Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria.
ABSTRACT: The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease (RAG) initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH ? and IgL (Ig? or Ig?) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B-cell antigen-binding receptor (BCR). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells, allowing continued Ig? V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial V?J? exon with one that generates a new specificity. This 'receptor editing' process, which can also lead to Ig? V(D)J recombination and expression, provides a mechanism whereby antigen encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B-cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of postnatal B-cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification in mice. Here we report that early B-cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP immunoglobulin repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B-lineage cells that harbour intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different V? repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing bone marrow counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Ig?-expressing versus Ig?-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B-cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extracellular signals from commensal microbes that influence gut immunoglobulin repertoires.
Project description:Developing B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination to assemble germ-line V, D, and J gene segments into exons that encode the antigen-binding variable region of Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chains. IgH and IgL chains associate to form the B-cell receptor (BCR), which, upon antigen binding, activates B cells to secrete BCR as an antibody. Each of the huge number of clonally independent B cells expresses a unique set of IgH and IgL variable regions. The ability of V(D)J recombination to generate vast primary B-cell repertoires results from a combinatorial assortment of large numbers of different V, D, and J segments, coupled with diversification of the junctions between them to generate the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) for antigen contact. Approaches to evaluate in depth the content of primary antibody repertoires and, ultimately, to study how they are further molded by secondary mutation and affinity maturation processes are of great importance to the B-cell development, vaccine, and antibody fields. We now describe an unbiased, sensitive, and readily accessible assay, referred to as high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing-adapted repertoire sequencing (HTGTS-Rep-seq), to quantify antibody repertoires. HTGTS-Rep-seq quantitatively identifies the vast majority of IgH and IgL V(D)J exons, including their unique CDR3 sequences, from progenitor and mature mouse B lineage cells via the use of specific J primers. HTGTS-Rep-seq also accurately quantifies DJH intermediates and V(D)J exons in either productive or nonproductive configurations. HTGTS-Rep-seq should be useful for studies of human samples, including clonal B-cell expansions, and also for following antibody affinity maturation processes.
Project description:We examined the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells of 2457 patients evaluated by the CLL Research Consortium (CRC) and found that 63 (2.6%) expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) encoded by the Ig heavy-chain-variable-region gene (IGHV), IGHV3-21. We identified the amino acid sequence DANGMDV (motif-1) or DPSFYSSSWTLFDY (motif-2) in the Ig heavy-chain (IgH) third complementarity-determining region (HCDR3) of IgH, respectively, used by 25 or 3 cases. The IgH with HCDR3 motif-1 or motif-2, respectively, was paired with Ig light chains (IgL) encoded by IGLV3-21 or IGKV3-20, suggesting that these Ig had been selected for binding to conventional antigen(s). Cases that had HCDR3 motif-1 had a median time from diagnosis to initial therapy comparable with that of cases without a defined HCDR3 motif, as did cases that used mutated IGHV3-21 (n = 27) versus unmutated IGHV3-21 (n = 30). Of 7 examined cases that used Ig encoded by IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21, we found that 5 had a functionally rearranged IGKV allele that apparently had incurred antigendriven somatic mutations and subsequent rearrangement with KDE. This study reveals that CLL cells expressing IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21 most likely were derived from B cells that had experienced somatic mutation and germinal-center maturation in an apparent antigen-driven immune response before undergoing Ig-receptor editing and after germinal-center leukemogenic selection.
Project description:CD79a and CD79b proteins associate with Ig receptors as integral signaling components of the B cell Ag receptor complex. To study B cell development in zebrafish, we isolated orthologs of these genes and performed in situ hybridization, finding that their expression colocalized with IgH-? in the kidney, which is the site of B cell development. CD79 transgenic lines were made by linking the promoter and upstream regulatory segments of CD79a and CD79b to enhanced GFP to identify B cells, as demonstrated by PCR analysis of IgH-? expression in sorted cells. We crossed these CD79-GFP lines to a recombination activating gene (Rag)2:mCherry transgenic line to identify B cell development stages in kidney marrow. Initiation of CD79:GFP expression in Rag2:mCherry+ cells and the timing of Ig H and L chain expression revealed simultaneous expression of both IgH-?- and IgL-?-chains, without progressing through the stage of IgH-?-chain alone. Rag2:mCherry+ cells without CD79:GFP showed the highest Rag1 and Rag2 mRNAs compared with CD79a and CD79b:GFP+ B cells, which showed strongly reduced Rag mRNAs. Thus, B cell development in zebrafish does not go through a Raghi CD79+IgH-?+ pre-B cell stage, different from mammals. After the generation of CD79:GFP+ B cells, decreased CD79 expression occurred upon differentiation to Ig secretion, as detected by alteration from membrane to secreted IgH-? exon usage, similar to in mammals. This confirmed a conserved role for CD79 in B cell development and differentiation, without the requirement of a pre-B cell stage in zebrafish.
