Type V collagen induced tolerance suppresses collagen deposition, TGF-? and associated transcripts in pulmonary fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive scarring and matrix deposition. Recent reports highlight an autoimmune component in IPF pathogenesis. We have reported anti-col(V) immunity in IPF patients. The objective of our study was to determine the specificity of col(V) expression profile and anti-col(V) immunity relative to col(I) in clinical IPF and the efficacy of nebulized col(V) in pre-clinical IPF models. METHODS:Col(V) and col(I) expression profile was analyzed in normal human and IPF tissues. C57-BL6 mice were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (0.025 U) followed by col(V) nebulization at pre-/post-fibrotic stage and analyzed for systemic and local responses. RESULTS:Compared to normal lungs, IPF lungs had higher protein and transcript expression of the alpha 1 chain of col(V) and col(I). Systemic anti-col(V) antibody concentrations, but not of anti-col(I), were higher in IPF patients. Nebulized col(V), but not col(I), prevented bleomycin-induced fibrosis, collagen deposition, and myofibroblast differentiation. Col(V) treatment suppressed systemic levels of anti-col(V) antibodies, IL-6 and TNF-?; and local Il-17a transcripts. Compared to controls, nebulized col(V)-induced tolerance abrogated antigen-specific proliferation in mediastinal lymphocytes and production of IL-17A, IL-6, TNF-? and IFN-?. In a clinically relevant established fibrosis model, nebulized col(V) decreased collagen deposition. mRNA array revealed downregulation of genes specific to fibrosis (Tgf-?, Il-1?, Pdgfb), matrix (Acta2, Col1a2, Col3a1, Lox, Itgb1/6, Itga2/3) and members of the TGF-? superfamily (Tgfbr1/2, Smad2/3, Ltbp1, Serpine1, Nfkb/Sp1/Cebpb). CONCLUSIONS:Anti-col(V) immunity is pathogenic in IPF, and col(V)-induced tolerance abrogates bleomycin-induced fibrogenesis and down regulates TGF- ?-related signaling pathways.
Project description:Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive inflammatory disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. Previous genetic and immunologic investigations suggest common intersections between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, and murine models of pulmonary fibrosis. To identify immune responses that precede collagen deposition, we conducted molecular, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric analysis of human and murine specimens. Immunohistochemistry revealed programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) up-regulation on IPF lymphocytes. PD-1+CD4+ T cells with reduced proliferative capacity and increased transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/interleukin-17A (IL-17A) expression were detected in IPF, sarcoidosis, and bleomycin CD4+ T cells. PD-1+ T helper 17 cells are the predominant CD4+ T cell subset expressing TGF-?. Coculture of PD-1+CD4+ T cells with human lung fibroblasts induced collagen-1 production. Strikingly, ex vivo PD-1 pathway blockade resulted in reductions in TGF-? and IL-17A expression from CD4+ T cells, with concomitant declines in collagen-1 production from fibroblasts. Molecular analysis demonstrated PD-1 regulation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Chemical blockade of STAT3, using the inhibitor STATTIC, inhibited collagen-1 production. Both bleomycin administration to PD-1 null mice or use of antibody against programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) demonstrated significantly reduced fibrosis compared to controls. This work identifies a critical, previously unrecognized role for PD-1+CD4+ T cells in pulmonary fibrosis, supporting the use of readily available therapeutics that directly address interstitial lung disease pathophysiology.
Project description:Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and complement (C') activation have each been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have reported that IL-17A induces epithelial injury via TGF-? in murine bronchiolitis obliterans; that TGF-? and the C' cascade present signaling interactions in mediating epithelial injury; and that the blockade of C' receptors mitigates lung fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-17A in regulating C' in lung fibrosis. Microarray analyses of mRNA isolated from primary normal human small airway epithelial cells indicated that IL-17A (100 ng/ml; 24 h; n = 5 donor lungs) induces C' components (C' factor B, C3, and GPCR kinase isoform 5), cytokines (IL8, -6, and -1B), and cytokine ligands (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, -6, and -16). IL-17A induces protein and mRNA regulation of C' components and the synthesis of active C' 3a (C3a) in normal primary human alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECs). Wild-type mice subjected to IL-17A neutralization and IL-17A knockout (il17a-/- ) mice were protected against bleomycin (BLEO)-induced fibrosis and collagen deposition. Further, BLEO-injured il17a-/- mice had diminished levels of circulating Krebs Von Den Lungen 6 (alveolar epithelial injury marker), local caspase-3/7, and local endoplasmic reticular stress-related genes. BLEO-induced local C' activation [C3a, C5a, and terminal C' complex (C5b-9)] was attenuated in il17a-/- mice, and IL-17A neutralization prevented the loss of epithelial C' inhibitors (C' receptor-1 related isoform Y and decay accelerating factor), and an increase in local TUNEL levels. