Importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 expression in skin and its induction by UVB in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
ABSTRACT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole enzyme that can metabolize bilirubin. Human infants physiologically develop hyperbilirubinemia as the result of inadequate expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. Although phototherapy using blue light is effective in preventing jaundice, sunlight has also been suggested, but without conclusive evidence, to reduce serum bilirubin levels. We investigated the mRNA expression pattern of human UGT1A1 in human skin, human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and skin of humanized UGT1 mice. The effects of UVB irradiation on the expression of UGT1A1 in the HaCaT cells were also examined. Multiple UGT1A isoforms, including UGT1A1, were expressed in human skin and HaCaT cells. When HaCaT cells were treated with UVB-exposed tryptophan, UGT1A1 mRNA and activity were significantly induced. Treatment of the HaCaT cells with 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, which is one of the tryptophan derivatives formed by UVB, resulted in an induction of UGT1A1 mRNA and activity. In neonates, the expression of UGT1A1 was greater in the skin; in adults, UGT1A1 was expressed mainly in the liver. Treatment of humanized UGT1 mice with UVB resulted in a reduction of serum bilirubin levels, along with increased UGT1A1 expression and activity in the skin. Our data revealed a protective role of UGT1A1 expressed in the skin against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Sunlight, a natural and free source of light, makes it possible to treat neonatal jaundice while allowing mothers to breast-feed neonates.
Project description:High levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in newborn children is associated with a reduction in hepatic UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 activity that can lead to CNS toxicity, brain damage, and even death. Little is known regarding those events that lead to UCB accumulation in brain tissue, and therefore, we sought to duplicate this condition in mice. The human UGT1 locus, encoding all 9-UGT1A genes including UGT1A1, was expressed in Ugt1(-/-) mice. Because the most common clinical condition associated with jaundice in adults is Gilbert's syndrome, which is characterized by an allelic polymorphism in the UGT1A1 promoter, hyperbilirubinemia was monitored in humanized UGT1 mice that expressed either the Gilbert's UGT1A1*28 allele [Tg(UGT1(A1*28))Ugt1(-/-) mice] or the normal UGT1A1*1 allele [Tg(UGT1(A1*1))Ugt1(-/-) mice]. Adult Tg(UGT1(A1*28))Ugt1(-/-) mice expressed elevated levels of total bilirubin (TB) compared with Tg(UGT1(A1*1))Ugt1(-/-) mice, confirming that the promoter polymorphism associated with the UGT1A1*28 allele contributes to hyperbilirubinemia in mice. However, TB accumulated to near toxic levels during neonatal development, a finding that is independent of the Gilbert's UGT1A1*28 promoter polymorphism. Whereas serum TB levels eventually returned to adult levels, TB clearance in neonatal mice was not associated with hepatic UGT1A1 expression. In approximately 10% of the humanized UGT1 mice, peak TB levels culminated in seizures followed by death. UCB deposition in brain tissue and the ensuing seizures were associated with developmental milestones and can be prevented by enhancing regulation of the UGT1A1 gene in neonatal mice.
Project description:Inadequate calorie intake or starvation has been suggested as a cause of neonatal jaundice, which can further cause permanent brain damage, kernicterus. This study experimentally investigated whether additional glucose treatments induce the bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme--UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1--to prevent the onset of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice physiologically develop jaundice. In this study, UGT1A1 expression levels were determined in the liver and small intestine of neonatal hUGT1 mice that were orally treated with glucose. In the hUGT1 mice, glucose induced UGT1A1 in the small intestine, while it did not affect the expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. UGT1A1 was also induced in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells when the cells were cultured in the presence of glucose. Luciferase assays demonstrated that not only the proximal region (-1300/-7) of the UGT1A1 promoter, but also distal region (-6500/-4050) were responsible for the induction of UGT1A1 in the intestinal cells. Adequate calorie intake would lead to the sufficient expression of UGT1A1 in the small intestine to reduce serum bilirubin levels. Supplemental treatment of newborns with glucose solution can be a convenient and efficient method to treat neonatal jaundice while allowing continuous breastfeeding.
