Solution structure of human P1•P2 heterodimer provides insights into the role of eukaryotic stalk in recruiting the ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin to the ribosome.
ABSTRACT: Lateral ribosomal stalk is responsible for binding and recruiting translation factors during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic stalk consists of one P0 protein with two copies of P1•P2 heterodimers to form a P0(P1•P2)? pentameric P-complex. Here, we have solved the structure of full-length P1•P2 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. P1 and P2 dimerize via their helical N-terminal domains, whereas the C-terminal tails of P1•P2 are unstructured and can extend up to ?125 Å away from the dimerization domains. (15)N relaxation study reveals that the C-terminal tails are flexible, having a much faster internal mobility than the N-terminal domains. Replacement of prokaryotic L10(L7/L12)?/L11 by eukaryotic P0(P1•P2)?/eL12 rendered Escherichia coli ribosome, which is insensitive to trichosanthin (TCS), susceptible to depurination by TCS and the C-terminal tail was found to be responsible for this depurination. Truncation and insertion studies showed that depurination of hybrid ribosome is dependent on the length of the proline-alanine rich hinge region within the C-terminal tail. All together, we propose a model that recruitment of TCS to the sarcin-ricin loop required the flexible C-terminal tail, and the proline-alanine rich hinge region lengthens this C-terminal tail, allowing the tail to sweep around the ribosome to recruit TCS.
Project description:Trichosanthin (TCS) is a type I ribosome-inactivating protein that inactivates ribosome by enzymatically depurinating the A(4324) at the alpha-sarcin/ricin loop of 28S rRNA. We have shown in this and previous studies that TCS interacts with human acidic ribosomal proteins P0, P1 and P2, which constitute the lateral stalk of eukaryotic ribosome. Deletion mutagenesis showed that TCS interacts with the C-terminal tail of P2, the sequences of which are conserved in P0, P1 and P2. The P2-binding site on TCS was mapped to the C-terminal domain by chemical shift perturbation experiments. Scanning charge-to-alanine mutagenesis has shown that K173, R174 and K177 in the C-terminal domain of TCS are involved in interacting with the P2, presumably through forming charge-charge interactions to the conserved DDD motif at the C-terminal tail of P2. A triple-alanine variant K173A/R174A/K177A of TCS, which fails to bind P2 and ribosomal stalk in vitro, was found to be 18-fold less active in inhibiting translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate, suggesting that interaction with P-proteins is required for full activity of TCS. In an analogy to the role of stalk proteins in binding elongation factors, we propose that interaction with acidic ribosomal stalk proteins help TCS to locate its RNA substrate.
Project description:Shiga toxins produced by Escherichia coli O157:H7 are responsible for food poisoning and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The A subunits of Shiga toxins (Stx1A and Stx2A) inhibit translation by depurinating a specific adenine in the large rRNA. To determine if Stx1A and Stx2A require the ribosomal stalk for depurination, their activity and cytotoxicity were examined in the yeast P protein deletion mutants. Stx1A and Stx2A were less toxic and depurinated ribosomes less in a strain lacking P1/P2 on the ribosome and in the cytosol (?P2) than in a strain lacking P1/P2 on the ribosome, but containing free P2 in the cytosol (?P1). To determine if cytoplasmic P proteins facilitated depurination, Stx1A and Stx2A were expressed in the P0?AB mutant, in which the binding sites for P1/P2 were deleted on the ribosome, and P1/P2 accumulated in the cytosol. Stx1A was less toxic and depurinated ribosomes less in P0?AB, suggesting that intact binding sites for P1/P2 were critical. In contrast, Stx2A was toxic and depurinated ribosomes in P0?AB as in wild type, suggesting that it did not require the P1/P2 binding sites. Depurination of ?P1, but not P0?AB ribosomes increased upon addition of purified P1?/P2?in vitro, and the increase was greater for Stx1 than for Stx2. We conclude that cytoplasmic P proteins stimulate depurination by Stx1 by facilitating the access of the toxin to the ribosome. Although ribosomal stalk is important for Stx1 and Stx2 to depurinate the ribosome, Stx2 is less dependent on the stalk proteins for activity than Stx1 and can depurinate ribosomes with an incomplete stalk better than Stx1.