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of il17a in fibrotic mice arrested the progression of lung fibrosis, attenuated cellular apoptosis (caspase-3/7) and lung deposition of collagen and C' (C5b-9). Compared to normals, plasma from IPF patients showed significantly higher hemolytic activity. Our findings demonstrate that limiting complement activation by neutralizing IL-17A is a potential mechanism in ameliorating lung fibrosis.-Cipolla, E., Fisher, A. J., Gu, H., Mickler, E. A., Agarwal, M., Wilke, C. A., Kim, K. K., Moore, B. B., Vittal, R. IL-17A deficiency mitigates bleomycin-induced complement activation during lung fibrosis.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease that is unresponsive to current therapies and characterized by excessive collagen deposition and subsequent fibrosis. While inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, are elevated in IPF, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this disease are incompletely understood, although the development of fibrosis is believed to depend on canonical transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signalling. We examined bleomycin-induced inflammation and fibrosis in mice carrying a mutation in the shared IL-6 family receptor gp130. Using genetic complementation, we directly correlate the extent of IL-6-mediated, excessive Stat3 activity with inflammatory infiltrates in the lung and the severity of fibrosis in corresponding gp130(757F) mice. The extent of fibrosis was attenuated in B lymphocyte-deficient gp130(757F);µMT(-/-) compound mutant mice, but fibrosis still occurred in their Smad3(-/-) counterparts consistent with the capacity of excessive Stat3 activity to induce collagen 1?1 gene transcription independently of canonical TGF-?/Smad3 signalling. These findings are of therapeutic relevance, since we confirmed abundant STAT3 activation in fibrotic lungs from IPF patients and showed that genetic reduction of Stat3 protected mice from bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1? expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1?-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by ROR?t(+) ?? T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4??(+) T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-?1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1?-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1? driven lung pathology.
Project description:Post-operative atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a common cause of morbidity. Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation and atrial fibrosis contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. Interleukin (IL)-17A, a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the development of a number of cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in post-operative AF remains unknown. In the present study, sterile pericarditis (SP) was induced in rats by the epicardial application of sterile talc. AF was induced by transesophageal burst pacing. Western blot analysis was applied to quantify the expression of IL-17A. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1?, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), collagen type 1 (Col-1), collagen type 3 (Col-3) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Gelatin zymography and reverse gelatin zymography were used to quantify the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Histological analyses were performed to determine the extent of tissue inflammation and fibrosis. The rats with SP presented with a shorter refractoriness, a higher incidence and duration of AF, an enhanced susceptibility to developing AF, increased mRNA levels of AF-related pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1? and TGF-?1), as well as marked atrial inflammation and fibrosis. The atrial IL-17A levels were elevated and correlated with the probability of developing AF. Treatment with anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody decreased the levels of atrial IL-17A, prolonged refraction and markedly suppressed the development of AF. Simultaneously, inflammation and fibrosis were alleviated, which was further demonstrated by a decreased expression of AF-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, a downregulation in fibrosis-related mRNA expression (Col-1, Col-3 and ?-SMA) and by the decreased activity of MMP-2/9 and TIMPs. Thus, the findings of our study indicate that IL-17A may play a pathogenic role in post-operative AF by inducing inflammation and fibrosis in rats with SP.
Project description:Tissue remodeling/fibrosis is a major feature of all fibrotic diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It is underpinned by accumulating extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Fibulin-1c (Fbln1c) is a matricellular ECM protein associated with lung fibrosis in both humans and mice, and stabilizes collagen formation. Here we discovered that Fbln1c was increased in the lung tissues of IPF patients and experimental bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Fbln1c-deficient (-/-) mice had reduced pulmonary remodeling/fibrosis and improved lung function after bleomycin challenge. Fbln1c interacted with fibronectin, periostin and tenascin-c in collagen deposits following bleomycin challenge. In a novel mechanism of fibrosis Fbln1c bound to latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-β binding protein-1 (LTBP1) to induce TGF-β activation, and mediated downstream Smad3 phosphorylation/signaling. This process increased myofibroblast numbers and collagen deposition. Fbln1 and LTBP1 co-localized in lung tissues from IPF patients. Thus, Fbln1c may be a novel driver of TGF-β-induced fibrosis involving LTBP1 and may be an upstream therapeutic target.
