Dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the BMP2 gene enhance bone formation in a critical-sized defect model.
ABSTRACT: Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) stimulates repair of healing-impaired chronic wounds such as diabetic ulcers and periodontal lesions. However, limitations in predictability of tissue regeneration occur due, in part, to transient growth factor bioavailability in vivo. Here, we report that gene delivery of PDGF-B stimulates repair of oral implant extraction socket defects. Alveolar ridge defects were created in rats and were treated at the time of titanium implant installation with a collagen matrix containing an adenoviral (Ad) vector encoding PDGF-B (5.5 x 10(8) or 5.5 x 10(9) pfu ml(-1)), Ad encoding luciferase (Ad-Luc; 5.5 x 10(9) pfu ml(-1); control) or recombinant human PDGF-BB protein (rhPDGF-BB, 0.3 mg ml(-1)). Bone repair and osseointegration were measured through backscattered scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical assessments. Furthermore, a panel of local and systemic safety assessments was performed. Results indicated that bone repair was accelerated by Ad-PDGF-B and rhPDGF-BB delivery compared with Ad-Luc, with the high dose of Ad-PDGF-B more effective than the low dose. No significant dissemination of the vector construct or alteration of systemic parameters was noted. In summary, gene delivery of Ad-PDGF-B shows regenerative and safety capabilities for bone tissue engineering and osseointegration in alveolar bone defects comparable with rhPDGF-BB protein delivery in vivo.
Project description:The treatment of bone defects with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) requires high doses precluding broad clinical application. Here, a bioengineering approach is presented that strongly improves low-dose BMP-2-based bone regeneration by mobilizing healing-associated mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs). Smart synthetic hydrogels are used to trap and study endogenous MPCs trafficking to bone defects. Hydrogel-trapped and prospectively isolated MPCs differentiate into multiple lineages in vitro and form bone in vivo. In vitro screenings reveal that platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) strongly recruits prospective MPCs making it a promising candidate for the engineering of hydrogels that enrich endogenous MPCs in vivo. However, PDGF-BB inhibits BMP-2-mediated osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, smart two-way dynamic release hydrogels with fast-release of PDGF-BB and sustained delivery of BMP-2 beneficially promote the healing of bone defects. Collectively, it is shown that modulating the dynamics of endogenous progenitor cells in vivo by smart synthetic hydrogels significantly improves bone healing and holds great potential for other advanced applications in regenerative medicine.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exerts multiple cellular effects that stimulate wound repair in multiple tissues. However, a major obstacle for its successful clinical application is the delivery system, which ultimately controls the in vivo release rate of PDGF. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (MS) in nanofibrous scaffolds (NFS) have been shown to control the release of rhPDGF-BB in vitro. In order to investigate the effects of rhPDGF-BB release from MS in NFS on gene expression and enhancement of soft tissue engineering, rhPDGF-BB was incorporated into differing molecular weight (MW) polymeric MS. By controlling the MW of the MS over a range of 6.5 KDa-64 KDa, release rates of PDGF can be regulated over periods of weeks to months in vitro. The NFS-MS scaffolds were divided into multiple groups based on MS release characteristics and PDGF concentration ranging from 2.5-25.0 microg and evaluated in vivo in a soft tissue wound repair model in the dorsa of rats. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-implantation, the scaffold implants were harvested followed by assessments of cell penetration, vasculogenesis and tissue neogenesis. Gene expression profiles using cDNA microarrays were performed on the PDGF-releasing NFS. The percentage of tissue invasion into MS-containing NFS at 7 days was higher in the PDGF groups when compared to controls. Blood vessel number in the HMW groups containing either 2.5 or 25 microg PDGF was increased above those of other groups at 7d (p<0.01). Results from cDNA array showed that PDGF strongly enhanced in vivo gene expression of the CXC chemokine family members such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. Thus, sustained release of rhPDGF-BB, controlled by slow-releasing MS associated with the NFS delivery system, enhanced cell migration and angiogenesis in vivo, and may be related to an induced expression of chemokine-related genes. This approach offers a technology to accurately control growth factor release to promote soft tissue engineering in vivo.
Project description:Regenerative medicine for bone tissue mainly depends on efficient recruitment of endogenous or transplanted stem cells to guide bone regeneration. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a functional factor that has been widely used in tissue regeneration and repair. However, the short half-life of PDGF limits its efficacy, and the mechanism by which PDGF regulates stem cell-based bone regeneration still needs to be elucidated. In this study, we established genetically modified PDGF-B-overexpressing bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) using a lentiviral vector and then explored the mechanism by which PDGF-BB regulates BMSC-based vascularized bone regeneration. Our results demonstrated that PDGF-BB increased osteogenic differentiation but inhibited adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. In addition, secreted PDGF-BB significantly enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and angiogenesis via the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. We evaluated the effect of PDGF-B-modified BMSCs on bone regeneration using a critical-sized rat calvarial defect model. Radiography, micro-CT, and histological analyses revealed that PDGF-BB overexpression improved BMSC-mediated angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone regeneration. These results suggest that PDGF-BB facilitates BMSC-based bone regeneration by enhancing the osteogenic and angiogenic abilities of BMSCs.
