A two-photon ratiometric fluorescence probe for cupric ions in live cells and tissues.
ABSTRACT: Development of sensitive and selective probes for cupric ions (Cu(2+)) at cell and tissue level is a challenging work for progress in understanding the biological effects of Cu(2+). Here, we report a ratiometric two-photon probe for Cu(2+) based on the organic-inorganic hybrids of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and Nile Blue dye. Meanwhile, Cu-free derivative of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) - E2Zn2SOD is designed as the unique receptor for Cu(2+) and conjugated on the surface of GQDs. This probe shows a blue-to-yellow color change in repose to Cu(2+), good selectivity, low cytotoxicity, long-term photostability, and insensitivity to pH over the biologically relevant pH range. The developed probe allows the direct visualization of Cu(2+) levels in live cells as well as in deep-tissues at 90-180 ?m depth through the use of two-photon microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of ascorbic acid is also evaluated on intracellular Cu(2+) binding to E2Zn2SOD by this probe.
Project description:Cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Improved cancer treatment requires enhancement of cancer diagnosis and detection. To achieve this goal, here we report a novel imaging probe, pH-responsive fluorescent graphene quantum dots (pRF-GQDs). pRF-GQDs were prepared by electrolysis of graphite rods in sodium p-toluenesulfonate acetonitrile solution. The resulting pRF-GQDs, which have minimal toxicity, display a sharp fluorescence transition between green and blue at pH 6.8, a pH matching the acidic extracellular microenvironment in solid tumors. We found that this unique fluorescence switch property allows tumors to be distinguished from normal tissues. In addition to fluorescence, pRF-GQDs also exhibit upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL). We demonstrate that the combination of UCPL and fluorescence switch enables detection of solid tumors of different origin at an early developmental stage. Therefore, pRF-GQDs have great potential to be used as a universal probe for fluorescence-guided cancer surgery and cancer diagnosis.
Project description:Copper (Cu)-containing proteins execute essential functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but their biogenesis is challenged by high Cu toxicity and the preferential presence of Cu(II) under aerobic conditions, while Cu(I) is the preferred substrate for Cu chaperones and Cu-transport proteins. These proteins form a coordinated network that prevents Cu accumulation, which would lead to toxic effects such as Fenton-like reactions and mismetalation of other metalloproteins. Simultaneously, Cu-transport proteins and Cu chaperones sustain Cu(I) supply for cuproprotein biogenesis and are therefore essential for the biogenesis of Cu-containing proteins. In eukaryotes, Cu(I) is supplied for import and trafficking by cell-surface exposed metalloreductases, but specific cupric reductases have not been identified in bacteria. It was generally assumed that the reducing environment of the bacterial cytoplasm would suffice to provide sufficient Cu(I) for detoxification and cuproprotein synthesis. Here, we identify the proposed cbb 3-type cytochrome c oxidase (cbb 3-Cox) assembly factor CcoG as a cupric reductase that binds Cu via conserved cysteine motifs and contains 2 low-potential [4Fe-4S] clusters required for Cu(II) reduction. Deletion of ccoG or mutation of the cysteine residues results in defective cbb 3-Cox assembly and Cu sensitivity. Furthermore, anaerobically purified CcoG catalyzes Cu(II) but not Fe(III) reduction in vitro using an artificial electron donor. Thus, CcoG is a bacterial cupric reductase and a founding member of a widespread class of enzymes that generate Cu(I) in the bacterial cytosol by using [4Fe-4S] clusters.
Project description:A novel sensing system has been designed for the detection of cupric ions. It is based on the quenched fluorescence signal of carbon dots (CDs), which were carbonized from poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and L-Cysteine (CYS). Cupric ions interact with the nitrogen and sulfur atoms on surface of the CDs to form an absorbed complex; this results in strong quenching of the fluorescence of the CDs via a fast metal-to-ligand binding affinity. The synthesized water-soluble CDs also exhibited a quantum yield of 7.6%, with favorable photoluminescent properties and good photostability. The fluorescence intensity of the CDs was very stable in high ionic strength (up to 1.0 M NaCl) and over a wide range of pH levels (2.0-12.0). This facile method can therefore develop a sensor that offers reliable, fast, and selective detection of cupric ions with a detection limit down to 0.15 ?M and a linear range from 0.5 to 7.0 ?M (<i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.980). The CDs were used for cell imaging, observed that they were low toxicity to Tramp C1 cells and exhibited blue and green and red fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope. In summary, the CDs exhibited excellent fluorescence properties, and could be applied to the selective and sensitive detection of cupric ion and multicolor cell imaging.
Project description:The new cupric superoxo complex [LCu(II)(O(2)(•-))](+), which possesses particularly strong O-O and Cu-O bonding, is capable of intermolecular C-H activation of the NADH analogue 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH). Kinetic studies indicated a first-order dependence on both the Cu complex and BNAH with a deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 12.1, similar to that observed for certain copper monooxygenases.
