Organization and expression of the double-stranded RNA genome of Helminthosporium victoriae 190S virus, a totivirus infecting a plant pathogenic filamentous fungus.
ABSTRACT: The complete nucleotide sequence, 5178 bp, of the totivirus Helminthosporium vicotoriae 190S virus (Hv190SV) double-stranded RNA, was determined. Computer-assisted sequence analysis revealed the presence of two large overlapping ORFs; the 5'-proximal large ORF (ORF1) codes for the coat protein (CP) with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa, and the 3'-proximal ORF (ORF2), which is in the -1 frame relative to ORF1, codes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP). Unlike many other totiviruses, the overlap region between ORF1 and ORF2 lacks known structural information required for translational frameshifting. Using an antiserum to a C-terminal fragment of the RDRP, the product of ORF2 was identified as a minor virion-associated polypeptide of estimated molecular mass of 92 kDa. No CP-RDRP fusion protein with calculated molecular mass of 165 kDa was detected. The predicted start codon of the RDRP ORF (2605-AUG-2607) overlaps with the stop codon (2606-UGA-2608) of the CP ORF, suggesting RDRP is expressed by an internal initiation mechanism. Hv190SV is associated with a debilitating disease of its phytopathogenic fungal host. Knowledge of its genome organization and expression will be valuable for understanding its role in pathogenesis and for potential exploitation in the development of biocontrol measures.
Project description:A new mycovirus was identified in Trichoderma harzianum strain 137 isolated in Xinjiang province, China. The whole genome sequence of the mycovirus was determined by metagenomic sequencing, RT-PCR, and RACE cloning. The mycovirus contained two genomic segments. The first segment was 2088 bp long and contained a single ORF (ORF1) encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) (72.26 kDa). The second segment was 1634 bp long and also contained a single ORF (ORF2) encoding a hypothetical protein of 37.472 kDa. We named this novel mycovirus "Trichoderma harzianum bipartite mycovirus 1" (ThBMV1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that ThBMV1 clusters with other unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Only very few viruses of Oomycetes have been studied in detail. Isometric virions were found in different isolates of the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of sunflower. However, complete nucleotide sequences and data on the genome organization were lacking. METHODS: Viral RNA of different P. halstedii isolates was subjected to nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the viral genome. The N-terminal sequence of the viral coat protein was determined using Top-Down MALDI-TOF analysis. RESULTS: The complete nucleotide sequences of both single-stranded RNA segments (RNA1 and RNA2) were established. RNA1 consisted of 2793 nucleotides (nt) exclusive its 3' poly(A) tract and a single open-reading frame (ORF1) of 2745 nt. ORF1 was framed by a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of 18 nt and a 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of 30 nt. ORF1 contained motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and showed similarities to RdRp of Scleropthora macrospora virus A (SmV A) and viruses within the Nodaviridae family. RNA2 consisted of 1526 nt exclusive its 3' poly(A) tract and a second ORF (ORF2) of 1128 nt. ORF2 coded for the single viral coat protein (CP) and was framed by a 5' UTR of 164 nt and a 3' UTR of 234 nt. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF2 was verified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS experiments. Top-Down MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the N-terminal sequence of the CP. The N-terminal sequence represented a region within ORF2 suggesting a proteolytic processing of the CP in vivo. The CP showed similarities to CP of SmV A and viruses within the Tombusviridae family. Fragments of RNA1 (ca. 1.9 kb) and RNA2 (ca. 1.4 kb) were used to analyze the nucleotide sequence variation of virions in different P. halstedii isolates. Viral sequence variation was 0.3% or less regardless of their host's pathotypes, the geographical origin and the sensitivity towards the fungicide metalaxyl. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed the presence of a single and new virus type in different P. halstedii isolates. Insignificant viral sequence variation indicated that the virus did not account for differences in pathogenicity of the oomycete P. halstedii.
Project description:The family Totiviridae currently contains five genera Totivirus, Victorivirus, Leishmavirus, Trichomonasvirus, and Giardiavirus. Members in this family generally have a set of two-open reading frame (ORF) elements in their genome with the 5'-proximal ORF (ORF1) encoding a capsid protein (CP) and the 3'-proximal one (ORF2) for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). How the downstream open reading frames (ORFs) are expressed is genus-specific. All victoriviruses characterized thus far appear to use the stop/restart translation mechanism, allowing for the expression of two separate protein products from bicitronic genome-sized viral mRNA, while the totiviruses use a -1 ribosomal frame-shifting that leads to a fusion product of CP and RdRp. We report the biological and molecular characterization of a novel victorivirus termed Alternaria alternata victorivirus 1 (AalVV1) isolated from Alternaria alternata in Pakistan. The phylogenetic and molecular analyses showed AalVV1 to be distinct from previously reported victoriviruses. AalVV1 appears to have a sequence signature required for the -1 frame-shifting at the ORF1/2 junction region, rather than a stop/restart key mediator. By contrast, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses of purified virion preparations suggested the expression of two protein products, not a CP-RdRp fusion product. How these proteins are expressed is discussed in this study. Possible effects of infection by this virus were tested in two fungal species: A. alternata and RNA silencing proficient and deficient strains of Cryphonectria parasitica, a model filamentous fungus. AalVV1 showed symptomless infection in all of these fungal strains, even in the RNA silencing deficient C. parasitica strain.
