Potent antiproliferative cembrenoids accumulate in tobacco upon infection with Rhodococcus fascians and trigger unusual microtubule dynamics in human glioblastoma cells.
ABSTRACT: AIMS: Though plant metabolic changes are known to occur during interactions with bacteria, these were rarely challenged for pharmacologically active compounds suitable for further drug development. Here, the occurrence of specific chemicals with antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines was evidenced in hyperplasia (leafy galls) induced when plants interact with particular phytopathogens, such as the Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. METHODS: We examined leafy galls fraction F3.1.1 on cell proliferation, cell division and cytoskeletal disorganization of human cancer cell lines using time-lapse videomicroscopy imaging, combined with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. We determined the F3.1.1-fraction composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The leafy galls induced on tobacco by R. fascians yielded fraction F3.1.1 which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with an IC50 of 4.5 µg/mL, F.3.1.1 was shown to increase cell division duration, cause nuclear morphological deformations and cell enlargement, and, at higher concentrations, karyokinesis defects leading to polyploidization and apoptosis. F3.1.1 consisted of a mixture of isomers belonging to the cembrenoids. The cellular defects induced by F3.1.1 were caused by a peculiar cytoskeletal disorganization, with the occurrence of fragmented tubulin and strongly organized microtubule aggregates within the same cell. Colchicine, paclitaxel, and cembrene also affected U373 cell proliferation and karyokinesis, but the induced microtubule rearrangement was very different from that provoked by F3.1.1. Altogether our data indicate that the cembrenoid isomers in F3.1.1 have a unique mode of action and are able to simultaneously modulate microtubule polymerization and stability.
Project description:Rhodococcus fascians can interact with many plant species and induce the formation of either leafy galls or fasciations. To provoke symptoms, R. fascians strain D188 requires pathogenicity genes that are located on a linear plasmid, pFiD188. The fas genes are essential for virulence and constitute an operon that encodes, among other functions, a cytokinin synthase gene. Expression of the fas genes is induced by extracts of infected plant tissue only. We have isolated an AraC-type regulatory gene, fasR, located on pFiD188, which is indispensable for pathogenesis and for fas gene expression. The combined results of our experiments show that in vitro expression of the fas genes in a defined medium is strictly regulated and that several environmental factors (pH, carbon and nitrogen sources, phosphate and oxygen content, and cell density) and regulatory proteins are involved. We further show that expression of the fas genes is controlled at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. The complex expression pattern probably reflects the necessity of integrating a multitude of signals and underlines the importance of the fas operon in the pathogenicity of R. fascians.
Project description:Leafy gall syndrome is the consequence of modified plant development in response to a mixture of cytokinins secreted by the biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. The similarity of the induced symptoms with the phenotype of plant mutants defective in strigolactone biosynthesis and signalling prompted an evaluation of the involvement of strigolactones in this pathology. All tested strigolactone-related Arabidopsis thaliana mutants were hypersensitive to R. fascians. Moreover, treatment with the synthetic strigolactone mixture GR24 and with the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase inhibitor D2 illustrated that strigolactones acted as antagonistic compounds that restricted the morphogenic activity of R. fascians. Transcript profiling of the MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1), MAX2, MAX3, MAX4, and BRANCHED1 (BRC1) genes in the wild-type Columbia-0 accession and in different mutant backgrounds revealed that upregulation of strigolactone biosynthesis genes was triggered indirectly by the bacterial cytokinins via host-derived auxin and led to the activation of BRC1 expression, inhibiting the outgrowth of the newly developing shoots, a typical hallmark of leafy gall syndrome. Taken together, these data support the emerging insight that balances are critical for optimal leafy gall development: the long-lasting biotrophic interaction is possible only because the host activates a set of countermeasures-including the strigolactone response-in reaction to bacterial cytokinins to constrain the activity of R. fascians.
