A structural basis for BRD2/4-mediated host chromatin interaction and oligomer assembly of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and murine gammaherpesvirus LANA proteins.
ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes a lifelong latent infection and causes several malignancies in humans. Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a related ?2-herpesvirus frequently used as a model to study the biology of ?-herpesviruses in vivo. The KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA) and the MHV68 mLANA (orf73) protein are required for latent viral replication and persistence. Latent episomal KSHV genomes and kLANA form nuclear microdomains, termed 'LANA speckles', which also contain cellular chromatin proteins, including BRD2 and BRD4, members of the BRD/BET family of chromatin modulators. We solved the X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal DNA binding domains (CTD) of kLANA and MHV-68 mLANA. While these structures share the overall fold with the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus, they differ substantially in their surface characteristics. Opposite to the DNA binding site, both kLANA and mLANA CTD contain a characteristic lysine-rich positively charged surface patch, which appears to be a unique feature of ?2-herpesviral LANA proteins. Importantly, kLANA and mLANA CTD dimers undergo higher order oligomerization. Using NMR spectroscopy we identified a specific binding site for the ET domains of BRD2/4 on kLANA. Functional studies employing multiple kLANA mutants indicate that the oligomerization of native kLANA CTD dimers, the characteristic basic patch and the ET binding site on the kLANA surface are required for the formation of kLANA 'nuclear speckles' and latent replication. Similarly, the basic patch on mLANA contributes to the establishment of MHV-68 latency in spleen cells in vivo. In summary, our data provide a structural basis for the formation of higher order LANA oligomers, which is required for nuclear speckle formation, latent replication and viral persistence.
Project description:The rhadinoviruses Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV-68) persist in infected hosts in a latent state that is characterized by the absence of virus production and by restricted viral gene expression. Their major latency protein, the latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA for KSHV and mLANA for MHV-68), is essential for viral genome maintenance and replication and involved in transcriptional regulation. Both kLANA and mLANA interact with cellular chromatin-associated proteins, among them the Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (Brd/BET) proteins, which recruit cellular and viral proteins to acetylated histones through their bromodomains and modulate cellular gene expression. Brd/BET proteins also play a role in the tethering, replication, segregation or integration of a diverse group of viral DNA genomes. In this study we explored if Brd/BET proteins influence the localization of the LANAs to preferential regions in the host chromatin and thereby contribute to kLANA- or mLANA-mediated transcriptional regulation. Using ChIP-Seq, we revealed a genome-wide co-enrichment of kLANA with Brd2/4 near cellular and viral transcriptional start sites (TSS). Treatment with I-BET151, an inhibitor of Brd/BET, displaced kLANA and Brd2/4 from TSS in the viral and host chromatin, but did not affect the direct binding of kLANA to kLANA-binding sites (LBS) in the KSHV latent origin of replication. Similarly, mLANA, but not a mLANA mutant deficient for binding to Brd2/4, also associated with cellular TSS. We compared the transcriptome of KSHV-infected with uninfected and kLANA-expressing human B cell lines, as well as a murine B cell line expressing mLANA or a Brd2/4-binding deficient mLANA mutant. We found that only a minority of cellular genes, whose TSS are occupied by kLANA or mLANA, is transcriptionally regulated by these latency proteins. Our findings extend previous reports on a preferential deposition of kLANA on cellular TSS and show that this characteristic chromatin association pattern is at least partially determined by the interaction of these viral latency proteins with members of the Brd/BET family of chromatin modulators.
Project description:Many pathogens, including Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), lack tractable small animal models. KSHV persists as a multi-copy, nuclear episome in latently infected cells. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA) binds viral terminal repeat (kTR) DNA to mediate episome persistence. Model pathogen murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) mLANA acts analogously on mTR DNA. kLANA and mLANA differ substantially in size and kTR and mTR show little sequence conservation. Here, we find kLANA and mLANA act reciprocally to mediate episome persistence of TR DNA. Further, kLANA rescued mLANA deficient MHV68, enabling a chimeric virus to establish latent infection in vivo in germinal center B cells. The level of chimeric virus in vivo latency was moderately reduced compared to WT infection, but WT or chimeric MHV68 infected cells had similar viral genome copy numbers as assessed by immunofluorescence of LANA intranuclear dots or qPCR. Thus, despite more than 60 Ma of evolutionary divergence, mLANA and kLANA act reciprocally on TR DNA, and kLANA functionally substitutes for mLANA, allowing kLANA investigation in vivo. Analogous chimeras may allow in vivo investigation of genes of other human pathogens.