Project description:Three dsRNAs, in sizes of approximately 2.5?5 kbp, were detected in the plant pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae strain CS-7.5-4. Genomic analysis showed that the 5.0 kb dsRNA was a victorivirus named as Nigrospora oryzae victorivirus 2 (NoRV2). The genome of NoRV2 was 5166 bp in length containing two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 was deduced to encode a coat protein (CP) showing homology to the CPs of viruses belonging to the Totiviridae family. The stop codon of ORF1 and the start codon of ORF2 were overlapped by the tetranucleotide sequence AUGA. ORF2 was predicted to encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which was highly similar to the RdRps of victoriviruses. Virus-like particle examination demonstrated that the genome of NoRV2 was solely encapsidated by viral particles with a diameter of approximately 35 nm. The other two dsRNAs that were less than 3.0 kb were predicted to be the genomes of two mitoviruses, named as Nigrospora oryzae mitovirus 1 (NoMV1) and Nigrospora oryzae mitovirus 2 (NoMV2). Both NoMV1 and NoMV2 were A-U rich and with lengths of 2865 and 2507 bp, respectively. Mitochondrial codon usage inferred that each of the two mitoviruses contains a major large ORF encoding a mitoviral RdRp. Horizontal transfer experiments showed that the NoMV1 and NoMV2 could be cotransmitted horizontally via hyphal contact to other virus-free N. oryzae strains and causes phenotypic change to the recipient, such as an increase in growth rate. This is the first report of mitoviruses in N. oryzae.
Project description:Mycoviruses are widely distributed across different phyla of the fungal kingdom. Viruses that share significant sequence similarities have been reported in different fungi, suggesting descent from a common ancestor. In this study, two fungal genera isolated from the same sample, Trichoderma koningiopsis isolate Mg10 and Clonostachys rosea isolate Mg06, were reported to have identical double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) profiles that consist of two virus-like, dsRNA elements (dsRNA-L and dsRNA-S). The complete sequence and genome organization of dsRNA-L from isolate Mg10 was determined. It is 4712 nucleotides (nt) long and contains two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that code for proteins with similarities to totiviruses. Consequently the virus was given the proposed name Trichoderma koningiopsis totivirus 1 (TkTV1/Mg10). The TkTV1/Mg10 genome structure resembles that of yeast totiviruses in which the region preceding the stop codon of ORF1 contains the elements required for -1 ribosomal frameshifting which may induce the expression of an ORF1-ORF2 (CP-RdRp) fusion protein. Sequence analyses of viral dsRNA-L from C. rosea isolate Mg06 revealed that it is nearly identical with that of TkTV1/Mg10. This relatedness was confirmed by northern blot hybridization and indicates very recent natural horizontal transmission of this virus between unrelated fungi. TkTV1 purified isometric virions were ?38-40 nm in diameter and were able to transfect T. koningiopsis and C. rosea protoplasts. This is another report of a mycovirus present naturally in two taxonomically distinct fungi.
Project description:Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus causing disease on many important agricultural crops. Two novel mycoviruses, namely Botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 (BcHV1) and Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 1 (BcFV1), were fully sequenced. The genome of BcHV1 is 10,214 nt long excluding a poly-A tail and possesses one large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein possessing several conserved domains including RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), showing homology to hypovirus-encoded polyproteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BcHV1 may belong to the proposed genus Betahypovirus in the viral family Hypoviridae. The genome of BcFV1 is 8411 nt in length excluding the poly A tail and theoretically processes two major ORFs, namely ORF1 and ORF2. The larger ORF1 encoded polypeptide contains protein domains of an RdRp and a viral helicase, whereas the function of smaller ORF2 remains unknown. The BcFV1 was phylogenetically clustered with other fusariviruses forming an independent branch, indicating BcFV1 was a member in Fusariviridae. Both BcHV1 and BcFV1 were capable of being transmitted horizontally through hyphal anastomosis. Infection by BcHV1 alone caused attenuated virulence without affecting mycelial growth, significantly inhibited infection cushion (IC) formation, and altered expression of several IC-formation-associated genes. However, wound inoculation could fully rescue the virulence phenotype of the BcHV1 infected isolate. These results indicate the BcHV1-associated hypovirulence is caused by the viral influence on IC-formation-associated pathways.