Project description:Antibodies have a common structure consisting of two identical heavy (H) and two identical light (L) chains. It is widely accepted that a single mature B cell produces a single antibody through restricted synthesis of only one VHDJH (encoding the H-chain variable region) and one VLJL (encoding the L-chain variable region) via recombination. Naive B cells undergo class-switch recombination (CSR) from initially producing membrane-bound IgM and IgD to expressing more effective membrane-bound IgG, IgA, or IgE when encountering antigens. To ensure the "one cell - one antibody" paradigm, only the constant region of the H chain is replaced during CSR, while the rearranged VHDJH pattern and the L chain are kept unchanged. To define those long-standing classical concepts at the single-cell transcriptome level, we applied the Chromium Single-Cell Immune Profiling Solution and Sanger sequencing to evaluate the Ig transcriptome repertoires of single B cells. Consistent with the "one cell - one antibody" rule, most of the B cells showed one V(D)J recombination pattern. Intriguingly, however, two or more VHDJH or VLJL recombination patterns of IgH chain or IgL chain were also observed in hundreds to thousands of single B cells. Moreover, each Ig class showed unique VHDJH recombination pattern in a single B-cell expressing multiple Ig classes. Together, our findings reveal an unprecedented presence of multi-Ig specificity in some single B cells, implying regulation of Ig gene rearrangement and class switching that differs from the classical mechanisms of both the "one cell - one antibody" rule and CSR.
Project description:Developing B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination to assemble germline V, D, and J gene segments into exons that encode the antigen-binding variable region of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) and light (L) chains. IgH and IgL chains associate to form the B cell receptor (BCR), which upon antigen binding activates B cells to secrete BCR as an antibody. Each of the huge number of clonally independent B cells expresses a unique set of IgH and IgL variable regions. Ability of V(D)J recombination to generate vast primary B cell repertoires results from combinatorial assortment of large numbers of different V, D, and J segments, coupled with diversification of the junctions between them to generate the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) for antigen contact. Approaches to evaluate in depth the content of primary antibody repertoires and, ultimately, to study how they are further molded by secondary mutation and affinity maturation processes are of great importance to the B cell development, vaccine, and antibody fields. We now describe an unbiased, sensitive, and readily accessible assay, referred to as HTGTS repertoire sequencing (HTGTS-Rep-seq), to quantify antibody repertoires. HTGTS-Rep-seq quantitatively identifies the vast majority of IgH and IgL V(D)J exons, including their unique CDR3 sequences, from progenitor and mature mouse B lineage cells via the use of specific J primers. HTGTS-Rep-seq also accurately quantifies DJH intermediates and V(D)J exons in either productive or non-productive configurations. HTGTS-Rep-seq should be useful for studies of human samples, including clonal B-cell expansions and also for following antibody affinity maturation processes. We employed high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing adapted repertoire sequencing (HTGTS-Rep-seq) to study antibody repertoires. For HTGTS-Rep-seq libraries, we utilize bait coding ends of J segments to identify, in unbiased fashion, mouse IgH DJH repertoires [processed tlx files] along with both productive and non-productive IgH V(D)J repertoires from both pro-B and peripheral B cells [processed xls files of samples 1-18, 21-51]. Similarly, we also identify mouse productive and non-productive Igk repertoires from peripheral B cells [processed xls files of samples 19,20,52-57].
Project description:V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa (Ig?) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to V? gene choice during Ig? recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Ig? V?J? repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable V? gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh, as highly predictive of whether a V? gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to V? gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in V? gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations.