Project description:Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is central to episomal tethering, replication and transcriptional regulation of ?2-herpesviruses. LANA binds cooperatively to the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral episome via adjacent LANA binding sites (LBS), but the molecular mechanism by which LANA assembles on the TR remains elusive. We show that KSHV LANA and MHV-68 LANA proteins bind LBS DNA using strikingly different modes. Solution structure of LANA complexes revealed that while kLANA tetramer is intrinsically bent both in the free and bound state to LBS1-2 DNA, mLANA oligomers instead adopt a rigid linear conformation. In addition, we report a novel non-ring kLANA structure that displays more flexibility at its assembly interface than previously demonstrated. We identified a hydrophobic pivot point located at the dimer-dimer assembly interface, which gives rotational freedom for kLANA to adopt variable conformations to accommodate both LBS1-2 and LBS2-1-3 DNA. Alterations in the arrangement of LBS within TR or at the tetramer assembly interface have a drastic effect on the ability of kLANA binding. We also show kLANA and mLANA DNA binding functions can be reciprocated. Although KSHV and MHV-68 are closely related, the findings provide new insights into how the structure, oligomerization, and DNA binding of LANA have evolved differently to assemble on the TR DNA.
Project description:The latency-associated nuclear antigen from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), kLANA, and its homolog from the murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), mLANA, are essential for viral latency. kLANA is nearly four times the size of mLANA, mainly due to an extensive central repeat region that is absent in mLANA. Both proteins harbor a C-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD). The DBD binds the terminal repeat (TR) DNA sequences of the viral genome to mediate persistence. Despite structural conservation, the kLANA and mLANA DBDs differ in sequence and mode of oligomerization. kLANA DBD oligomers are flexible and bent, while mLANA DBD oligomers bind DNA in a rigid, linear conformation. We previously reported that kLANA and mLANA acted reciprocally on TR sequences. Furthermore, a MuHV-4 expressing kLANA instead of mLANA (v-kLANA) established latency in mice, albeit at a lower magnitude than the wild-type (WT) virus. Here, we asked if kLANA can accommodate the mLANA DBD and generated a fusion protein which contains kLANA but with the mLANA C-terminal region in place of that of kLANA. We report a recombinant MuHV-4 (v-KM) encoding this LANA fusion protein instead of mLANA. The fusion protein was expressed in lytic infection in vitro and assembled nuclear LANA dots in infected splenocytes. Results demonstrated that kLANA functionally accommodated mLANA's mode of DNA binding, allowing MuHV-4 chimeric virus to establish latency in vivo Notably, v-KM established latency in germinal center B cells more efficiently than did v-kLANA, although levels were reduced compared to WT MuHV-4.IMPORTANCE KSHV is a human oncogenic virus for which there is no tractable, immunocompetent animal model of infection. MuHV-4, a related rodent gammaherpesvirus, enables pathogenesis studies in mice. In latency, both viruses persist as extrachromosomal, circular genomes (episomes). LANA proteins encoded by KSHV (kLANA) and MuHV-4 (mLANA) contain a C-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) that acts on the virus terminal repeats to enable episome persistence. mLANA is a smaller protein than kLANA. Their DBDs are structurally conserved but differ strikingly in the conformation of DNA binding. We report a recombinant, chimeric MuHV-4 which contains kLANA in place of mLANA, but in which the DBD is replaced with that of mLANA. Results showed that kLANA functionally accommodated mLANA's mode of DNA binding. In fact, the new chimeric virus established latency in vivo more efficiently than MuHV-4 expressing full-length kLANA.
Project description:Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack components of cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases, thus modulating the ubiquitination pathway. However, the biological relevance of such mechanisms for viral pathogenesis in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we utilized murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infection of mice as a model system to address the role of MuHV-4 latency-associated nuclear antigen (mLANA) E3 ligase activity in gammaherpesvirus latent infection. We show that specific mutations in the mLANA SOCS box (V199A, V199A/L202A, or P203A/P206A) disrupted mLANA's ability to recruit Elongin C and Cullin 5, thereby impairing the formation of the Elongin BC/Cullin 5/SOCS (EC5S(mLANA)) complex and mLANA's E3 ligase activity on host NF-?B and Myc. Although these mutations resulted in considerably reduced mLANA binding to viral terminal repeat DNA as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the mutations did not disrupt mLANA's ability to mediate episome persistence. In vivo, MuHV-4 recombinant viruses bearing these mLANA SOCS box mutations exhibited a deficit in latency amplification in germinal center (GC) B cells. These findings demonstrate that the E3 ligase activity of mLANA contributes to gammaherpesvirus-driven GC B cell proliferation. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of viral E3 ligase activity through targeting SOCS box motifs is a putative strategy to control gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphoproliferation and associated disease.The gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) cause lifelong persistent infection and play causative roles in several human malignancies. Colonization of B cells is crucial for virus persistence, and access to the B cell compartment is gained by virus-driven proliferation in germinal center (GC) B cells. Infection of B cells is predominantly latent, with the viral genome persisting as a multicopy episome and expressing only a small subset of viral genes. Here, we focused on latency-associated nuclear antigen (mLANA) encoded by murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), which exhibits homology in sequence, structure, and function to KSHV LANA (kLANA), thereby allowing the study of LANA-mediated pathogenesis in mice. Our experiments show that mLANA's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is necessary for efficient expansion of latency in GC B cells, suggesting that the development of pharmacological inhibitors of LANA E3 ubiquitin ligase activity may allow strategies to interfere with gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphoproliferation and associated disease.