Project description:Carboxylesterases (CEs) are widely distributed enzymes in the human body that catalyze hydrolysis of various endogenous and exogenous substrates. They are directly linked to hepatic drug metabolisms and steatosis, and their regulations are important issues in pharmacological and clinical applications. In this work, we have developed an emission ratiometric two-photon probe (<b>SE1</b>) for quantitatively detecting CE <i>in situ</i>. This probe is based on a translation of intramolecular charge transfer character upon reaction with CE. It shows a sensitive blue-to-yellow emission change in response to human CE activity, easy loading into cells, insensitivity to pH and other metabolites including ROS and RNS, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity. Using live hepatocytes and liver tissues, we found that ratiometric two-photon microscopic imaging with <b>SE1</b> is an effective tool for monitoring CE activities at the subcellular level in live tissues. This probe will find useful applications in biomedical research, including studies of hepatic steatosis and drug developments.
Project description:Many Gram-negative bacteria interact with extracellular metal ions by expressing one or more siderophore types. Among these, the virulence-associated siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) is an avid copper chelator, forming stable cupric (Cu(II)-Ybt) complexes that are detectable in infected patients. Here we show that Ybt-expressing E. coli are protected from intracellular killing within copper-replete phagocytic cells. This survival advantage is highly dependent upon the phagocyte respiratory burst, during which superoxide is generated by the NADPH oxidase complex. Chemical fractionation links this phenotype to a previously unappreciated superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of Cu(II)-Ybt. Unlike previously described synthetic copper-salicylate (Cu(II)-SA) SOD mimics, the salicylate-based natural product Cu(II)-Ybt retains catalytic activity at physiologically plausible protein concentrations. These results reveal a new virulence-associated adaptation based upon spontaneous assembly of a non-protein catalyst.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), partly caused by the mutations and aggregation of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), is a fatal degenerative disease of motor neurons. Because SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein present at relatively high concentration in motor neurons and copper can be a harmful pro-oxidant, we want to know whether aberrant copper biochemistry could underlie ALS pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated and compared the effects of cupric ions on the aggregation of ALS-associated SOD1 mutant A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>As revealed by 90° light scattering, dynamic light scattering, SDS-PAGE, and atomic force microscopy, free cupric ions in solution not only induce the oxidation of either apo A4V or Zn2-A4V and trigger the oligomerization and aggregation of oxidized A4V under copper-mediated oxidative conditions, but also trigger the aggregation of non-oxidized form of such a pathogenic mutant. As evidenced by mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE, Cys-111 is a primary target for oxidative modification of pathological human SOD1 mutant A4V by either excess Cu(2+) or hydrogen peroxide. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that A4V possesses two sets of independent binding sites for Cu(2+): a moderate-affinity site (10(6) M(-1)) and a high-affinity site (10(8) M(-1)). Furthermore, Cu(2+) binds to wild-type SOD1 oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in a way similar to A4V, triggering the aggregation of such an oxidized form.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>We demonstrate that excess cupric ions induce the oxidation and trigger the aggregation of A4V SOD1, and suggest that Cu(2+) plays a key role in the mechanism of aggregation of both A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1. A plausible model for how pathological SOD1 mutants aggregate in ALS-affected motor neurons with the disruption of copper homeostasis has been provided.
Project description:The sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) found in animal feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate, CuSO4) were investigated and traced back to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds in the chlor-alkali industry. PCDD/Fs could be transported through the supply chain: hydrochloric acid (HCl) by-produced during formation of chlorinated organic compounds in chlor-alkali industry ? spent acid etching solution (acid-SES) generated in printed circuit board production ? industrial cupric salt ? CuSO4 in animal feed, and finally enter the food chain. The concentration ranges in HCl and acid-SES were similar, of which the level in acid-SES was also consistent with that in various cupric salt products including CuSO4 based on Cu element content. PCDD/Fs also showed very similar congener profiles in all the sample types. This indicates a probable direct transport pathway of PCDD/Fs into the food chain, which may eventually be exposed to humans through consumption. To date this is the first study in China that systematically reports on the PCDD/Fs transport from industrial pollution sources to industrial processes and finally enters the human food chain.
Project description:HClO plays crucial roles in a wide range of biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have revealed that the generation of HClO has close links with the wound healing process. It's thus meaningful to develop a reliable method for monitoring HClO in wounded tissues. Toward this purpose, we herein report a rationally designed quinolone-based ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe, <b>QClO</b>, for HClO. The probe <b>QClO</b> rapidly displays a drop in blue emission and an increase of green emission in response to HClO due to the oxidation of oxathiolane. The fluorescence intensity ratio (green/blue) can serve as the ratiometric detection signal for HClO with high sensitivity. After confirming its excellent sensing performance <i>in vitro</i>, the probe was validated by detecting exogenous and endogenous HClO in living cells. The probe was capable of monitoring HClO <i>in situ</i> in the wounded tissues of mice by two-photon microscopy, which demonstrated the production profile of HClO during the wound-healing process. This work affords a simple and reliable tool for the detection and imaging of HClO, which promises to find more applications in HClO-related biological and pathological studies.
Project description:[(L)CuII(O2•-)]+ (i.e., cupric-superoxo) complexes, as the first and/or key reactive intermediates in (bio)chemical Cu-oxidative processes, including in the monooxygenases PHM and D?M, have been systematically stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding within a TMPA ligand-based framework. Also, gradual strengthening of ligand-derived H-bonding dramatically enhances the [(L)CuII(O2•-)]+ reactivity toward hydrogen-atom abstraction (HAA) of phenolic O-H bonds. Spectroscopic properties of the superoxo complexes and their azido analogues, [(L)CuII(N3-)]+, also systematically change as a function of ligand H-bonding capability.