Structural and functional characterization of ScsC, a periplasmic thioredoxin-like protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:The prototypical protein disulfide bond (Dsb) formation and protein refolding pathways in the bacterial periplasm involving Dsb proteins have been most comprehensively defined in Escherichia coli. However, genomic analysis has revealed several distinct Dsb-like systems in bacteria, including the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This includes the scsABCD locus, which encodes a system that has been shown via genetic analysis to confer copper tolerance, but whose biochemical properties at the protein level are not defined. The aim of this study was to provide functional insights into the soluble ScsC protein through structural, biochemical, and genetic analyses. RESULTS:Here we describe the structural and biochemical characterization of ScsC, the soluble DsbA-like component of this system. Our crystal structure of ScsC reveals a similar overall fold to DsbA, although the topology of β-sheets and α-helices in the thioredoxin domains differ. The midpoint reduction potential of the CXXC active site in ScsC was determined to be -132 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode. The reactive site cysteine has a low pKa, typical of the nucleophilic cysteines found in DsbA-like proteins. Deletion of scsC from S. Typhimurium elicits sensitivity to copper (II) ions, suggesting a potential involvement for ScsC in disulfide folding under conditions of copper stress. INNOVATION AND CONCLUSION:ScsC is a novel disulfide oxidoreductase involved in protection against copper ion toxicity.
Project description:The human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) contains a complex disulfide bond (Dsb) catalytic machinery. This machinery encompasses multiple Dsb thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that mediate oxidative protein folding and a less-characterized suppressor of copper sensitivity (scs) gene cluster, associated with increased tolerance to copper. To better understand the function of the Salmonella Scs system, here we characterized two of its key components, the membrane protein ScsB and the periplasmic protein ScsC. Our results revealed that these two proteins form a redox pair in which the electron transfer from the periplasmic domain of ScsB (n-ScsB) to ScsC is thermodynamically driven. We also demonstrate that the Scs reducing pathway remains separate from the Dsb oxidizing pathways and thereby avoids futile redox cycles. Additionally, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying Scs-mediated copper tolerance in Salmonella We show that both ScsB and ScsC can bind toxic copper(I) with femtomolar affinities and transfer it to the periplasmic copper metallochaperone CueP. Our results indicate that the Salmonella Scs machinery has evolved a dual mode of action, capable of transferring reducing power to the oxidizing periplasm and protecting against copper stress by cooperating with the cue regulon, a major copper resistance mechanism in Salmonella. Overall, these findings expand our understanding of the functional diversity of Dsb-like systems, ranging from those mediating oxidative folding of proteins required for infection to those contributing to defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and copper toxicity, critical traits for niche adaptation and survival.
Project description:Bacterial Disulfide bond forming (Dsb) proteins facilitate proper folding and disulfide bond formation of periplasmic and secreted proteins. Previously, we have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF aid in vitro oxidative folding of proteins. The M. tuberculosis proteome contains another predicted membrane-tethered Dsb protein, Mt-DsbA, which is encoded by an essential gene.Herein, we present structural and biochemical analyses of Mt-DsbA. The X-ray crystal structure of Mt-DsbA reveals a two-domain structure, comprising a canonical thioredoxin domain with the conserved CXXC active site cysteines in their reduced form, and an inserted ?-helical domain containing a structural disulfide bond. The overall fold of Mt-DsbA resembles that of other DsbA-like proteins and not Mt-DsbE or Mt-DsbF. Biochemical characterization demonstrates that, unlike Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF, Mt-DsbA is unable to oxidatively fold reduced, denatured hirudin. Moreover, on the substrates tested in this study, Mt-DsbA has disulfide bond isomerase activity contrary to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF.These results suggest that Mt-DsbA acts upon a distinct subset of substrates as compared to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. One could speculate that Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF are functionally redundant whereas Mt-DsbA is not, offering an explanation for the essentiality of Mt-DsbA in M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Disulfide-bond-forming (DSB) oxidative folding enzymes are master regulators of virulence that are localized to the periplasm of many Gram-negative bacteria. The archetypal DSB machinery from Escherichia coli K-12 consists of a dithiol-oxidizing redox-relay pair (DsbA/B), a disulfide-isomerizing redox-relay pair (DsbC/D) and the specialist reducing enzymes DsbE and DsbG that also interact with DsbD. By contrast, the Gram-negative bacterium Wolbachia pipientis encodes just three DSB enzymes. Two of these, ?-DsbA1 and ?-DsbB, form a redox-relay pair analogous to DsbA/B from E. coli. The third enzyme, ?-DsbA2, incorporates a DsbA-like sequence but does not interact with ?-DsbB. In comparison to other DsbA enzymes, ?-DsbA2 has ?50 extra N-terminal residues (excluding the signal peptide). The crystal structure of ?-DsbA2?N, an N-terminally truncated form in which these ?50 residues are removed, confirms the DsbA-like nature of this domain. However, ?-DsbA2 does not have DsbA-like activity: it is structurally and functionally different as a consequence of its N-terminal residues. Firstly, ?-DsbA2 is a powerful disulfide isomerase and a poor dithiol oxidase: i.e. its role is to shuffle rather than to introduce disulfide bonds. Moreover, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of ?-DsbA2 reveals a homotrimeric arrangement that differs from those of the other characterized bacterial disulfide isomerases DsbC from Escherichia coli (homodimeric) and ScsC from Proteus mirabilis (PmScsC; homotrimeric with a shape-shifter peptide). ?-DsbA2 lacks the shape-shifter motif and SAXS data suggest that it is less flexible than PmScsC. These results allow conclusions to be drawn about the factors that are required for functionally equivalent disulfide isomerase enzymatic activity across structurally diverse protein architectures.