Project description:Bilirubin is a natural and potent antioxidant that accumulates in the blood of newborn children and leads to physiological jaundice. Breastfed infants have higher serum levels of bilirubin than formula-fed infants and are at risk for bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND). Clearance of bilirubin requires the expression of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1; we investigated its role in the association between breast feeding with jaundice in mice.We studied mice in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus (hUGT1 mice); these mice spontaneously develop neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and BIND. We fed human breast milk or formula to neonatal hUGT1 mice and examined activation of the intestinal xenobiotic receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. We also examined inflammatory signaling pathways in mice with disruptions in I?B-kinase-? and I?B kinase-? in the intestinal epithelium.hUGT1 mice that were fed breast milk developed severe hyperbilirubinemia because of suppression of UGT1A1 in the gastrointestinal tract. Formula-fed hUGT1 mice had lower serum levels of bilirubin, which resulted from induction of UGT1A1 in the gastrointestinal tract. hUGT1/Pxr-null mice did not develop severe hyperbilirubinemia, whereas hUGT1/Car-null mice were susceptible to BIND when they were fed breast milk. Breast milk appeared to suppress intestinal I?B kinase ? and ?, resulting in inactivation of nuclear factor-?B and loss of expression of UGT1A1, leading to hyperbilirubinemia.Breast milk reduces expression of intestinal UGT1A1, which leads to hyperbilirubinemia and BIND; suppression of this gene appears to involve inactivation of nuclear factor-?B. Hyperbilirubinemia can be reduced by activation of pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, or nuclear factor-?B.
Project description:Neonatal jaundice is caused by high levels of unconjugated bilirubin. It is usually a temporary condition caused by delayed induction of UGT1A1, which conjugates bilirubin in the liver. To reduce bilirubin levels, affected babies are exposed to phototherapy (PT), which converts toxic bilirubin into water-soluble photoisomers that are readily excreted out. However, in some cases uncontrolled hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity. To study the mechanisms of bilirubin-induced neurological damage (BIND) in vivo, we generated a mouse model lacking the Ugt1a1 protein and, consequently, mutant mice developed jaundice as early as 36 hours after birth. The mutation was transferred into two genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6 and FVB/NJ). We exposed mutant mice to PT for different periods and analyzed the resulting phenotypes from the molecular, histological and behavioral points of view. Severity of BIND was associated with genetic background, with 50% survival of C57BL/6?Ugt1(-/-) mutant mice at postnatal day 5 (P5), and of FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice at P11. Life-long exposure to PT prevented cerebellar architecture alterations and rescued neuronal damage in FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) but not in C57BL/6-Ugt1(-/-) mice. Survival of FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice was directly related to the extent of PT treatment. PT treatment of FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice from P0 to P8 did not prevent bilirubin-induced reduction in dendritic arborization and spine density of Purkinje cells. Moreover, PT treatment from P8 to P20 did not rescue BIND accumulated up to P8. However, PT treatment administered in the time-window P0-P15 was sufficient to obtain full rescue of cerebellar damage and motor impairment in FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice. The possibility to modulate the severity of the phenotype by PT makes FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice an excellent and versatile model to study bilirubin neurotoxicity, the role of modifier genes, alternative therapies and cerebellar development during high bilirubin conditions.
Project description:Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) and the onset of bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus result in part from delayed expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and the inability to metabolize bilirubin. Although there is a good understanding of the early events after birth that lead to the rapid increase in serum bilirubin, the events that control delayed expression of UGT1A1 during development remain a mystery. Humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice develop SNH spontaneously, which is linked to repression of both liver and intestinal UGT1A1. In this study, we report that deletion of intestinal nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) completely diminishes hyperbilirubinemia in hUGT1 neonates because of intestinal UGT1A1 gene derepression. Transcriptomic studies and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrate that NCoR1 plays a major role in repressing developmental maturation of the intestines. Derepression is marked by accelerated metabolic and oxidative phosphorylation, drug metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and intestinal maturation, events that are controlled predominantly by H3K27 acetylation. The control of NCoR1 function and derepression is linked to IKK? function, as validated in hUGT1 mice with targeted deletion of intestinal IKK?. Physiological events during neonatal development that target activation of an IKK?/NCoR1 loop in intestinal epithelial cells lead to derepression of genes involved in intestinal maturation and bilirubin detoxification. These findings provide a mechanism of NCoR1 in intestinal homeostasis during development and provide a key link to those events that control developmental repression of UGT1A1 and hyperbilirubinemia.
Project description:Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression.
