Shedding Light on Structure-Property Relationships for Conjugated Microporous Polymers: The Importance of Rings and Strain.
ABSTRACT: The photophysical properties of insoluble porous pyrene networks, which are central to their function, differ strongly from those of analogous soluble linear and branched polymers and dendrimers. This can be rationalized by the presence of strained closed rings in the networks. A combined experimental and computational approach was used to obtain atomic scale insight into the structure of amorphous conjugated microporous polymers. The optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of a series of pyrene-based materials were compared with theoretical time-dependent density functional theory predictions for model clusters. Comparison of computation and experiment sheds light on the probable structural chromophores in the various materials.
Project description:Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a unique class of materials that combine extended ?-conjugation with a permanently microporous skeleton. Since their discovery in 2007, CMPs have become established as an important subclass of porous materials. A wide range of synthetic building blocks and network-forming reactions offers an enormous variety of CMPs with different properties and structures. This has allowed CMPs to be developed for gas adsorption and separations, chemical adsorption and encapsulation, heterogeneous catalysis, photoredox catalysis, light emittance, sensing, energy storage, biological applications, and solar fuels production. Here we review the progress of CMP research since its beginnings and offer an outlook for where these materials might be headed in the future. We also compare the prospect for CMPs against the growing range of conjugated crystalline covalent organic frameworks (COFs).
Project description:Conjugated microporous polymers are a new class of porous materials with an extended ?-conjugation in an amorphous organic framework. Owing to the wide-ranging flexibility in the choice and design of components and the available control of pore parameters, these polymers can be tailored for use in various applications, such as gas storage, electronics and catalysis. Here we report a class of cobalt/aluminium-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers that exhibit outstanding CO2 capture and conversion performance at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. These polymers can store CO2 with adsorption capacities comparable to metal-organic frameworks. The cobalt-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers can also simultaneously function as heterogeneous catalysts for the reaction of CO2 and propylene oxide at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, wherein the polymers demonstrate better efficiency than a homogeneous salen-cobalt catalyst. By combining the functions of gas storage and catalysts, this strategy provides a direction for cost-effective CO2 reduction processes.
Project description:Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications.
Project description:The host-guest complexes of conjugated microporous polymers encapsulating C60 and dye molecules have been investigated systematically. The orientation of guest molecules inside the cavities, have different terms: inside the open cavities of the polymer, or inside the cavities formed by packing different polymers. The host backbone shows responsive dynamic behavior in order to accommodate the size and shape of incoming guest molecule or guest aggregates. Simulations show that the host-guest binding of conjugated polymers is stronger than that of non-conjugated polymers. This detailed study could provide a clear picture for the host-guest interaction for dynamic conjugated microporous polymers. The mechanism obtained could guide designing new conjugated microporous polymers.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, especially 2D organic nanomaterials with unprecedentedly diverse and controlled structure, have attracted decent scientific interest. Among the preparation strategies, the top-down approach is one of the considered low-cost and scalable strategies to obtain 2D organic nanomaterials. However, some factors of their layered counterparts limited the development and potential applications of 2D organic nanomaterials, such as type, stability, and strict synthetic conditions of layered counterparts. We report a class of layered solvent knitting hyper-cross-linked microporous polymers (SHCPs) prepared by improving Friedel-Crafts reaction and using dichloroalkane as an economical solvent, stable electrophilic reagent, and external cross-linker at low temperature, which could be used as layered counterparts to obtain previously unknown 2D SHCP nanosheets by method of ultrasonic-assisted solvent exfoliation. This efficient and low-cost strategy can produce previously unreported microporous organic polymers with layered structure and high surface area and gas storage capacity. The pore structure and surface area of these polymers can be controlled by tuning the chain length of the solvent, the molar ratio of AlCl3, and the size of monomers. Furthermore, we successfully obtain an unprecedentedly high-surface area HCP material (3002 m2 g-1), which shows decent gas storage capacity (4.82 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 1.00 bar for CO2; 12.40 mmol g-1 at 77.3 K and 1.13 bar for H2). This finding provides an opportunity for breaking the constraint of former knitting methods and opening up avenues for the design and synthesis of previously unknown layered HCP materials.