Project description:Objectives. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels are increased in SSc skin and other organs but its role in fibrosis development is highly debated. Since epithelial cells are preferential targets of IL-17A, we aimed at investigating the role of IL-17A in the interactions between epidermis and dermis. Methods. Organotypic cultures of HD full human skin were challenged with IL-17A,TNF and TGF-β. Inflammatory mediators and type I collagen (col-I) levels were quantified. IL-17A- and TGF-β-induced changes in gene expression in full human skin were analysed by RNA sequencing. Results. In full human skin, TGF-β induced pro-fibrotic gene signature dominated by Wnt signalling. While IL-17A strongly promoted expression of many pro-inflammatory genes, it did not affect collagen gene levels but decreased Wnt signalling. At the protein level, IL-17A showed direct anti-fibrotic effects, as well as decreased by 2-fold TGF-β-triggered col-I production. Conclusions. We report here firstly, a novel model of fibrotic skin and secondly, that IL-17A acts as a potent anti-fibrotic factor in the full human skin. Furthermore, we show that IL-17A not only decreased ECM deposition by itself, but also counteracted TGF-β pro-fibrotic activities. Thus, IL-17A seems to play a dual role in SSc skin – strongly pro-inflammatory but anti-fibrotic, being an example that fibrosis and inflammation, although closely related, are two different processes. These data may help in directing and interpreting therapeutic approaches in SSc, since both, IL-17A and TGF-β, are target candidates in clinical trials. Overall design: mRNA profiles of IL-17A, TNF and/or TGF-β- treated skin were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencer.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a life-threatening progressive lung disorder with limited therapeutic options. While interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic cytokine, its utility in treating lung fibrosis has been limited by its short half-life. We describe an innovative hydrogel-based approach to deliver recombinant IL-10 to the lung for the prevention and reversal of pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Our studies show that a hyaluronan and heparin-based hydrogel system locally delivers IL-10 by capitalizing on the ability of heparin to reversibly bind IL-10 without bleeding or other complications. This formulation is significantly more effective than soluble IL-10 for both preventing and reducing collagen deposition in the lung parenchyma after 7 days of intratracheal administration. The anti-fibrotic effect of IL-10 in this system is dependent on suppression of TGF-? driven collagen production by lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. We conclude that hydrogel-based delivery of IL-10 to the lung is a promising therapy for fibrotic lung disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive inflammatory disorder driven by a fibrotic cascade of events such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, extracellular matrix production and collagen formation in the lungs in a sequential manner. IPF incidences were raising rapidly across the world. FDA approved pirfenidone and nintedanib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) are being used as a first-line treatment drugs for IPF, however, neither the quality of life nor survival rates have been improved because of patient noncompliance due to multiple side effects. Thus, the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting TGF-? mediated cascade of fibrotic events is urgently needed to improve the survival of the patients suffering from devastating disease. PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to investigate and validate the anti-fibrotic properties of Biochanin-A (isoflavone) against TGF-? mediated fibrosis in in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo models and to determine the molecular mechanisms that mediate these anti-fibrotic effects. METHODS:The therapeutic activity of BCA was determined in in vitro/ex vivo models. Cells were pre-treated with BCA and incubated in presence or absence of recombinant-TGF-? to stimulate the fibrotic cascade of events. Pulmonary fibrosis was developed by intratracheal administration of bleomycin in rats. BCA treatment was given for 14 days from post bleomycin instillation and then various investigations (collagen content, fibrosis gene/protein expression and histopathological changes) were performed to assess the anti-fibrotic activity of BCA. RESULTS:In vitro/ex vivo (Primary normal, IPF cell line and primary IPF cells/ Precision cut mouse lung slices) experiments revealed that, BCA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the expression of TGF-? modulated fibrotic genes/protein expressions (including their functions) which are involved in the cascade of fibrotic events. BCA treatment significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the bleomycin-induced inflammatory cell-infiltration, inflammatory markers expression, collagen deposition and expression of fibrotic markers in lung tissues equivalent or better than pirfenidone treatment. In addition, BCA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated the TGF-?1/BLM-mediated increase of TGF-?/Smad2/3 phosphorylation and resulted in the reduction of pathological abnormalities in lung tissues determined by histopathology observations. CONCLUSION:Collectively, BCA treatment demonstrated the remarkable therapeutic effects on TGF-?/BLM mediated pulmonary fibrosis using IPF cells and rodent models. This current study may offer a novel treatment approach to halt and may be even rescue the devastating lung scarring of IPF.
Project description:The ?v?6 integrin plays a key role in the activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), a pro-fibrotic mediator that is pivotal to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We identified a selective small molecule ?v?6 RGD-mimetic, GSK3008348, and profiled it in a range of disease relevant pre-clinical systems. To understand the relationship between target engagement and inhibition of fibrosis, we measured pharmacodynamic and disease-related end points. Here, we report, GSK3008348 binds to ?v?6 with high affinity in human IPF lung and reduces downstream pro-fibrotic TGF? signaling to normal levels. In human lung epithelial cells, GSK3008348 induces rapid internalization and lysosomal degradation of the ?v?6 integrin. In the murine bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model, GSK3008348 engages ?v?6, induces prolonged inhibition of TGF? signaling and reduces lung collagen deposition and serum C3M, a marker of IPF disease progression. These studies highlight the potential of inhaled GSK3008348 as an anti-fibrotic therapy.