Project description:Rhodococcus fascians is a nocardiform bacteria that induces leafy galls (fasciation) on dicotyledonous and several monocotyledonous plants. The wild-type strain D188 contained a conjugative, 200 kb linear extrachromosomal element, pFiD188. Linear plasmid-cured strains were avirulent and reintroduction of this linear element restored virulence. Pulsed field electrophoresis indicated that the chromosome might also be a linear molecule of 4 megabases. Three loci involved in phytopathogenicity have been identified by insertion mutagenesis of this Fi plasmid. Inactivation of the fas locus resulted in avirulent strains, whereas insertions in the two other loci affected the degree of virulence, yielding attenuated (att) and hypervirulent (hyp) bacteria. One of the genes within the fas locus encoded an isopentenyltranferase (IPT) with low homology to analogous proteins from Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria. IPT activity was detected after expression of this protein in Escherichia coli cells. In R.fascians, ipt expression could only be detected in bacteria induced with extracts from fasciated tissue. R.fascians strains without the linear plasmid but containing this fas locus alone could not provoke any phenotype on plants, indicating additional genes from the linear plasmid were also essential for virulence. These studies, the first genetic analysis of the interaction of a Gram-positive bacterium with plants, suggest that a novel mechanism for plant tumour induction has evolved in R.fascians independently from the other branches of the eubacteria.
Project description:Ablation of nonmuscle myosin (NM) II-A or NM II-B results in mouse embryonic lethality. Here, we report the results of ablating NM II-C as well as NM II-C/II-B together in mice. NM II-C ablated mice survive to adulthood and show no obvious defects compared with wild-type littermates. However, ablation of NM II-C in mice expressing only 12% of wild-type amounts of NM II-B results in a marked increase in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy compared with the NM II-B hypomorphic mice alone. In addition, these hearts develop interstitial fibrosis associated with diffuse N-cadherin and ?-catenin localization at the intercalated discs, where both NM II-B and II-C are normally concentrated. When both NM II-C and II-B are ablated the B-C-/B-C- cardiac myocytes show major defects in karyokinesis. More than 90% of B-C-/B-C- myocytes demonstrate defects in chromatid segregation and mitotic spindle formation accompanied by increased stability of microtubules and abnormal formation of multiple centrosomes. This requirement for NM II in karyokinesis is further demonstrated in the HL-1 cell line derived from mouse atrial myocytes, by using small interfering RNA knockdown of NM II or treatment with the myosin inhibitor blebbistatin. Our study shows that NM II is involved in regulating cardiac myocyte karyokinesis by affecting microtubule dynamics.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Radiation is known to induce autophagy in malignant glioma cells whether it is cytocidal or cytoprotective. Dexamethasone is frequently used to reduce tumor-associated brain edema, especially during radiation therapy. The purpose of the study was to determine whether and how dexamethasone affects autophagy in irradiated malignant glioma cells and to identify possible intervening molecular pathways. METHODS:We prepared p53 mutant U373 and LN229 glioma cell lines, which varied by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutational status and were used to make U373 stable transfected cells expressing GFP-LC3 protein. After performing cell survival assay after irradiation, the IC50 radiation dose was determined. Dexamethasone dose (10 ?M) was determined from the literature and added to the glioma cells 24 hours before the irradiation. The effect of adding dexamethasone was evaluated by cell survival assay or clonogenic assay and cell cycle analysis. Measurement of autophagy was visualized by western blot of LC3-I/LC3-II and quantified by the GFP-LC3 punctuated pattern under fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange staining for acidic vesicle organelles by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Dexamethasone increased cell survival in both U373 and LN229 cells after irradiation. It interfered with autophagy after irradiation differently depending on the PTEN mutational status : the autophagy decreased in U373 (PTEN-mutated) cells but increased in LN229 (PTEN wild-type) cells. Inhibition of protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation after irradiation by LY294002 reversed the dexamethasone-induced decrease of autophagy and cell death in U373 cells but provoked no effect on both autophagy and cell survival in LN229 cells. After ATG5 knockdown, radiation-induced autophagy decreased and the effect of dexamethasone also diminished in both cell lines. The diminished autophagy resulted in a partial reversal of dexamethasone protection from cell death after irradiation in U373 cells; however, no significant change was observed in surviving fraction LN229 cells. CONCLUSION:Dexamethasone increased cell survival in p53 mutated malignant glioma cells and increased autophagy in PTEN-mutant malignant glioma cell but not in PTEN-wildtype cell. The difference of autophagy response could be mediated though the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.
Project description:The gram-positive plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians provokes leafy gall formation on a wide range of plants through secretion of signal molecules that interfere with the hormone balance of the host. Crucial virulence genes are located on a linear plasmid, and their expression is tightly controlled. A mutant with a mutation in a chromosomal locus that affected virulence was isolated. The mutation was located in gene vicA, which encodes a malate synthase and is functional in the glyoxylate shunt of the Krebs cycle. VicA is required for efficient in planta growth in symptomatic, but not in normal, plant tissue, indicating that the metabolic requirement of the bacteria or the nutritional environment in plants or both change during the interaction. We propose that induced hyperplasia on plants represents specific niches for the causative organisms as a result of physiological alterations in the symptomatic tissue. Hence, such interaction could be referred to as metabolic habitat modification.
