NADPH oxidase complex and IBD candidate gene studies: identification of a rare variant in NCF2 that results in reduced binding to RAC2.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex produces reactive oxygen species and plays a critical role in the killing of microbes by phagocytes. Genetic mutations in genes encoding components of the complex result in both X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Patients with CGD often develop intestinal inflammation that is histologically similar to Crohn's colitis, suggesting a common aetiology for both diseases. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms in NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex genes that do not cause CGD are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:Direct sequencing and candidate gene approaches were used to identify susceptibility loci in NADPH oxidase complex genes. Functional studies were carried out on identified variants. Novel findings were replicated in independent cohorts. RESULTS:Sequence analysis identified a novel missense variant in the neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene that is associated with very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) and subsequently found in 4% of patients with VEO-IBD compared with 0.2% of controls (p=1.3×10(-5), OR 23.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 142.5); Fisher exact test). This variant reduced binding of the NCF2 gene product p67(phox) to RAC2. This study found a novel genetic association of RAC2 with Crohn's disease (CD) and replicated the previously reported association of NCF4 with ileal CD. CONCLUSION:These studies suggest that the rare novel p67(phox) variant results in partial inhibition of oxidase function and are associated with CD in a subgroup of patients with VEO-IBD; and suggest that components of the NADPH oxidase complex are associated with CD.
Project description:Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the components of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme produces superoxide, which is essential in the process of intracellular pathogen killing by phagocytic leukocytes. Four of the five genes involved in CGD are autosomal; these are CYBA, encoding p22-phox, NCF2, encoding p67-phox, NCF1, encoding p47-phox, and NCF4, encoding p40-phox. This article lists all mutations identified in these genes in the autosomal forms of CGD. Moreover, polymorphisms in these genes are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
Project description:Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited, genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by defective phagocytic cell microbicidal function, leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. CGD is caused by mutations in components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system, which is responsible for reactive oxygen species production during phagocytosis. Mutations in the neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene account for <5% of all cases. Here, we report a case of a 2-year-old female with persistent recurrent pneumopathy, even under trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and itraconazole prophylaxis combined with IFN? treatment. Genetic analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation in NCF2, sequence depletion in a splicing region (c.256_257+2delAAGT NM_000433), leading to a K86Ifs*2 residue change in the p67-phox protein.
Project description:The phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide and is essential for microbial defense. Electron transport through the oxidase flavocytochrome is activated by the Rac effector p67(phox). Previous studies suggest that Vav1 regulates NADPH oxidase activity elicited by the chemoattractant formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). We show that Vav1 associates with p67(phox) and Rac2, but not Rac1, in fMLP-stimulated human neutrophils, correlating with superoxide production. The interaction of p67(phox) with Vav1 is direct and activates nucleotide exchange on Rac, which enhances the interaction between p67(phox) and Vav1. This provides new molecular insights into regulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, suggesting that chemoattractant-stimulated superoxide production can be amplified by a positive feedback loop in which p67(phox) targets Vav1-mediated Rac activation.
Project description:Two brothers in their fifties presented with a medical history of suspected fungal allergy, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, alveolitis, and invasive aspergillosis and pulmonary fistula, respectively. Eventually, after a delay of 50 years, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was diagnosed in the index patient. We found a new splice mutation in the NCF2 (p67-phox) gene, c.1000 + 2T ? G, that led to several splice products one of which lacked exons 11 and 12. This deletion was in frame and allowed for remarkable residual NADPH oxidase activity as determined by transduction experiments using a retroviral vector. We conclude that p67-phox which lacks the 34 amino acids encoded by the two exons can still exert considerable functional activity. This activity can partially explain the long-term survival of the patients without adequate diagnosis and treatment, but could not prevent progressing lung damage.
Project description:The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex plays a critical role in the antimicrobial functions of the phagocytic cells of the immune system. The catalytic core of this oxidase consists of a complex between gp91(phox), p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac-2. Mutations in each of the phox components, except p40(phox), have been described in cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), defining their essential role in oxidase function. We sought to establish the role of p40(phox) by investigating the NADPH oxidase responses of neutrophils isolated from p40(phox-/-) mice. In the absence of p40(phox), the expression of p67(phox) is reduced by approximately 55% and oxidase responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha/fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G latex beads, Staphylococcus aureus, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and zymosan were reduced by approximately 97, 85, 84, 75, and 30%, respectively. The defect in ROS production by p40(phox-/-) neutrophils in response to S. aureus translated into a severe, CGD-like defect in the killing of this organism both in vitro and in vivo, defining p40(phox) as an essential component in bacterial killing.
Project description:Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited immunodeficiency due to dysfunction of the phagocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex leading to severe and recurrent infections in early childhood. The main genetic form is the X-linked CGD leading to the absence of cytochrome b558 composed of NOX2 and p22 phox , the membrane partners of the NADPH oxidase complex. The first cause of death of CGD patients is pulmonary infections. Recombinant proteoliposome-based therapy is an emerging and innovative approach for membrane protein delivery, which could be an alternative local, targeted treatment to fight lung infections in CGD patients. We developed an enzyme therapy using recombinant NOX2/p22 phox liposomes to supply the NADPH oxidase activity in X0-linked CGD (X0-CGD) macrophages. Using an optimized prokaryotic cell-free protein synthesis system, a recombinant cytochrome b558 containing functional hemes was produced and directly inserted into the lipid bilayer of specific liposomes. The size of the NOX2/p22 phox liposomes was estimated to be around 700 nm. These proteoliposomes were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an activated reconstituted cell-free NADPH oxidase activation assay in the presence of recombinant p47 phox , p67 phox and Rac, the cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Furthermore, using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that cytochrome b558 was successfully delivered to the plasma membrane of X0-CGD-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages. In addition, NADPH oxidase activity was restored in X0-CGD iPSC-derived macrophages treated with NOX2/p22 phox liposomes for 8 h without any toxicity. In conclusion, we confirmed that proteoliposomes provide a new promising technology for the delivery of functional proteins to the membrane of targeted cells. This efficient liposomal enzyme replacement therapy will be useful for future treatment of pulmonary infections in CGD patients refractory to conventional anti-infectious treatments.