Project description:Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) have conjugated skeleton and permanent porosity, and exhibit huge potential in developing novel functional materials for resolving the challenging energy and environment issues. Metal-containing CMPs often exhibited unique properties. In the present manuscript, ferrocene-based conjugated microporous polymers (FcCMPs) were designed and synthesized with 1,1'-dibromoferrocene and 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4- bromophenyl) porphyrin (FcCMP-1) or Tetra (p-bromophenyl) methane (FcCMP-2) as building units via Yamamoto coupling. FcCMPs were amorphous, and exhibited excellent thermal and physicochemical stability. The BET surface area of FcCMP-1 and FcCMP-2 was 638 m2/g and 422 m2/g, respectively. In comparison with FcCMP-2, FcCMP-1 displayed better gas storage capacity due to higher porosity. FcCMPs were also used as an adsorbent for removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution, and exhibited excellent adsorption properties due to the interaction between electron-rich conjugated structure of the polymers and methyl violet with cationic groups. Moreover, FcCMPs could be extracted and regenerated by an eluent and then re-used for high efficient removal of methyl violet.
Project description:Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are materials of low density and high intrinsic porosity. This is due to the use of rigid building blocks consisting only of lightweight elements. These materials are usually stable up to temperatures of 400 °C and are chemically inert, since the networks are highly crosslinked via strong covalent bonds, making them ideal candidates for demanding applications in hostile environments. However, the high stability and chemical inertness pose problems in the processing of the CMP materials and their integration in functional devices. Especially the application of these materials for membrane separation has been limited due to their insoluble nature when synthesized as bulk material. To make full use of the beneficial properties of CMPs for membrane applications, their synthesis and functionalization on surfaces become increasingly important. In this respect, we recently introduced the solid liquid interfacial layer-by-layer (LbL) synthesis of CMP-nanomembranes via Cu catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). However, this process featured very long reaction times and limited scalability. Herein we present the synthesis of surface grown CMP thin films and nanomembranes via light induced thiol-yne click reaction. Using this reaction, we could greatly enhance the CMP nanomembrane synthesis and further broaden the variability of the LbL approach.
Project description:Conjugated microporous polymers are a unique class of polymers that combine extended ?-conjugation with inherent porosity. However, these polymers are synthesized through solution-phase reactions to yield insoluble and unprocessable solids, which preclude not only the evaluation of their conducting properties but also the fabrication of thin films for device implementation. Here, we report a strategy for the synthesis of thin films of ?-conjugated microporous polymers by designing thiophene-based electropolymerization at the solution-electrode interface. High-quality films are prepared on a large area of various electrodes, the film thickness is controllable, and the films are used for device fabrication. These films are outstanding hole conductors and, upon incorporation of fullerenes into the pores, function as highly efficient photoactive layers for energy conversions. Our film strategy may boost the applications in photocatalysis, energy storage, and optoelectronics.
Project description:Conjugated polymers (CPs) have been intensively explored for various optoelectronic applications in the last few decades. Nevertheless, CP based electrochemical energy storage devices such as supercapacitors remain largely unexplored. This is mainly owing to the low specific capacitance, poor structural/electrochemical stability, and low energy density of most existing CPs. In this contribution, a novel set of redox-active conjugated microporous polymers, TAT-CMP-1 and TAT-CMP-2, based on nitrogen-rich and highly conductive triazatruxene building blocks, were successfully designed and synthesized to explore their potential application as efficient and stable electrode materials for supercapacitors. Despite a moderate surface area of 88 m2 g-1 for TAT-CMP-1 and 106 m2 g-1 for TAT-CMP-2, exceptional specific capacitances of 141 F g-1 and 183 F g-1 were achieved at a current density of 1 A g-1. The resulting polymers exhibited unusually high areal specific capacitance (>160 ?F cm-2), which is attributed to the pseudocapacitance resulting from redox-active structures with high nitrogen content. More importantly, the TAT-CMP-2 electrode exhibits excellent cycling stability: only 5% capacitance fading is observed after 10?000 cycles at a high current density of 10 A g-1, enabling the possible use of these materials as electrodes in electrochemical devices.
Project description:Compressible and monolithic microporous polymers (MPs) are reported. MPs were prepared as monoliths via a Sonogashira-Hagihara coupling reaction of 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene (TEB) with the bis(bromothiophene) monomer (PBT-Br). The polymers were reversibly compressible, and were easily cut into any form using a knife. Microscopy studies on the MPs revealed that the polymers had tubular microstructures, resembling those often found in marine sponges. Under compression, elastic buckling of the tube bundles was observed using an optical microscope. MP-0.8, which was synthesized using a 0.8:1 molar ratio of PBT-Br to TEB, showed microporosity with a BET surface area as high as 463?m(2)g(-1). The polymer was very hydrophobic, with a water contact angle of 145° and absorbed 7-17 times its own weight of organic liquids. The absorbates were released by simple compression, allowing recyclable use of the polymer. MPs are potential precursors of structured carbon materials; for example, a partially graphitic material was obtained by pyrolysis of MP-0.8, which showed a similar tubular structure to that of MP-0.8.