafficking to the cell surface, its dimerization, and associated selective CE transport function.
Project description:Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) plays an essential role in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. SR-B1 deficient (SR-B1 KO) mice are prone to atherosclerosis and exhibit abnormally large, cholesterol-rich, dysfunctional HDL. In a recent issue of J Transl Med, Cao et al. described results of proteomics analyses of HDL isolated from wild-type (WT) and SR-B1 KO mice using precipitation of large lipoproteins with polyethylene glycol (PEG). They report abnormalities in SR-B1 KO HDL protein components that correlate with HDL function. In this commentary, we describe and discuss the differences in the results published by Cao et al. and those obtained in a recent study from our laboratory using shotgun proteomics of HDL of SR-B1 KO mice isolated by ultracentrifugation. We propose that different HDL purification procedures used may account for the discrepancies observed. We show that SR-B1 KO HDL purification using either PEG or dextran sulfate precipitation results in enrichment of small HDL subclasses, and may therefore underestimate alterations in lipoprotein composition or function. Compared to HDL obtained by ultracentrifugation, HDL isolated by PEG precipitation show a lower ApoE/ApoA-I proportion and reduced cholesterol content. HDL protein components described by Cao et al. or our laboratory are mostly inconsistent: only 33 HDL proteins were detected in both datasets, whereas a significant number of proteins were only identified by Cao et al. (n?=?43) or Contreras-Duarte et al. (n?=?26) datasets. The relative abundance of HDL-associated peptide and protein levels in WT vs SR-B1 HDL were also highly different in both datasets. This study indicates that caution must be taken when interpreting results from HDL isolated by chemical precipitation.
Project description:In mice, scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) receptor protein deficiency is associated with elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels.Our objective was to determine the relationship between SR-BI protein and HDL-C levels in humans.This was a prospective study of adults with hyperalphalipoproteinemia. Fasting blood was obtained for lipid and lipoprotein measurement, genomic DNA, and monocyte-derived macrophages. SR-BI protein levels were measured by Western blots, and SR-BI activity was measured by cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake of each donor's radiolabeled HDL with their monocyte-derived macrophages, or by degradation and specific cell association of dual-labeled HDL in vitro.The study was performed in a tertiary university teaching hospital.The mean age was 57.2 +/- 10.9 yr (n = 65). SR-BI protein levels were inversely associated with HDL-C levels (P < 0.002), HDL particle size (P < 0.05), and positively associated with CE uptake (P < 0.004); there was no association with plasma apolipoprotein levels. SR-BI protein levels (P = 0.01) were independent predictors of HDL-C levels. Subjects who were carriers of the A allele for the rs4238001 (glycine to serine at position 2) polymorphism [single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] had lower SR-BI protein levels (P = 0.01), whereas carriers of the C allele for the rs2278986 SNP also had lower SR-BI protein levels (P = 0.02). Body mass index (P = 0.05), rs4238001 (P = 0.01), and rs2278986 (P = 0.01) SNPs were independent predictors of SR-BI protein levels. In vitro studies of murine macrophages stably expressing the glycine to serine at position 2 SNP showed less degradation (P < 0.0004) and specific cell association (P < 0.0004) of [(125)I, (3)H]-CE-labeled HDL.SR-BI protein has an independent effect on HDL-C levels in women with hyperalphalipoproteinemia. Two SNPs were significantly associated with lower SR-BI protein levels.
Project description:Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles that mediate intercellular communication. Cellular exosome uptake mechanisms are not well defined partly due to the lack of specific inhibitors of this complex cellular process. Exosome uptake depends on cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains called lipid rafts, and can be blocked by non-specific depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol. Scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1), found in lipid rafts, is a receptor for cholesterol-rich high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We hypothesized that a synthetic nanoparticle mimic of HDL (HDL NP) that binds SR-B1 and removes cholesterol through this receptor would inhibit cellular exosome uptake. In cell models, our data show that HDL NPs bind SR-B1, activate cholesterol efflux, and attenuate the influx of esterified cholesterol. As a result, HDL NP treatment results in decreased dynamics and clustering of SR-B1 contained in lipid rafts and potently inhibits cellular exosome uptake. Thus, SR-B1 and targeted HDL NPs provide a fundamental advance in studying cholesterol-dependent cellular uptake mechanisms.
Project description:Cholesterol cycles between free cholesterol (unesterified) found predominantly in membranes and cholesteryl esters (CEs) stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Only free cholesterol is effluxed from macrophages via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to extracellular acceptors. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), proposed to hydrolyze CEs, is inactivated by oxon metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides and by the lipid electrophile 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). We assessed the ability of these compounds to reduce cholesterol efflux from foam cells. Human THP-1 macrophages were loaded with [(3)H]-cholesterol/acetylated LDL and then allowed to equilibrate to enable [(3)H]-cholesterol to distribute into its various cellular pools. The cholesterol-engorged cells were then treated with toxicants in the absence of cholesterol acceptors for 24 h, followed by a 24 h efflux period in the presence of toxicant. A concentration-dependent reduction in [(3)H]-cholesterol efflux via ABCA1 (up to 50%) was found for paraoxon (0.1-10 ?M), whereas treatment with HNE had no effect. A modest reduction in [(3)H]-cholesterol efflux via ABCG1 (25%) was found after treatment with either paraoxon or chlorpyrifos oxon (10 ?M each) but not HNE. No difference in efflux rates was found after treatments with either paraoxon or HNE when the universal cholesterol acceptor 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum was used. When the re-esterification arm of the CE cycle was disabled in foam cells, paraoxon treatment increased CE levels, suggesting the neutral CE hydrolysis arm of the cycle had been inhibited by the toxicant. However, paraoxon also partially inhibited lysosomal acid lipase, which generates cholesterol for efflux, and reduced the expression of ABCA1 protein. Paradoxically, silencing CES1 expression in macrophages did not affect the percent of [(3)H]-cholesterol efflux. However, CES1 mRNA knockdown markedly reduced cholesterol uptake by macrophages, with SR-A and CD36 mRNA reduced 3- and 4-fold, respectively. Immunoblots confirmed SR-A and CD36 protein downregulation. Together, these results suggest that toxicants, e.g., oxons, may interfere with macrophage cholesterol homeostasis/metabolism.