Mitotic regulation of SEPT9 protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Pin1 protein is important for the completion of cytokinesis.
ABSTRACT: Precise cell division is essential for multicellular development, and defects in this process have been linked to cancer. Septins are a family of proteins that are required for mammalian cell division, but their function and mode of regulation during this process are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) phosphorylates septin 9 (SEPT9) upon mitotic entry, and this phosphorylation controls association with the proline isomerase, Pin1. Both SEPT9 and Pin1 are critical for mediating the final separation of daughter cells. Expression of mutant SEPT9 that is defective in Pin1 binding was unable to rescue cytokinesis defects caused by SEPT9 depletion but rather induced dominant-negative defects in cytokinesis. However, unlike SEPT9 depletion, Pin1 was not required for the accumulation of the exocyst complex at the midbody. These results suggest that SEPT9 plays multiple roles in abscission, one of which is regulated by the action of Cdk1 and Pin1.
Project description:Septins regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and fusion, chromosome alignment and segregation, and cytokinesis in mammalian cells. SEPT9 is part of the core septin hetero-octamer in human cells which is composed of SEPT2, SEPT6, SEPT7, and SEPT9. SEPT9 has been linked to a variety of intracellular functions as well as to diseases and diverse types of cancer. A targeted high-throughput approach to systematically identify the interaction partners of SEPT9 has not yet been performed. We applied a quantitative proteomics approach to establish an interactome of SEPT9 in human fibroblast cells. Among the newly identified interaction partners were members of the myosin family and LIM domain containing proteins. Fluorescence microscopy of SEPT9 and its interaction partners provides additional evidence that SEPT9 might participate in vesicle transport from and to the plasma membrane as well as in the attachment of actin stress fibers to cellular adhesions.
Project description:Septins are involved in a number of cellular processes including cytokinesis and organization of the cytoskeleton. Alterations in human septin-9 (SEPT9) levels have been linked to multiple cancers, whereas mutations in SEPT9 cause the episodic neuropathy, hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA). Despite its important function in human health, the in vivo role of SEPT9 is unknown.Here we utilize zebrafish to study the role of SEPT9 in early development. We show that zebrafish possess two genes, sept9a and sept9b that, like humans, express multiple transcripts. Knockdown or overexpression of sept9a transcripts results in specific developmental alterations including circulation defects and aberrant epidermal development.Our work demonstrates that sept9 plays an important role in zebrafish development, and establishes zebrafish as a valuable model organism for the study of SEPT9.
Project description:Septins are filament-forming GTPases implicated in several cellular functions, including cytokinesis. We previously showed that SEPT2, SEPT9, and SEPT11 colocalize with several bacteria entering into mammalian non-phagocytic cells, and SEPT2 was identified as essential for this process. Here, we investigated the function of SEPT11, an interacting partner of SEPT9 whose function is still poorly understood. In uninfected HeLa cells, SEPT11 depletion by siRNA increased cell size but surprisingly did not affect actin filament formation or the colocalization of SEPT9 with actin filaments. SEPT11 depletion increased Listeria invasion, and incubating SEPT11-depleted cells with beads coated with the Listeria surface protein InlB also led to increased entry as compared with control cells. Strikingly, as shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the InlB-mediated stimulation of Met signaling remained intact in SEPT11-depleted cells. Taken together, our results show that SEPT11 is not required for the bacterial entry process and rather restricts its efficacy. Because SEPT2 is essential for the InlB-mediated entry of Listeria, but SEPT11 is not, our findings distinguish the roles of different mammalian septins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Septins are conserved GTPases that form filaments and are required in many organisms for several processes including cytokinesis. We previously identified SEPT9 associated with phagosomes containing latex beads coated with the Listeria surface protein InlB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here, we investigated septin function during entry of invasive bacteria in non-phagocytic mammalian cells. We found that SEPT9, and its interacting partners SEPT2 and SEPT11, are recruited as collars next to actin at the site of entry of Listeria and Shigella. SEPT2-depletion by siRNA decreased bacterial invasion, suggesting that septins have roles during particle entry. Incubating cells with InlB-coated beads confirmed an essential role for SEPT2. Moreover, SEPT2-depletion impaired InlB-mediated stimulation of Met-dependent signaling as shown by FRET. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Together these findings highlight novel roles for SEPT2, and distinguish the roles of septin and actin in bacterial entry.