Project description:Gigaxonin mutations cause the fatal human neurodegenerative disorder giant axonal neuropathy (GAN). Broad deterioration of the nervous system in GAN patients is accompanied by massive disorganization of intermediate filaments (IFs) both in neurons and many non-neuronal cells. With newly developed antibodies, gigaxonin is now shown to be expressed at extremely low levels throughout the nervous system. In lymphoblast cell lines derived from severe and mild forms of GAN, mutations in gigaxonin are shown to yield highly unstable proteins, thereby permitting a rapid diagnostic test for the spectrum of GAN mutations as an alternative to invasive nerve biopsy or systematic sequencing of the GAN gene. Gigaxonin has been proposed as a substrate adaptor for an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which affects proteasome-dependent degradation of microtubule-related proteins including MAP1B, MAP8 and the tubulin folding chaperone TBCB. We demonstrate that, unlike its counterpart TBCE, TBCB only moderately destabilizes microtubules. Neither TBCB abundance nor microtubule organization or densities are altered in GAN mutant fibroblasts, thus demonstrating that altered TBCB levels are not primary determinants of IF disorganization in GAN. Characteristic GAN mutant-induced ovoid aggregates of vimentin are not produced in normal fibroblasts after disrupting microtubule assembly, either by TBCE overexpression or depolymerizing drugs. Thus, IF disorganization in GAN fibroblasts is independent of TBCB and microtubule loss and must be regulated by a yet unidentified mechanism.
Project description:The microtubule- and centrosome-associated Ste20-like kinase (SLK; long Ste20-like kinase [LOSK]) regulates cytoskeleton organization and cell polarization and spreading. Its inhibition causes microtubule disorganization and release of centrosomal dynactin. The major function of dynactin is minus end-directed transport along microtubules in a complex with dynein motor. In addition, dynactin is required for maintenance of the microtubule radial array in interphase cells, and depletion of its centrosomal pool entails microtubule disorganization. Here we demonstrate that SLK (LOSK) phosphorylates the p150(Glued) subunit of dynactin and thus targets it to the centrosome, where it maintains microtubule radial organization. We show that phosphorylation is required only for centrosomal localization of p150(Glued) and does not affect its microtubule-organizing properties: artificial targeting of nonphosphorylatable p150(Glued) to the centrosome restores microtubule radial array in cells with inhibited SLK (LOSK). The phosphorylation site is located in a microtubule-binding region that is variable for two isoforms (1A and 1B) of p150(Glued) expressed in cultured fibroblast-like cells (isoform 1B lacks 20 amino acids in the basic microtubule-binding domain). The fact that SLK (LOSK) phosphorylates only a minor isoform 1A of p150(Glued) suggests that transport and microtubule-organizing functions of dynactin are distinctly divided between the two isoforms. We also show that dynactin phosphorylation is involved in Golgi reorientation in polarized cells.
Project description:Cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) plays key roles in regulating DNA replication, and activation and maintenance of cell cycle check points. In addition, Cdc6 exerts oncogenic properties via genomic instability associated with incomplete DNA replication. This study aimed to examine the effects of Cdc6 on pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. Our results showed that Cdc6 expression was higher in clinical PC specimens (based on analysis of the GEPIA database) and cell lines, and the high Cdc6 expression was associated with poorer survival in The Cancer Genome Atlas-PC cohort. In addition, Cdc6-depleted PC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation, delayed G2/M cell cycle progression, and increased expression of p-histone H3 and cyclin A2 levels. These observations could be explained by Cdc6 depletion leading to multipolar and split spindles via centrosome amplification and microtubule disorganization which eventually increases chromosome missegregation. Furthermore, Cdc6-depleted PC cells showed significantly increased apoptosis, which was consistent with increased caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, our results demonstrated that Cdc6-depleted PC cells are arrested in mitosis and eventually undergo cell death by induced multipolar spindles, centrosome aberrations, microtubule disorganization, and chromosome instability. In conclusion, Cdc6 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for PC.
Project description:By sequencing small RNAs from uninfected Arabidopsis roots and from galls seven and 14 days post infection with Meloidogyne incognita, we sequenced by SOLiD technology the RNA fraction below 50nt. We identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in gall as putative regulators of gall development. Overall design: Uninfected Arabidopsis roots and galls seven and 14 days post infection with Meloidogyne incognita (3 replicates)