Project description:Variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination assembles immunoglobulin heavy or light chain (IgH or IgL) variable region exons in developing bone marrow B cells, whereas class switch recombination (CSR) exchanges IgH constant region exons in peripheral B cells. Both processes use directed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Errors in either V(D)J recombination or CSR can initiate chromosomal translocations, including oncogenic IgH locus (Igh) to c-myc (also known as Myc) translocations of peripheral B cell lymphomas. Collaboration between these processes has also been proposed to initiate translocations. However, the occurrence of V(D)J recombination in peripheral B cells is controversial. Here we show that activated NHEJ-deficient splenic B cells accumulate V(D)J-recombination-associated breaks at the lambda IgL locus (Igl), as well as CSR-associated Igh breaks, often in the same cell. Moreover, Igl and Igh breaks are frequently joined to form translocations, a phenomenon associated with specific Igh-Igl co-localization. Igh and c-myc also co-localize in these cells; correspondingly, the introduction of frequent c-myc DSBs robustly promotes Igh-c-myc translocations. Our studies show peripheral B cells that attempt secondary V(D)J recombination, and determine a role for mechanistic factors in promoting recurrent translocations in tumours.
Project description:Two immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification mechanisms collaborate to provide protective humoral immunity. Combinatorial assembly of IgH and IgL V region exons from gene segments generates preimmune Ig repertoires, expressed as B cell receptors (BCRs). Secondary diversification occurs when Ig V regions undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) and affinity-based selection toward antigen in activated germinal center (GC) B cells. Secondary diversification is thought to only ripen the antigen-binding affinity of Igs that already exist (i.e., cognate Igs) because of chance generation during preimmune Ig diversification. However, whether stochastic activation of noncognate B cells can generate new affinity to antigen in GCs is unclear. Using a mouse model whose knock-in BCR does not functionally engage with immunizing antigen, we found that chronic immunization induced antigen-specific serological responses with diverse SHM-mediated antibody affinity maturation pathways and divergent epitope targeting. Thus, intrinsic GC B cell flexibility allows for somatic, noncognate B cell evolution, permitting de novo antigen recognition and subsequent antibody affinity maturation without initial preimmune BCR engagement.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells that use IgH encoded by IGHV3-21 and that have a particular stereotypic third CDR (HCDR3), DANGMDV (motif-1), almost invariably express Ig L chains (IgL) encoded by IGLV3-21, whereas CLL that use IGHV3-21-encoded IgH with another stereotypic HCDR3, DPSFYSSSWTLFDY (motif-2), invariably express ?-IgL encoded by IGKV3-20. This nonstochastic pairing could reflect steric factors that preclude these IgH from pairing with other IgL or selection for an Ig with a particular Ag-binding activity. We generated rIg with IGHV3-21-encoded IgH with HCDR3 motif-1 or -2 and IgL encoded by IGKV3-20 or IGLV3-21. Each IgH paired equally well with matched or mismatched ?- or ?-IgL to form functional Ig, which we screened for binding to an array of different Ags. Ig with IGLV3-21-encoded ?-IgL could bind with an affinity of ? 2 × 10(-6) M to protein L, a cell-wall protein of Peptostreptococcus magnus, independent of the IgH, indicating that protein L is a superantigen for IGLV3-21-encoded ?-IgL. We also detected Ig binding to cofilin, a highly conserved actin-binding protein. However, cofilin binding was independent of native pairing of IgH and IgL and was not specific for Ig with IgH encoded by IGHV3-21. We conclude that steric factors or the binding activity for protein L or cofilin cannot account for the nonstochastic pairing of IgH and IgL observed for the stereotypic Ig made by CLL cells that express IGHV3-21.
Project description:The identification and tracking of antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences within total Ig repertoires is central to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies of infections or vaccinations. In this context, public Ig sequences shared by different individuals exposed to the same antigen could be valuable markers for tracing back infections, measuring vaccine immunogenicity, and perhaps ultimately allow the reconstruction of the immunological history of an individual. Here, we immunized groups of transgenic rats expressing human Ig against tetanus toxoid (TT), Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins expressed on MVA, and the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, coupled to TT. We showed that these antigens impose a selective pressure causing the Ig heavy chain (IgH) repertoires of the rats to converge toward the expression of antibodies with highly similar IgH CDR3 amino acid sequences. We present a computational approach, similar to differential gene expression analysis, that selects for clusters of CDR3s with 80% similarity, significantly overrepresented within the different groups of immunized rats. These IgH clusters represent antigen-induced IgH signatures exhibiting stereotypic amino acid patterns including previously described TT- and measles-specific IgH sequences. Our data suggest that with the presented methodology, transgenic Ig rats can be utilized as a model to identify antigen-induced, human IgH signatures to a variety of different antigens.