Project description:Detergent-mediated activation of the phagocyte superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase requires the participation of at least four proteins: the membrane-bound heterodimeric cytochrome b558 and three cytosolic components, p47-phox, p67-phox and a Rac1/Rac2 protein. Peptides corresponding to sequences of different subunits of NADPH oxidase have been used as probes of the mechanism and sequence of assembly of the active complex. In the present study effects of mastoparans on activation of NADPH oxidase were investigated. Mastoparans are wasp venom cationic amphiphilic tetradecapeptides capable of modulation of various cellular activities. Natural mastoparans, as well as several synthetic mastoparan analogues, unrelated to oxidase components, blocked activation of the oxidase in the cell-free system (EC50 = 1.5 microM) and in guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S])/ATP-stimulated neutrophils permeabilized with streptolysin O. In the cell-free system the effect was not relieved by raising the detergent concentration and could not be ascribed to changes in critical micellar concentration values of the activating SDS or arachidonate. Chromatography of neutrophil cytosol on an immobilized mastoparan column suggested interaction of cytosolic p47-phox and p67-phox with the peptide. In spite of this interaction mastoparan did not interfere with translocation of p47-phox and p67-phox to the cell membranes.
Project description:In response to bacterial infection, the neutrophil NADPH oxidase assembles on phagolysosomes to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen, forming superoxide and downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS). The active oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome together with three cytosolic phox proteins, p40(phox), p47(phox), and p67(phox), and the small GTPase Rac2, and is regulated through a process involving protein kinase C, MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The role of p40(phox) remains less well defined than those of p47(phox) and p67(phox). We investigated the biological role of p40(phox) in differentiated PLB-985 neutrophils, and we show that depletion of endogenous p40(phox) using lentiviral short hairpin RNA reduces ROS production and impairs bacterial killing under conditions where p67(phox) levels remain constant. Biochemical studies using a cytosol-reconstituted permeabilized human neutrophil cores system that recapitulates intracellular oxidase activation revealed that depletion of p40(phox) reduces both the maximal rate and total amount of ROS produced without altering the K(M) value of the oxidase for NADPH. Using a series of mutants, p47PX-p40(phox) chimeras, and deletion constructs, we found that the p40(phox) PX domain has phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P)-dependent and -independent functions. Translocation of p67(phox) requires the PX domain but not 3-phosphoinositide binding. Activation of the oxidase by p40(phox), however, requires both PtdIns(3)P binding and an Src homology 3 (SH3) domain competent to bind to poly-Pro ligands. Mutations that disrupt the closed auto-inhibited form of full-length p40(phox) can increase oxidase activity approximately 2.5-fold above that of wild-type p40(phox) but maintain the requirement for PX and SH3 domain function. We present a model where p40(phox) translocates p67(phox) to the region of the cytochrome and subsequently switches the oxidase to an activated state dependent upon PtdIns(3)P and SH3 domain engagement.
Project description:NADPH oxidase is one of the major components of the innate immune system and is used by phagocytes to generate microbicidal reactive oxygen species. Activation of the enzyme requires the participation of a minimum of five proteins, p22(phox), gp91(phox) (together forming flavocytochrome b(558)), p47(phox), p67(phox) and the GTP-binding protein, Rac2. A sixth protein, p40(phox), has been implicated in the control of the activity of NADPH oxidase principally based on its sequence homology to, and physical association with, other phox components, and also the observation that it is phosphorylated during neutrophil activation. However, to date its role in regulating the activity of the enzyme has remained obscure, with evidence for both positive and negative influences on oxidase activity having being reported. Data are presented here using the cell-free system for NADPH oxidase activation that shows that p40(phox) can function to promote oxidase activation by increasing the affinity of p47(phox) for the enzyme approx. 3-fold.
Project description:Neutrophils are critical for the defense against pathogens, in part through the extrusion of extracellular DNA traps, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Neutrophils may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the activation of protein arginine deiminases (PADs) that citrullinate proteins that subsequently act as autoantigens. We report that PAD4 is physically associated with the cytosolic subunits of the oxidative burst machinery, p47<sup>phox</sup> (also known as neutrophil cytosol factor 1, NCF1) and p67<sup>phox</sup> (NCF2). Activation of PAD4 by membranolytic insults that result in high levels of intracellular calcium (higher than physiological neutrophil activation) leads to rapid citrullination of p47<sup>phox</sup>/NCF1 and p67<sup>phox</sup>/NCF2, as well as their dissociation from PAD4. This dissociation prevents the assembly of an active NADPH oxidase complex and an oxidative burst in neutrophils stimulated by phorbol-ester or immune complexes. In further support of a substrate-to-inactive enzyme interaction, small-molecule PAD inhibitors also disrupt the PAD4-NCF complex and reduce oxidase activation and phagocytic killing of Staphylococcus aureus. This novel role of PAD4 in the regulation of neutrophil physiology suggests that targeting PAD4 with active site inhibitors for the treatment of RA may have a broader impact on neutrophil biology than just inhibition of citrullination.