Project description:Septin-family proteins assemble into rod-shaped heteromeric complexes that form higher-order arrangements at the cell cortex, where they serve apparently conserved functions as diffusion barriers and molecular scaffolds. There are 13 confirmed septin paralogues in mammals, which may be ubiquitous or tissue specific. Septin hetero-oligomerization appears homology subgroup directed, which in turn determines the subunit arrangement of six- to eight-subunit core heteromers. Here we address functional properties of human SEPT9, which, due to variable mRNA splicing, exists as multiple isoforms that differ between tissues. Myeloid K562 cells express three SEPT9 isoforms, all of which have an equal propensity to hetero-oligomerize with SEPT7-containing hexamers to generate octameric heteromers. However, due to limiting amounts of SEPT9, K562 cells contain both hexameric and octameric heteromers. To generate cell lines with controllable hexamer-to-octamer ratios and that express single SEPT9 isoforms, we developed a gene product replacement strategy. By this means we identified SEPT9 isoform-specific properties that either facilitate septin heteromer polymerization along microtubules or modulate the size range of submembranous septin disks-a prevalent septin structure in nonadhered cells. Our findings show that the SEPT9 expression level directs the hexamer-to-octamer ratio, and that the isoform composition and expression level together determine higher-order arrangements of septins.
Project description:Experimentally deciphering and understanding the interaction network of a particular protein provides often evidence for so far unknown functions. For the septins, a class of cytoskeletal proteins, targeted high-throughput approaches that aim at systematically deciphering interaction partners have not yet been performed. Septins regulate the organization of the acin cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and fusion, chromosome alignment- and segregation, and cytokinesis. SEPT9 is part of the core septin hetero-octamer in human cells which is composed of SEPT2, SEPT6, SEPT7, and SEPT9. SEPT9 has been linked to a variety of intracellular functions as well as to diseases and diverse types of cancer. We applied a quantitative proteomics approach to establish an interactome of SEPT9 in human fibroblast cells. We identified among others so far unknown interaction partners from the myosin familiy and could provide evidence that SEPT9 participates in vesicle transport from and to the plasma membrane as well as in the attachment of actin stress fibers to cellular adhesions.
Project description:Fast amoeboid migration is critical for developmental processes and can be hijacked by cancer cells to enhance metastatic dissemination. This migratory behavior is tightly controlled by high levels of actomyosin contractility, but how it is coupled to other cytoskeletal components is poorly understood. Septins are increasingly recognized as novel cytoskeletal components, but details on their regulation and contribution to migration are lacking. Here, we show that the septin regulator Cdc42EP5 is consistently required for amoeboid melanoma cells to invade and migrate into collagen-rich matrices and locally invade and disseminate in vivo. Cdc42EP5 associates with actin structures, leading to increased actomyosin contractility and amoeboid migration. Cdc42EP5 affects these functions through SEPT9-dependent F-actin cross-linking, which enables the generation of F-actin bundles required for the sustained stabilization of highly contractile actomyosin structures. This study provides evidence that Cdc42EP5 is a regulator of cancer cell motility that coordinates actin and septin networks and describes a unique role for SEPT9 in melanoma invasion and metastasis.
Project description:Native human septins form heterooctameric complexes containing different SEPT9 isoforms. To enable studies of SEPT9 function, we established a protocol for the isolation of recombinant human octamers harboring distinct SEPT9 isoforms. Mass spectrometry analysis is used to assess the purity, integrity and stoichiometry of septins in the purified complex.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most commonly inherited neurological disorders. A growing number of genes, involved in glial and neuronal functions, have been associated with different subtypes of CMT leading to improved diagnostics and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms. However, some patients and families remain genetically unsolved. METHODS:We report on a German family including four affected members over three generations with a CMT phenotype accompanied by cognitive deficits, predominantly with regard to visual abilities and episodic memory. RESULTS:A comprehensive clinical characterization followed by a sequential diagnostic approach disclosed a heterozygous rare SEPT9 missense variant c.1406?T?>?C, p.(Val469Ala), that segregates with disease. SEPT9 has been linked to various intracellular functions, such as cytokinesis and membrane trafficking. Interestingly, SEPT9-mutations are known to cause hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA), a recurrent focal peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSION:We, for the first time, present a SEPT9 variant associated to a CMT phenotype and suggest SEPT9 as new sufficient candidate gene in CMT.
Project description:Septins are cytoskeletal GTPase proteins first discovered in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they organize the septum and link nuclear division with cell division. More recently septins have been found in animals where they are important in processes ranging from actin and microtubule organization to embryonic patterning and where defects in septins have been implicated in human disease. Previous studies suggested that many animal septins fell into independent evolutionary groups, confounding cross-kingdom comparison.In the current work, we identified 162 septins from fungi, microsporidia and animals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. There was support for five groups of septins with orthology between kingdoms. Group 1 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc10p and human Sept9) and Group 2 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc3p and human Sept7) contain sequences from fungi and animals. Group 3 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc11p) and Group 4 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc12p) contain sequences from fungi and microsporidia. Group 5 (which includes Aspergillus nidulans AspE) contains sequences from filamentous fungi. We suggest a modified nomenclature based on these phylogenetic relationships. Comparative sequence alignments revealed septin derivatives of already known G1, G3 and G4 GTPase motifs, four new motifs from two to twelve amino acids long and six conserved single amino acid positions. One of these new motifs is septin-specific and several are group specific.Our studies provide an evolutionary history for this important family of proteins and a framework and consistent nomenclature for comparison of septin orthologs across kingdoms.