Project description:Two novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses, termed Fusarium poae dsRNA virus 2 (FpV2) and Fusarium poae dsRNA virus 3 (FpV3), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium poae strain SX63, and molecularly characterized. FpV2 and FpV3, with respective genome sequences of 9518 and 9419 base pairs (bps), are both predicted to contain two discontinuous open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. A hypothetical polypeptide (P1) and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are encoded by ORF1 and ORF2, respectively. Phytoreo_S7 domain (pfam07236) homologs were detected downstream of the RdRp domain (RdRp_4; pfam02123) of the ORF2-coded proteins of both FpV2 and FpV3. The same shifty heptamers (GGAAAAC) were both found immediately before the stop codon UAG of ORF1 in FpV2 and FpV3, which could mediate programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF). Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp sequences clearly place FpV2 and FpV3 in a taxonomically unassigned dsRNA mycovirus group. Together, with a comparison of genome organization, a new taxonomic family termed Fusagraviridae is proposed to be created to include FpV2- and FpV3-related dsRNA mycoviruses, within which FpV2 and FpV3 would represent two distinct virus species.
Project description:The incompatibility group W plasmid pSa suppresses Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenicity (J. Loper and C. Kado, J. Bacteriol. 139:591-596, 1979). The oncogenic suppressive activity was localized to a 3.1-kb region of pSa by Tn5 mutagenesis and deletion analysis. Within this fragment, a 1.1-kb subclone bearing oncogenic suppressive activity was subjected to further characterization. Nucleotide sequencing of the 1.1-kb fragment revealed a 570-bp open reading frame (ORF1) that has a coding capacity for a protein of 21.1 kDa. Sequencing of flanking regions revealed a second ORF (ORF2) located 3 bp upstream of ORF1, with a coding capacity for a protein of 22.8 kDa. Gene fusions of these ORFs to a T7 phi 10 expression system in Escherichia coli resulted in the synthesis of polypeptides of the predicted sizes. An E. coli promoter consensus sequence was not found in the expected positions in the region preceding ORF1. However, several sequences with similarity to the consensus -10 sequence of the A. tumefaciens vir gene promoters were found upstream of ORF1. Potential translational start signals are upstream of ORF1 and ORF2. These sequences showed no significant similarity at the nucleotide or amino acid levels with those in available data bases. However, the C-terminal portion of the ORF1 protein is rich in hydrophobic residues. Perhaps oncogenicity suppression is effected by an association of this protein with the Agrobacterium membrane such that T-DNA transfer is blocked.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of Dweet mottle virus (DMV) was determined and compared to sequences of members of the families Alphaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae. The DMV genome has 8,747 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3' poly-(A) tail. DMV genomic RNA contains three putative open reading frames (ORFs) and untranslated regions of 73 nt at the 5' and 541 nt at 3' termini. ORF1 potentially encoding a 227.48-kDa polyprotein, which has methyltransferase, oxygenase, endopeptidase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) domains. ORF2 encodes a movement protein of 40.25 kDa, while ORF3 encodes a coat protein of 40.69 kDa. Protein database searches showed 98-99% matches of DMV ORFs with citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRP core domain revealed that DMV is closely related to CLBV as a member of the genus Citrivirus. DMV did not satisfy the molecular criteria for demarcation of an independent species within the genus Citrivirus, family Betaflexiviridae, and hence, DMV can be considered a CLBV isolate.
Project description:Zygosaccharomyces bailii virus Z (ZbV-Z) is a monosegmented dsRNA virus that infects the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii and remains unclassified to date despite its discovery >20years ago. The previously reported nucleotide sequence of ZbV-Z (GenBank AF224490) encompasses two nonoverlapping long ORFs: upstream ORF1 encoding the putative coat protein and downstream ORF2 encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The lack of overlap between these ORFs raises the question of how the downstream ORF is translated. After examining the previous sequence of ZbV-Z, we predicted that it contains at least one sequencing error to explain the nonoverlapping ORFs, and hence we redetermined the nucleotide sequence of ZbV-Z, derived from the same isolate of Z. bailii as previously studied, to address this prediction. The key finding from our new sequence, which includes several insertions, deletions, and substitutions relative to the previous one, is that ORF2 in fact overlaps ORF1 in the +1 frame. Moreover, a proposed sequence motif for +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting, previously noted in influenza A viruses, plant amalgaviruses, and others, is also present in the newly identified ORF1-ORF2 overlap region of ZbV-Z. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence that ZbV-Z represents a distinct taxon most closely related to plant amalgaviruses (genus Amalgavirus, family Amalgaviridae). We conclude that ZbV-Z is the prototype of a new species, which we propose to assign as type species of a new genus of monosegmented dsRNA mycoviruses in family Amalgaviridae. Comparisons involving other unclassified mycoviruses with RdRps apparently related to those of plant amalgaviruses, and having either mono- or bisegmented dsRNA genomes, are also discussed.