Project description:Yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used system for heterologous protein expression. However, post-translational modifications, especially glycosylation, usually impede pharmaceutical application of recombinant proteins because of unexpected alterations in protein structure and function. The aim of this study was to identify glycosylation sites on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) secreted by P. pastoris, and investigate possible effects of O-linked glycans on PDGF-BB functional activity. PDGF-BB secreted by P. pastoris is very heterogeneous and contains multiple isoforms. We demonstrated that PDGF-BB was O-glycosylated during the secretion process and detected putative O-glycosylation sites using glycosylation staining and immunoblotting. By site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution LC/MS analysis, we, for the first time, identified two threonine residues at the C-terminus as the major O-glycosylation sites on rhPDGF-BB produced in P. pastoris. Although O-glycosylation resulted in heterogeneous protein expression, the removal of glycosylation sites did not affect rhPDGF-BB mitogenic activity. In addition, the unglycosylated PDGF-BB?Gly mutant exhibited the immunogenicity comparable to that of the wild-type form. Furthermore, antiserum against PDGF-BB?Gly also recognized glycosylated PDGF-BB, indicating that protein immunogenicity was unaltered by glycosylation. These findings elucidate the effect of glycosylation on PDGF-BB structure and biological activity, and can potentially contribute to the design and production of homogeneously expressed unglycosylated or human-type glycosylated PDGF-BB in P. pastoris for pharmaceutical applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND. Recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) reduces Parkinsonian symptoms and increases dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in several animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Effects of rhPDGF-BB are the result of proliferation of ventricular wall progenitor cells and reversed by blocking mitosis. Based on these restorative effects, we assessed the safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) rhPDGF-BB administration in individuals with PD. METHODS. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/IIa study at two clinical centers in Sweden. Twelve patients with moderate PD received rhPDGF-BB via an implanted drug infusion pump and an investigational i.c.v. catheter. Patients were assigned to a dose cohort (0.2, 1.5, or 5 ?g rhPDGF-BB per day) and then randomized to active treatment or placebo (3:1) for a 12-day treatment period. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability of i.c.v.-delivered rhPDGF-BB. Secondary outcome assessments included several clinical rating scales and changes in DAT binding. The follow-up period was 85 days. RESULTS. All patients completed the study. There were no unresolved adverse events. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients; however, these were unrelated to rhPDGF-BB administration. Secondary outcome parameters did not show dose-dependent changes in clinical rating scales, but there was a positive effect on DAT binding in the right putamen. CONCLUSION. At all doses tested, i.c.v. administration of rhPDGF-BB was well tolerated. Results support further clinical development of rhPDGF-BB for patients with PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00866502. FUNDING. Newron Sweden AB (former NeuroNova AB) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA).
Project description:Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF) is safe and effective for the treatment of periodontal defects in short-term studies up to 6 months in duration. We now provide results from a 36-month extension study of a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect and long-term stability of PDGF-BB treatment in patients with localized severe periodontal osseous defects.A total of 135 participants were enrolled from six clinical centers for an extension trial. Eighty-three individuals completed the study at 36 months and were included in the analysis. The study investigated the local application of ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffold matrix with or without two different dose levels of PDGF (0.3 or 1.0 mg/mL PDGF-BB) in patients possessing one localized periodontal osseous defect. Composite analysis for clinical and radiographic evidence of treatment success was defined as percentage of cases with clinical attachment level (CAL) ?2.7 mm and linear bone growth (LBG) ?1.1 mm.The participants exceeding this composite outcome benchmark in the 0.3 mg/mL rhPDGF-BB group went from 62.2% at 12 months, 75.9% at 24 months, to 87.0% at 36 months compared with 39.5%, 48.3%, and 53.8%, respectively, in the scaffold control group at these same time points (P <0.05). Although there were no significant increases in CAL and LBG at 36 months among all groups, there were continued increases in CAL gain, LBG, and percentage bone fill over time, suggesting overall stability of the regenerative response.PDGF-BB in a synthetic scaffold matrix promotes long-term stable clinical and radiographic improvements as measured by composite outcomes for CAL gain and LBG for patients possessing localized periodontal defects ( ClinicalTrials.gov no. CT01530126).
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) play important roles in skeletal development and bone fracture healing, yet how PDGFs execute their functions remains incompletely understood. Here we show that PDGF-AA, but not -AB or -BB, could activate the BMP-Smad1/5/8 pathway in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which requires BMPRIA as well as PDGFR?. PDGF-AA promotes MSC osteogenic differentiation through the BMP-Smad1/5/8-Runx2/Osx axis and MSC migration via the BMP-Smad1/5/8-Twist1/Atf4 axis. Mechanistic studies show that PDGF-AA activates BMP-Smad1/5/8 signaling by feedback down-regulating PDGFR?, which frees BMPRI and allows for BMPRI-BMPRII complex formation to activate smad1/5/8, using BMP molecules in the microenvironment. This study unravels a physical and functional interaction between PDGFR? and BMPRI, which plays an important role in MSC differentiation and migration, and establishes a link between PDGF-AA and BMPs pathways, two essential regulators of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.
Project description:With the rapid development of tissue engineering therapies, there is a growing interest in the application of recombinant human growth factors (rhGFs) to regenerate human orofacial bones. However, despite reports of their ability to promote orofacial bone regeneration in animal experiments, their benefits in human clinical treatments remain unclear. Furthermore, the appropriate concentrations or indications of a specific rhGF remain ambiguous. Therefore it is essential to collect data from diverse clinical trials to evaluate their effects more precisely. Here we reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCT) that focused on the utilization of rhGFs in orofacial bone regeneration. Data from included studies were extracted, pooled and then quantitatively analyzed according to a pre-established protocol. Our results indicate that all current concentrations of rhBMP-2 produces insufficient effect on promoting either tooth extraction socket healing, sinus augmentation or reconstruction of alveolar clefts. However, 0.3 mg/ml rhPDGF-BB promotes the healing of tooth extraction sockets, though the effect does not reach a level of statistical significance. Summarily, we recommend concentrations of 0.3 mg/ml rhPDGF-BB only for the healing of tooth extraction sockets.