Project description:Neurotoxic bilirubin is solely conjugated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Due to an inadequate function of UGT1A1, human neonates develop mild to severe physiological hyperbilirubinemia. Accumulation of bilirubin in the brain leads to the onset of irreversible brain damage called kernicterus. Breastfeeding is one of the most significant factors that increase the risk of developing kernicterus in infants. Why does the most natural way of feeding increase the risk of brain damage or even death? This question leads to the hypothesis that breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia might bring certain benefits to the body. One of the barriers to answering the above question is the lack of animal models that display mild to severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. A mouse model that develops neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was previously developed by a knockout of the Ugt1 locus. Deletion of Ugt1a1 results in neonatal lethality from bilirubin neurotoxicity. Bilirubin is the end product of heme catabolism in which heme oxygenase-I is largely involved. When zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase I, was administered to newborn Ugt1-/- mice, serum bilirubin levels dropped dramatically, rescuing the mice from bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality. Zinc protoporphyrin-treated Ugt1-/- mice developed normally as adults capable of reproducing, but their newborns showed even more severe hyperbilirubinemia. Microarray analysis of the hyperbilirubinemic livers indicated that a number of genes associated with nucleotide, transport, and immune response were significantly down-regulated in a serum bilirubin level-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our study provides an opportunity to advance the development of effective therapeutics to effectively and rapidly prevent bilirubin-induced toxicity. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has various impacts on the body that could be driven by the antioxidant property of bilirubin.
Project description:In humanized UDP glucuronosyltransferase-1 (hUGT1) mice that express the entire UGT1 locus, the maternal hepatic UGT1A genes are dramatically induced 12-14 days after conception. Steroid induction of the UGT1A1 gene indicates that xenobiotic sensors, such as the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), may underlie the induction process. In contrast, neonatal hUGT1 mice display severe hyperbilirubinemia, with limited expression of the UGT1A genes. This study identifies PXR as both a positive and negative regulator of the UGT1A1 gene. Pregnancy hormones, in particular the glucocorticoids, target PXR as a positive regulator of human glucuronidation. Employing reverse genetics, where PXR has been genetically deleted, hUGT1/Pxr(-/-) mice show limited induction of the liver UGT1A genes during pregnancy, whereas the exact opposite occurs in newborn mice. Neonatal hUGT1 mice show delayed expression of hepatic UGT1A1 and are severely hyperbilirubinemic. However, in hUGT1/Pxr(-/-) mice, hyperbilirubinemia is greatly reduced due to induction of hepatic UGT1A1. Thus, PXR serves to repress UGT1A1 gene expression during development. Transcriptional silencing of the UGT1A1 gene was relieved in neonatal hUGT1 hepatocytes through interruption of PXR by small interfering RNA.PXR is a key regulator of pregnancy induced glucuronidation capacity in addition to modulating the severity of neonatal jaundice.
Project description:The antiretroviral protease inhibitor atazanavir inhibits hepatic uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, thereby preventing the glucuronidation and elimination of bilirubin. Resultant indirect hyperbilirubinemia with jaundice can cause premature discontinuation of atazanavir. Risk for bilirubin-related discontinuation is highest among individuals who carry two UGT1A1 decreased function alleles (UGT1A1*28 or *37). We summarize published literature that supports this association and provide recommendations for atazanavir prescribing when UGT1A1 genotype is known (updates at www.pharmgkb.org).
Project description:Liver metabolism disorders are attractive targets for gene therapy, because low vector doses can reverse the buildup of toxic metabolites in the blood. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is an inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism that is caused by the absence of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) activity. This syndrome is characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. Unfortunately, current phototherapy treatment is not effective long term. We intravenously injected phototherapy-rescued adult UGT1 knockout mice with 2.5 × 1010-2.5 × 1013 genome copies (GC)/kg of a clinical candidate vector, AAV8.TBG.hUGT1A1co, to study the treatment of disease compared to vehicle-only control mice. There were no apparent vector-related laboratory or clinical sequelae; the only abnormalities in clinical pathology were elevations in liver transaminases, primarily in male mice at the highest vector dose. Minimal to mild histopathological findings were present in control and vector-administered male mice. At vector doses greater than 2.5 × 1011 GC/kg, we observed a reversal of total bilirubin levels to wild-type levels. Based on a significant reduction in serum total bilirubin levels, we determined the minimally effective dose in this mouse model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome to be 2.5 × 1011 GC/kg.