Project description:In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), biofilm-formation is controlled by the cytoplasmic intracellular small-molecular second messenger cyclic 3', 5'-di- guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) through the activities of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins. Here we describe that deleting either dsbA or dsbB, respectively encoding a periplasmic protein disulfide oxidase and a cytoplasmic membrane disulfide oxidoreductase, resulted in increased biofilm-formation on solid medium. This increased biofilm-formation, defined as a red, dry and rough (rdar) colony morphotype, paralleled with enhanced expression of the biofilm master regulator CsgD and the biofilm-associated fimbrial subunit CsgA. Deleting csgD in either dsb mutant abrogated the enhanced biofilm-formation. Likewise, overexpression of the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase YhjH, or mutationally inactivating the CsgD activator EAL-domain protein YdiV, reduced biofilm-formation in either of the dsb mutants. Intriguingly, deleting the GGDEF-EAL domain protein gene STM3615 (yhjK), previously not connected to rdar morphotype development, also abrogated the escalated rdar morphotype formation in dsb mutant backgrounds. Enhanced biofilm-formation in dsb mutants was furthermore annulled by exposure to the protein disulfide catalyst copper chloride. When analyzed for the effect of exogenous reducing stress on biofilm-formation, both dsb mutants initially showed an escalated rdar morphotype development that later dissolved to reveal a smooth mucoid colony morphotype. From these results we conclude that biofilm-development in S. Typhimurium is affected by periplasmic protein disulphide bond status through CsgD, and discuss the involvement of selected GGDEF/EAL domain protein(s) as signaling mediators.
Project description:In prototypic Escherichia coli K-12 the introduction of disulfide bonds into folding proteins is mediated by the Dsb family of enzymes, primarily through the actions of the highly oxidizing protein EcDsbA. Homologues of the Dsb catalysts are found in most bacteria. Interestingly, pathogens have developed distinct Dsb machineries that play a pivotal role in the biogenesis of virulence factors, hence contributing to their pathogenicity. Salmonella enterica serovar (sv.) Typhimurium encodes an extended number of sulfhydryl oxidases, namely SeDsbA, SeDsbL, and SeSrgA. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of the sv. Typhimurium thiol oxidative system through the structural and functional characterization of the three Salmonella DsbA paralogues. The three proteins share low sequence identity, which results in several unique three-dimensional characteristics, principally in areas involved in substrate binding and disulfide catalysis. Furthermore, the Salmonella DsbA-like proteins also have different redox properties. Whereas functional characterization revealed some degree of redundancy, the properties of SeDsbA, SeDsbL, and SeSrgA and their expression pattern in sv. Typhimurium indicate a diverse role for these enzymes in virulence.
Project description:The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery.
Project description:In Gram-negative bacteria in the periplasmic space, the dimeric thioredoxin-fold protein DsbC isomerizes and reduces incorrect disulfide bonds of unfolded proteins, while the monomeric thioredoxin-fold protein DsbA introduces disulfide bonds in folding proteins. In the Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the reduced form of CueP scavenges the production of hydroxyl radicals in the copper-mediated Fenton reaction, and DsbC is responsible for keeping CueP in the reduced, active form. Some DsbA proteins fulfill the functions of DsbCs, which are not present in Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we identified a DsbA homologous protein (CdDsbA) in the Corynebacterium diphtheriae genome and determined its crystal structure in the reduced condition at 1.5 Å resolution. CdDsbA consists of a monomeric thioredoxin-like fold with an inserted helical domain and unique N-terminal extended region. We confirmed that CdDsbA has disulfide bond isomerase/reductase activity, and we present evidence that the N-terminal extended region is not required for this activity and folding of the core DsbA-like domain. Furthermore, we found that CdDsbA could reduce CueP from C. diphtheriae.
Project description:Disulfide-bond formation, mediated by the Dsb family of proteins, is important in the correct folding of secreted or extracellular proteins in bacteria. In Gram-negative bacteria, disulfide bonds are introduced into the folding proteins in the periplasm by DsbA. DsbE from Escherichia coli has been implicated in the reduction of disulfide bonds in the maturation of cytochrome c. The Gram-positive bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes DsbE and its homologue DsbF, the structures of which have been determined. However, the two mycobacterial proteins are able to oxidatively fold a protein in vitro, unlike DsbE from E. coli. In this study, the crystal structure of a DsbE or DsbF homologue protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been determined, which revealed a thioredoxin-like domain with a typical CXXC active site. Structural comparison with M. tuberculosis DsbF would help in understanding the function of the C. diphtheriae protein.
Project description:Novel homologous DsbA-like disulfide bond formation (Dsb) proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis were identified which restored DsbA activity in complemented Escherichia coli dsbA mutants. Recombinant Ehrlichia Dsb (eDsb) proteins were recognized by sera from E. canis-infected dogs but not from E. chaffeensis-infected patients. The eDsb proteins were observed primarily in the periplasm of E. chaffeensis and E. canis.
Project description:The Dsb family of enzymes catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the gram-negative periplasm, which is required for folding and assembly of many secreted proteins. Pertussis toxin is arguably the most complex toxin known: it is assembled from six subunits encoded by five genes (for subunits S1 to S5), with 11 intramolecular disulfide bonds. To examine the role of the Dsb enzymes in assembly and secretion of pertussis toxin, we identified and mutated the Bordetella pertussis dsbA, dsbB, and dsbC homologues. Mutations in dsbA or dsbB resulted in decreased levels of S1 (the A subunit) and S2 (a B-subunit protein), demonstrating that DsbA and DsbB are required for toxin assembly. Mutations in dsbC did not impair assembly of periplasmic toxin but resulted in decreased toxin secretion, suggesting a defect in the formation of the Ptl secretion complex.