Project description:Ricin A-chain (RTA) depurinates the sarcin-ricin loop of 28S ribosomal RNA and inhibits protein synthesis in mammalian cells. In yeast, the ribosomal stalk facilitates the interaction of RTA with the ribosome and subsequent depurination. Despite homology between the stalk structures from yeast and humans, there are notable differences. The human ribosomal stalk contains two identical heterodimers of P1 and P2 bound to P0, whereas the yeast stalk consists of two different heterodimers, P1?-P2? and P2?-P1?, bound to P0. RTA exhibits higher activity towards mammalian ribosomes than towards ribosomes from other organisms, suggesting that the mode of interaction with ribosomes may vary. Here, we examined whether the human ribosomal stalk proteins facilitate the interaction of RTA with human ribosomes and subsequent depurination of the sarcin-ricin loop. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of P1/P2 expression in human cells, we demonstrated that the depurination activity of RTA is lower when P1 and P2 levels are reduced. Biacore analysis showed that ribosomes from P1/P2-depleted cells have a reduced ability to bind RTA, which correlates with reduced depurination activity both in vitro and inside cells. RTA interacts directly with recombinant human P1-P2 dimer, further demonstrating the importance of human P1 and P2 in enabling RTA to bind and depurinate human ribosomes.
Project description:The eukaryotic stalk, which is responsible for the recruitment of translation factors, is a pentamer containing two P1-P2 dimers with unclear modes of action. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P1/P2 proteins (individual P1 and P2 proteins) are organized into two distinct dimers, P1A-P2B and P1B-P2A. To investigate the functional contribution of each dimer on the ribosome, RTA (ricin A chain), which binds to the stalk to depurinate the SRL (sarcin/ricin loop), was used as a molecular probe in yeast mutants in which the binding site for one or the other dimer on P0 was deleted. Ribosome depurination and toxicity of RTA were greatly reduced in mutants containing only P1A-P2B on the ribosome, whereas those with only P1B-P2A were reduced less in depurination and were unaffected in toxicity. Ribosomes bearing P1B-P2A were depurinated by RTA at a similar level as wild-type, but ribosomes bearing P1A-P2B were depurinated at a much lower level in vitro. The latter ribosomes showed the lowest association and almost no dissociation with RTA by surface plasmon resonance. These results indicate that the P1B-P2A dimer is more critical for facilitating the access of RTA to the SRL, providing the first in vivo evidence for functional divergence between the two stalk dimers on the ribosome.
Project description:In animal ribosomes, two stalk proteins P1 and P2 form a heterodimer, and the two dimers, with the anchor protein P0, constitute a pentameric complex crucial for recruitment of translational GTPase factors to the ribosome. To investigate the functional contribution of each copy of the stalk proteins, we constructed P0 mutants, in which one of the two C-terminal helices, namely helix I (N-terminal side) or helix II (C-terminal side) were unable to bind the P1-P2 dimer. We also constructed 'one-C-terminal domain (CTD) stalk dimers', P1-P2?C and P1?C-P2, composed of intact P1/P2 monomer and a CTD-truncated partner. Through combinations of P0 and P1-P2 variants, various complexes were reconstituted and their function tested in eEF-2-dependent GTPase and eEF-1?/eEF-2-dependent polyphenylalanine synthesis assays in vitro. Double/single-CTD dimers bound to helix I showed higher activity than that bound to helix II. Despite low polypeptide synthetic activity by a single one-CTD dimer, its binding to both helices considerably increased activity, suggesting that two stalk dimers cooperate, particularly in polypeptide synthesis. This promotion of activity by two stalk dimers was lost upon mutation of the conserved YPT sequence connecting the two helices of P0, suggesting a role for this sequence in cooperativity of two stalk dimers.
Project description:The P0 scaffold protein of the ribosomal stalk is mainly incorporated into pre-ribosomes in the cytoplasm where it replaces the assembly factor Mrt4. In analyzing the role of the P0 carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) during ribosomal stalk assembly, we found that its complete removal yields a protein that is functionally similar to Mrt4, whereas a chimeric Mrt4 containing the P0 CTD behaves more like P0. Deleting the P0 binding sites for the P1 and P2 proteins provoked the nuclear accumulation of P0?AB induced by either leptomycin B-mediated blockage of nuclear export or Mrt4 deletion. This effect was reversed by removing P1/P2 from the cell, whereas nuclear accumulation was restored on reintroduction of these proteins. Together, these results indicate that the CTD determines the function of the P0 in stalk assembly. Moreover, they indicate that in cells lacking Mrt4, P0 and its stalk base partner, the L12 protein, bind to pre-ribosomes in the nucleus, a complex that is then exported to the cytoplasm by a mechanism assisted by the interaction with P1/P2 proteins. Furthermore, in wild-type cells, the presence of nuclear pre-ribosome complexes containing P0 but not L12 is compatible with the existence of an alternative stalk assembly process.