Project description:The Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA), encoded by ORF73, is a conserved gene among the ?2-herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses). The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) LANA is consistently expressed in KSHV-associated malignancies. In the case of the rodent ?2-herpesvirus, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), the LANA homolog (mLANA) is required for efficient virus replication, reactivation from latency and immortalization of murine fetal liver-derived B cells. To gain insights into mLANA function(s), knowing that KSHV LANA binds DNA and can modulate transcription of a variety of promoters, we sought out and identified a mLANA-responsive promoter which maps to the terminal repeat (TR) of MHV68. Notably, mLANA strongly repressed activity from this promoter. We extended these analyses to demonstrate direct, sequence-specific binding of recombinant mLANA to TR DNA by DNase I footprinting. To assess whether the DNA-binding and/or transcription modulating function is important in the known mLANA phenotypes, we generated an unbiased library of mLANA point mutants using error-prone PCR, and screened a large panel of mutants for repression of the mLANA-responsive promoter to identify loss of function mutants. Notably, among the mutant mLANA proteins recovered, many of the mutations are in a predicted EBNA-1-like DNA-binding domain. Consistent with this prediction, those tested displayed loss of DNA binding activity. We engineered six of these mLANA mutants into the MHV68 genome and tested the resulting mutant viruses for: (i) replication fitness; (ii) efficiency of latency establishment; and (iii) reactivation from latency. Interestingly, each of these mLANA-mutant viruses exhibited phenotypes similar to the mLANA-null mutant virus, indicating that DNA-binding is critical for mLANA function.
Project description:Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes stable latent infection in B-lymphocytes and pleural effusion lymphomas (PELs). During latency, the viral genome persists as an epigenetically constrained episome with restricted gene expression programs. To identify epigenetic regulators of KSHV latency, we screened a focused small molecule library containing known inhibitors of epigenetic factors. We identified JQ1, a Bromodomain and Extended Terminal (BET) protein inhibitor, as a potent activator of KSHV lytic reactivation from B-cells carrying episomal KSHV. We validated that JQ1 and other BET inhibitors efficiently stimulated reactivation of KSHV from latently infected PEL cells. We found that BET proteins BRD2 and BRD4 localize to several regions of the viral genome, including the LANA binding sites within the terminal repeats (TR), as well as at CTCF-cohesin sites in the latent and lytic control regions. JQ1 did not disrupt the interaction of BRD4 or BRD2 with LANA, but did reduce the binding of LANA with KSHV TR. We have previously demonstrated a cohesin-dependent DNA-loop interaction between the latent and lytic control regions that restrict expression of ORF50/RTA and ORF45 immediate early gene transcripts. JQ1 reduced binding of cohesin subunit Rad21 with the CTCF binding sites in the latency and lytic control regions. JQ1 also reduced DNA-loop interaction between latent and lytic control regions. These findings implicate BET proteins BRD2 and BRD4 in the maintenance of KSHV chromatin architecture during latency and reveal BET inhibitors as potent activators of KSHV reactivation from latency.