Project description:The lateral stalk of ribosome is responsible for kingdom-specific binding of translation factors and activation of GTP hydrolysis that drives protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, the stalk is composed of acidic ribosomal proteins P0, P1 and P2 that constitute a pentameric P-complex in 1: 2: 2 ratio. We have determined the solution structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain of human P2 (NTD-P2), which provides insights into the structural organization of the eukaryotic stalk. Our structure revealed that eukaryotic stalk protein P2 forms a symmetric homodimer in solution, and is structurally distinct from the bacterial counterpart L12 homodimer. The two subunits of NTD-P2 form extensive hydrophobic interactions in the dimeric interface that buries 2400 A(2) of solvent accessible surface area. We have showed that P1 can dissociate P2 homodimer spontaneously to form a more stable P1/P2 1 : 1 heterodimer. By homology modelling, we identified three exposed polar residues on helix-3 of P2 are substituted by conserved hydrophobic residues in P1. Confirmed by mutagenesis, we showed that these residues on helix-3 of P1 are not involved in the dimerization of P1/P2, but instead play a vital role in anchoring P1/P2 heterodimer to P0. Based on our results, models of the eukaryotic stalk complex were proposed.
Project description:The eukaryotic ribosomal proteins P1 and P2 bind to protein P0 through their N-terminal domain to form the essential ribosomal stalk. A mutational analysis points to amino acids at positions 2 and 3 as determinants for the drastic difference of Saccharomyces cerevisiae P1 and P2 half-life, and suggest different degradation mechanisms for each protein type. Moreover, the capacity to form P1/P2 heterodimers is drastically affected by mutations in the P2? four initial amino acids, while these mutations have no effect on P1?. Binding of P2? and, to a lesser extent, P1? to the ribosome is also seriously affected showing the high relevance of the amino acids in the first turn of the NTD ?-helix 1 for the stalk assembly. The negative effect of some mutations on ribosome binding can be reversed by the presence of the second P1/P2 couple in the ribosome, indicating a stabilizing structural influence between the two heterodimers. Unexpectedly, some mutations totally abolish heterodimer formation but allow significant ribosome binding and, therefore, a previous P1 and P2 association seems not to be an absolute requirement for stalk assembly. Homology modeling of the protein complexes suggests that the mutated residues can affect the overall protein conformation.
Project description:The ribosomal stalk is formed by four acidic phosphoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P1?, P1?, P2? and P2?, which form two heterodimers, P1?/P2? and P1?/P2?, that preferentially bind to sites A and B of the P0 protein, respectively. Using mutant strains carrying only one of the four possible P1/P2 combinations, we found a specific phenotype associated to each P1/P2 pair, indicating that not all acidic P proteins play the same role. The absence of one P1/P2 heterodimer reduced the rate of cell growth by varying degrees, depending on the proteins missing. Synthesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit also decreased, particularly in strains carrying the unusual P1?-P2? or P1?-P2? heterodimers, although the distinct P1/P2 dimers are bound with similar affinity to the mutant ribosome. While in wild-type strains the B site bound P1?/P2? in a highly specific manner and the A site bound the four P proteins similarly, both the A and B binding sites efficiently bound practically any P1/P2 pair in mutant strains expressing truncated P0 proteins. The reported results support that while most ribosomes contain a P1?/P2?-P0-P1?/P2? structure in normal conditions, the stalk assembly mechanism can generate alternative compositions, which have been previously detected in the cell.
Project description:The lateral ribosomal stalk is responsible for the kingdom-specific binding of translation factors and activation of GTP hydrolysis during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic stalk is composed of three acidic ribosomal proteins P0, P1 and P2. P0 binds two copies of P1/P2 hetero-dimers to form a pentameric P-complex. The structure of the eukaryotic stalk is currently not known. To provide a better understanding on the structural organization of eukaryotic stalk, we have determined the solution structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain (NTD) of P1/P2 hetero-dimer. Helix-1, -2 and -4 from each of the NTD-P1 and NTD-P2 form the dimeric interface that buries 2200 A(2) of solvent accessible surface area. In contrast to the symmetric P2 homo-dimer, P1/P2 hetero-dimer is asymmetric. Three conserved hydrophobic residues on the surface of NTD-P1 are replaced by charged residues in NTD-P2. Moreover, NTD-P1 has an extra turn in helix-1, which forms extensive intermolecular interactions with helix-1 and -4 of NTD-P2. Truncation of this extra turn of P1 abolished the formation of P1/P2 hetero-dimer. Systematic truncation studies suggest that P0 contains two spine-helices that each binds one copy of P1/P2 hetero-dimer. Modeling studies suggest that a large hydrophobic cavity, which can accommodate the loop between the spine-helices of P0, can be found on NTD-P1 but not on NTD-P2 when the helix-4 adopts an 'open' conformation. Based on the asymmetric properties of NTD-P1/NTD-P2, a structural model of the eukaryotic P-complex with P2/P1:P1/P2 topology is proposed.