Project description:Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a conserved, multifunctional protein encoded by members of the rhadinovirus subfamily of gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68). We previously demonstrated that MHV68 LANA (mLANA) is required for efficient lytic replication. However, mechanisms by which mLANA facilitates viral replication, including interactions with cellular and viral proteins, are not known. Thus, we performed a mass spectrometry-based interaction screen that defined an mLANA protein-protein interaction network for lytic viral replication consisting of 15 viral proteins and 191 cellular proteins, including 19 interactions previously reported in KSHV LANA interaction studies. We also employed a stable-isotope labeling technique to illuminate high-priority mLANA-interacting host proteins. Among the top prioritized mLANA-binding proteins was a cellular chaperone, heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70). We independently validated the mLANA-Hsc70 interaction through coimmunoprecipitation and in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays. Immunofluorescence and cellular fractionation analyses comparing wild-type (WT) to mLANA-null MHV68 infections demonstrated mLANA-dependent recruitment of Hsc70 to nuclei of productively infected cells. Pharmacologic inhibition and small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of Hsc70 impaired MHV68 lytic replication, which functionally correlated with impaired viral protein expression, reduced viral DNA replication, and failure to form viral replication complexes. Replication of mLANA-null MHV68 was less affected than that of WT virus by Hsc70 inhibition, which strongly suggests that Hsc70 function in MHV68 lytic replication is at least partially mediated by its interaction with mLANA. Together these experiments identify proteins engaged by mLANA during the MHV68 lytic replication cycle and define a previously unknown role for Hsc70 in facilitating MHV68 lytic replication.Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a conserved gamma-2-herpesvirus protein important for latency maintenance and pathogenesis. For MHV68, this includes regulating lytic replication and reactivation. While previous studies of KSHV LANA defined interactions with host cell proteins that impact latency, interactions that facilitate productive viral replication are not known. Thus, we performed a differential proteomics analysis to identify and prioritize cellular and viral proteins that interact with the MHV68 LANA homolog during lytic infection. Among the proteins identified was heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), which we determined is recruited to host cell nuclei in an mLANA-dependent process. Moreover, Hsc70 facilitates MHV68 protein expression and DNA replication, thus contributing to efficient MHV68 lytic replication. These experiments expand the known LANA-binding proteins to include MHV68 lytic replication and demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for Hsc70 in regulating viral replication.
Project description:The viral genome of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) persists as an extrachromosomal plasmid in latently infected cells. The KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) stimulates plasmid maintenance and DNA replication by binding to an approximately 150-bp region within the viral terminal repeats (TR). We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to demonstrate that LANA binds specifically to the replication origin sequence within the KSHV TR in latently infected cells. The latent replication origin within the TR was also bound by LANA-associated proteins CBP, double-bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2), and the origin recognition complex 2 protein (ORC2) and was enriched in hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4 relative to other regions of the latent genome. Cell cycle analysis indicated that the minichromosome maintenance complex protein, MCM3, bound TR in late-G(1)/S-arrested cells, which coincided with the loss of histone H3 K4 methylation. Micrococcal nuclease studies revealed that TRs are embedded in a highly ordered nucleosome array that becomes disorganized in late G(1)/S phase. ORC binding to TR was LANA dependent when reconstituted in transfected plasmids. DNA affinity purification confirmed that LANA, CBP, BRD2, and ORC2 bound TR specifically and identified the histone acetyltransferase HBO1 (histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1) as a potential TR binding protein. Disruption of ORC2, MCM5, and HBO1 expression by small interfering RNA reduced LANA-dependent DNA replication of TR-containing plasmids. These findings are the first demonstration that cellular replication and origin licensing factors are required for KSHV latent cycle replication. These results also suggest that the KSHV latent origin of replication is a unique chromatin environment containing histone H3 hyperacetylation within heterochromatic tandem repeats.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) of host cells is utilized by a number of viruses to establish and propagate their genomes in the infected cells. We examined the expression of the DDR genes during Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The genes were mostly downregulated, except H2AX, which was upregulated during infection. H2AX is important for gammaherpesvirus infectivity, and its phosphorylation at serine 139 is crucial for maintenance of latency during mouse gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection. We now also observed phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 during KSHV infection. H2AX is a histone H2A isoform shown to interact with the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by KSHV. Here, we show that LANA directly interacted with H2AX through domains at both its N and C termini. The phosphorylated form of H2AX (?H2AX) was shown to colocalize with LANA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that a reduction in H2AX levels resulted in reduced binding of LANA with KSHV terminal repeats (TRs). Binding preferences of H2AX and ?H2AX along the KSHV episome were examined by whole-episome ChIP analysis. We showed that ?H2AX had a higher relative binding activity along the TR regions than that of the long unique region (LUR), which highlighted the importance of H2AX phosphorylation during KSHV infection. Furthermore, knockdown of H2AX resulted in decreased KSHV episome copy number. Notably, the C terminus of LANA contributed to phosphorylation of H2AX. However, phosphorylation was not dependent on the ability of LANA to drive KSHV-infected cells into S-phase. Thus, H2AX contributes to association of LANA with the TRs, and phosphorylation of H2AX is likely important for its increased density at the TRs.